Monday, January 6, 2020
The Section on Nonprofit and Philanthropy Law of the AALS hosted a panel at #AALS2020 on Sunday January 5 entitled Charitable Giving and the 1969 Act: 50 Years Later. Roger Colinvaux of the Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law moderated the session. Professor Colinvaux provided an excellent synopsis of the Act and the historical milieu in which it took place. He also did a nice job of presenting the stakes involved then and now.
Dana Brakman Reiser of Brooklyn Law School presented her article in progress Charity Regulation in the Age of Impact. It considers the ways in which the 1969 Tax Reform Act hinders types of investing that Professor Brakman believes are natural fits for private foundations. She explores novel ways of modifying the Act in order to allow private foundations to make more mission related investments (MRIs) and program related investments (PRIs).
Khrista McCarden of Tulane University Law School presented her article in progress on Private Operating Foundation Reform & J. Paul Getty. She argues that private operating foundations that operate as art museums are too often providing little in the way of public benefits because they tend to systematically exclude lower income and minority populations. She also believes these private operating foundations are particularly subject to self-dealing abuses that neither the IRS nor states attorney general respond to in an appropriate way.
Finally, Ray D. Madoff, of Boston College Law School, presented her article in progress The Five Percent Fig Leaf examines some of what she perceives as the failure of the private foundation regime to ensure an appropriate payout amount of five percent from private foundations. She argues the allowance of three types of expenditures to count towards payout is too lenient: administrative expenses (that allow donor children to be paid well into the future for often little work), payments to donor advised funds, and PRIs.
There was active questioning and participation from the audience. These issues clearly resonate at a high level of society. These papers will be published in the Pittsburgh Tax Review in Spring 2020 along with two other papers by Ellen P. Aprill and James J. Fishman The five papers were presented at the University of Pittsburgh on November 1, 2020 as part of a symposium.
Next years AALS will be in San Francisco. I will be the chair this coming year and would be interested in any thoughts on panel ideas for next years session. The theme of the general conference is the Power of Words. Also very interested in highlighting new professors in the field. Would love to put together a new voices panel in addition to a regular panel.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Where are we on the regulation of charity fifty years after Congress passed the Tax Reform Act of 1969? My colleague Tony Infanti and I along with our Pitt Law Students of the Pitt Tax Review hosted six scholars and two practitioners as commenters on Friday November 1 to consider that question. The symposium was entitled The 1969 Tax Reform Act and Charities: Fifty Years Later
Natural questions arise: (1) What was that act’s goal with respect to Charity? With respect to tax? (2) Did it accomplish these goals? (3) Are those goals still relevant today? (4) What goals might suggest themselves today? (5) Do we have the ability to make those changes that are needed? In our conversations we did not answer all of those questions, but we sure tried.
Pittsburgh as a city strikes me as a fit and proper place to ask these questions. Why do I say this? Pittsburgh, city of the rust belt, but also city of Carnegie, Frick, Mellon, Heinz, city of steel, coal, banking, and ketchup and now city of higher ed, tech, and cutting edge health care. It provides the natural and social landscape for investigating private wealth and its philanthropic use. At the beginning of the 20th Century Pittsburgh generated an enormous amount of the GDP of the US particularly through its manufacture of steel. That industrial choice brought great wealth to a few, and supported the careers of many, but also caused great damage to the environment for the long term. Pittsburgh as a city crashed in the 1980s (I have heard different dates, but place it there as that is when many of the steel mills seem to have closed down), and it has struggled to come back from the loss of the steel industry ever since.
However, today the city has transformed itself with Carnegie Mellon and Pitt driving a high tech economy, UPMC engaging in cutting edge health care connected with the University of Pittsburgh, and a robust provision of higher education. It almost surely survived to another day as a result of major philanthropic capital from the robber barron days from the likes of the Mellon, Heinz, Pittsburgh, and Hillman foundations. These private foundations led an effort to clean up the city and transform it into the more vibrant place that it is today.
Congress in the 1969 Tax Reform Act responded to a concern about the type of wealth harnessed in foundations like those in Pittsburgh. In fact, as discussed by Jim Fishman in his presentation about the history of the 1969 Tax Act the Mellon Foundation played a big role. Congress at the time was deeply concerned that wealthy individuals were abusing money put into charitable solution and decided it was important to stop those abuses. These papers consider both the origins of these rules and whether these rules still have relevance today.
The first panel considered the topic of Investing for Charity. Ray Madoff presented The Five Percent Fig Leaf critiquing the five-percent payout rule that the 1969 Tax Act imposed on private foundations. Professor Madoff's paper was paired with Dana Brakman Reiser's contribution Foundation Regulation in Our Age of Impact. Professor Brakman considered the placement of program related investments and mission related investments within the current regulatory context and found the rules wanting in many ways.
The second panel was entitled Origins of Private Foundation Rules and their Meaning for Today. Jim Fishman provided great historical insight leading up to the Act in Does the Origin of the 1969 Private Foundation Rules Suggest a Match for Current Regulatory Needs? Interestingly, Professor Fishman thinks the Act really helped in creating the positive attitude many feel towards private foundations today. He thinks there is a real problem though with smaller private foundations where compliance is likely low. Khrista McCarden focused on a category we had not yet considered that of private operating foundations, which are treated a little better than typical private foundations in her piece entitled Private Operating Foundation Reform & J. Paul Getty. She is concerned about private art museums particularly because of their lack of broad community access.
Finally panel 3 considered Regulating Charitable Actors. Ellen P. Aprill presented The Private Foundation Excise Tax on Self Dealing: Contours, Comparison and Character. It usefully compares the general ethic of the different self-dealing rules that exist within the charitable context particularly that of section 4941 and 4958. However, more interestingly she considers both whether NFIB v. Sebelius might suggest that the 4941 excise tax is a penalty rather than a tax, and whether the tax might be able to serve as a Pigouvian tax. Finally, Elaine Wilson presented her paper Is Consistency Hobgoblin of Little Minds? Co-Investment under Section 4941. The paper focuses on certain PLRs that allow private foundation donors to "co-invest" with their related private foundation, seemingly in violation of the section 4941 self-dealing rule. It then shows why it is valuable from a securities regulation perspective for the private foundations to be provided this leeway from the IRS, and asks why the IRS would have twisted the seemingly clear meanings of the self-dealing exise tax.
I hope to blog about each panel in more depth the rest of this week.
Monday, October 28, 2019
By: Philip Hackney
The University of Pittsburgh School of Law's Pittsburgh Tax Review hosts a symposium this Friday November 1, 2019 entitled: "The 1969 Tax Reform Act and Charities: Fifty Years Later.” It will offer experts in the taxation of charities, and those working in the nonprofit field, the opportunity to reflect upon and discuss the impact of the changes made by the 1969 Tax Reform Act 50 years after the law’s enactment. It will be held at The University Club in the Gold Room, located at 123 University Place on Pitt's campus. You can RSVP here. If you are in the area, please join us.
The event is free and open to the public. CLE of 4.5 hours is available for $90. It will be livestreamed at this youtube link.
Here is the schedule and the speakers:
8-9 Registration/continental breakfast
9 – 9:15 Introduction
Panel 1: Investing for Charity 9:15 – 10:45
Ray Madoff, The Five Percent Fig Leaf
Dana Brakman Reiser, Foundation Regulation in Our Age of Impact
Commenter: Carolyn D. Duronio, Partner, Reed Smith LLP
10:45 -11 Break
Panel 2 Origins of Private Foundation Rules and their Meaning for Today 11 – 12:30
Jim Fishman, Does the Origin of the 1969 Private Foundation Rules Suggest a Match for Current Regulatory Needs?
Khrista McCarden, Private Operating Foundation Reform & J. Paul Getty.
Commenter: Penina K. Lieber, Partner of Counsel, Dinsmore & Shohl LLP
Panel 3 Regulating Charitable Actors 1:30 -3:00
Ellen P. Aprill, The Private Foundation Excise Tax on Self Dealing: Contours, Comparison and Character
Elaine Waterhouse Wilson, Is Consistency the Hobgoblin of Little Minds? Co-Investment under Section 4941
Commenter: Philip Hackney, Associate Professor, University of Pittsburgh School of Law
Friday, October 4, 2019
The International Society for Third-Sector Research is calling for contributions for its 2020 biennial conference, to be held in Montreal on July 7-10. The deadline is October 26th. As detailed in the Call for Contributions, submission can be in the form an individual submit an abstract for a paper or poster or in the form of a joint proposal with others for a panel or roundtable. My understanding is that panel submissions are particularly encouraged and tend to have a higher rate of acceptance than individual submissions. I am chairing the "Challenges and Opportunities of Advocacy and Campaigning in an Era of 'Fake News'" track for the conference, and so would particularly encourage submissions relating to this track. See the Call for Contributions for the other tracks.
Tuesday, March 12, 2019
Brian Galle (Georgetown) has authorized a research paper entitled, "The Tax Exemption for Charitable Property: An Empirical Assessment," which he recently presented at Duke's Tax Policy Workshop Series. Here is his brief abstract:
I offer the first multi-jurisdictional assessment of the balance-sheet effects of the property-tax exemption for charitable property. I combine a manually-assembled dataset of property tax rates in over 4,000 municipalities with three large samples of firm-level administrative data, as well as hand-coded variations in the legal details of different states’ exemption regimes, to assemble a panel of more than 1 million firm-years.
As expected, exemption causes charities to utilize more real property as tax rates rise. I offer new theoretical contributions showing that this effect, previously described as an unwanted distortion, may be second-best efficient in the presence of an income tax with accelerated depreciation, and confirm empirically the predictions of this new theory.
Exemption also increases managerial compensation while crowding out efforts to raise revenue through donations and commercial activity. Lastly, exemption eases liquidity constraints on colleges and universities, allowing them to expand enrollment while holding per-student costs level.
[Hat tip: TaxProf Blog]
Monday, November 26, 2018
The University of California, Davis School of Law (King Hall) and The American College of Trust and Estate Counsel’s Legal Education Committee are happy to announce that the 8th ACTEC academic symposium will be held on Friday, October 11, 2019. The theme is Empirical Analysis of Wealth Transfer Law. The event’s goals are to bring together established and emerging scholars and to foster discussion about empirical scholarship about wills, nonprobate transfers, intestacy, inheritance taxation, and related issues.
Articles presented at the symposium will consist of those selected from this Call for Papers and those from invited speakers. All papers will be published by the UC Davis Law Review.
If you would like to be considered to present a paper, please email an abstract of no more than two pages to Professor David Horton (firstname.lastname@example.org) by March 1, 2019. The Law Review will notify those selected by March 15, 2019. Please be aware that speakers must submit drafts that are ready for the editing stage of the production process by mid-November 2019.
Speakers will be reimbursed for their reasonable travel expenses (economy airfare, ground transportation, and up to two nights in a local hotel). Speakers will also be invited to dinner on Friday, October 11. Breakfast and lunch will be provided to speakers and attendees on October 11 courtesy of the ACTEC Foundation. Questions about the symposium or this Call for Papers should be directed to David at the email address above or Professor Adam Hirsch (email@example.com).
Monday, October 15, 2018
Fidelity Charitable, one of the largest peddlers of Donor-Advised Funds, issued this interesting report about donor responses to 2017 federal tax changes (which increased the standard deduction, removing, for many people, the federal tax incentive to
donate). Based on a survey of prior donors who itemized in 2017, more than 60% said that they planned to maintain prior levels of giving, with 19% planning to increase. The report also finds that 20% of those surveyed aren't sure yet whether they will itemize in future years, although the report suggests that many of the respondents might not yet realize the impact of the tax changes on their situation. Thus, the promise to continue to maintain prior levels of giving may be too optimistic. The report concludes:
[T]hese findings demonstrate taxpayers may still be on autopilot from 2017 and have not updated their tax strategy to align with tax code changes. Given the confusion around the new standard deduction, it may take until they file their 2018 taxes to completely absorb the impact of the changes and potentially adjust charitable plans. Therefore tax reform’s influence on giving at large will likely not be fully known until 2019.
Monday, November 14, 2016
Lawrence Zelenak (Duke) has made available a draft article titled The Tax-Free Basis Step-Up at Death, the Charitable Deduction for Unrealized Appreciation, and the Persistence of Error. Here are the opening paragraphs:
As every student of the federal income tax well knows, two of the system’s most glaring conceptual errors are the tax-free step-up in basis at death and the deduction for unrealized appreciation in property donated to charity. The two errors are closely related in both character and history.
As for character, both permit taxpayers to claim benefits which should be conditioned on the recognition of income, despite the absence of any recognition event. A basis step-up at death would be appropriate if gains were taxed at death, and a deduction for the fair market value of an appreciated asset donated to charity would be appropriate if the donation triggered taxation of the appreciation. The provisions are errors because the income tax does not treat either transfers at death or transfers to charity as gain recognition events.
As for history, both mistakes originated very early in the development of the modern federal income tax, and in similar ways. In each case, Congress enacted a statutory provision so vague and general that it did not address the issue, and shortly after enactment the Treasury Department promulgated a regulation introducing the conceptual error. There was no apparent intent on the part of either Congress or Treasury to subsidize bequests of appreciated property, or to subsidize charitable donations of appreciated property more heavily than cash donations; the overly-generous rules resulted from the failure of Congress to consider the issues, and from errors of tax logic made by Treasury when it addressed the issues left open by Congress.
Hat Tip: TaxProf Blog.
Wednesday, June 8, 2016
Eric C. Chaffee, Professor and Associate Dean of Faculty Research & Development at the Univerity of Toledo College of Law, presented his paper entitled "Collaboration Theory: A Theory of the Charitable Tax Exempt Nonprofit Corporation" on June 2 at the most recent Law & Society conference (Program Link here). The current draft of the paper, which is forthcoming 2016 in the U.C. Davis Law Review, is available on SSRN here - the SSRN abstract follows:
Legal scholarship regarding tax exempt nonprofit entities is meager at best. Although some excellent treatises, book chapters, and journal articles have been written, the body of scholarship relating to these entities is not nearly as healthy and robust as the scholarship relating to their for-profit companions. This is especially troubling considering that nonprofit entities help to improve our society in a myriad of different ways.
This Article seeks to fill a void in the existing scholarship by offering an essentialist theory for charitable tax exempt nonprofit corporations that helps to explain the essence of these entities. Beyond the purely academic metaphysical inquiry into what is a corporation, understanding the essential nature of these corporations is important because it helps to determine how they should interact with society, what rights they should have, and how they should be governed by the law. This discussion is especially timely because the recent opinions by the Supreme Court of the United States in Citizens United and Hobby Lobby have reinvigorated the debate over the essence of the corporation.
This Article breaks new ground by offering a new essentialist theory of the corporation, which shall be termed “collaboration theory.” The decades of debate over the essence of for-profit corporations has coalesced into three prevailing theories of the corporation, i.e., the artificial entity theory, the real entity theory, and the aggregate theory. The problem is that none of these prevailing theories fully answers the question of what is a corporation.
Collaboration theory suggests that charitable tax exempt nonprofit corporations are collaborations among the state governments, federal government, and individuals to promote the public good. Unlike the prevailing theories of the corporation, collaboration theory explains both how and why charitable tax exempt nonprofit corporations exist, which provides a fuller and more robust understanding of these corporations. Collaboration theory advances the existing scholarship by finally offering an essentialist theory for nonprofit corporations, and it shows remarkable promise for understanding the essential nature of for-profit corporations as well.
Saturday, November 29, 2014
Last month I had the opportunity to attend the NYU National Center on Philanthropy and the Law's Annual Conference. The conference was titled Regulation or Repression: Government Policing of Cross-Border Charity and provided an eye-opening overview of restritions imposed by many countries on foreign funding of charities and other NGOs. What made the conference particularly timely was the fact that only a month earlier a prominent member of Congress had publicly attacked foreign donations to think tanks - in the United States. This concern led to a bipartisan legislative proposal to require disclosure of foreign funding from scholars who testify on Capital Hill. The timing was particularly ironic, as at almost the same time the Economist ran two articles raising concerns about autocratic and illiberal governments placing limits on such funding: Donors: Keep Out and Uncivil Society. That said, whatever concerns charities and other nonprofits may have in the United States (including members of Congress criticizing them for accepting foreign donations), they pale in comparison to the concerns that the legal restrictions on both funding and activities raise for NGOs in many other parts of the world.
Thursday, October 2, 2014
h/t to our friends over at TaxProf Blog:
Benjamin M. Leff (American), Preventing Private Inurement in Tranched Social Enterprises, 41 Seton Hall L. Rev. ___ (2015):
Thursday, March 20, 2014
Miranda Perry Fleischer recently provided provocative food for thought regarding the efforts to reform the charitable contribution deduction. In this week's Tax Notes (2014 TNT 54-4) she argues that charitable reform should result in something that really adds to the incentives to assist the poor rather than our own favorite projects. She doesn't argue against the worth of a diverse civil society supportive of MOMA, Harvard and other places most often patronized by people of means. But she does argue that assisting the truly needy should be the central focus of the charitable contribution deduction:
A full discussion of the charitable deduction should also take into account who benefits -- not just who receives the tax benefits from claiming the deduction but who the ultimate charitable beneficiaries are. Once we recognize that most charitable giving, especially by the wealthy, does not assist the poor and disadvantaged, what should we do? First, we should stop using the poor as an excuse for not discussing reforms such as turning the deduction into a credit or instituting a rate cap or AGI floor. To truly evaluate these proposals, we need to recognize which institutions (education, arts, and health organizations) might suffer and determine whether any fiscal savings are worth potential drops in donations to those types of charities. They may not be, but that's a different question from talking about harm to the sector in general or harm to the poor from those proposals.
More ambitiously, we should grant larger tax benefits to contributions to organizations that provide basic needs to the poor. You want to help education? Let's provide more incentives for donations to a tutoring program in a low-income area than we do for donations to your kid's school (which you would probably do anyway). To that end, I propose that donations to organizations that provide basic services to the poor be treated more generously for tax purposes than other donations. Let's say that you donate $ 100 to a soup kitchen. If the deduction remains a deduction, perhaps you are treated as if you had donated $ 200 (thus triggering a government subsidy of $80 instead of $40). If an AGI floor is implemented, perhaps those contributions are not subject to the floor. If the deduction is changed to a credit of, say, 15 percent, maybe you would receive a 30 percent credit for those types of donations.
By emphasizing donations to organizations helping the neediest, we'd be putting our money where our mouths are when it comes to charitable giving. We routinely use charity for the poor not only as a justification for continuing the tax status quo but also to excuse less government aid to the poor. For example, the bipartisan letter to Baucus argued that if the deduction were reformed, "the government would be required to step in and fund those services now being provided through private generosity. Accordingly, preserving the charitable deduction is also prudent as a matter of broad fiscal policy." There are very valid reasons for wanting charity to do more, and government less, when helping the poor. Quite often, charities can find more efficient, more responsive, and more creative ways of assisting the poor than the government can. So let's structure the tax incentives for charitable giving to reflect these values. Perhaps it's an area in which Republicans and Democrats can find common ground.
I second that. But I bet it won't happen and I just want to comment on and dispense with the most likely counterargument. The big boys -- hospitals and universities -- in civil society would never stand for anything that might result in fewer contributions to their own, even if whatever it is increased the amount of charity to the poor. I don't condemn those who would rather contribute to the Museum of Modern Art any more than would Prof. Fleischer. But the arguments against favoring the poor above all else in IRC 170 [or 501(c)(3)] rely on or at least harken to common misinterpretations of Biblical passages: "Man does not live on bread alone," opponents might say while also adding, "the poor will always be with us." Math. 4:4 and Mark 14:7. Religious scholars pretty much agree that those passages are misused to the extent they are thought to elevate every other good thing to the same level as the relief of poverty. Tax policy makers should conclude likewise.
Friday, February 15, 2013
I was fortunate enough to be invited to present at a conference hosted by Columbia Law School's Charities Law Project last week. Featuring presentations and draft papers (available on the conference website) from a who's who list of charity law experts from the academy, state AG offices and other agencies, and private practice, the conference provided an incredible opportunity to consider and discuss emerging issues in the regulation of charities. Topics covered included:
- Jurisdictional Boundaries: State/Federal, State/State Relationships
- The Fundamental Role Of States In Governance Issues
- Emerging Issue: Political Activity/Advocacy By The Sector & The States' Role
- Transparency, Media And Technology: New Expectations, New Opportunities
- Emerging Issue: Challenges & Interests Of States In Social Mission/Hybrid Organizations
- Mapping The Trajectory: The Changing Role Of The State Regulators
- Emerging Issue: State Jurisdiction Over Religious Organizations
- Emerging Issue: Changing Landscape Of Charitable Solicitation
- Emerging Issue: The Dynamic Role Of States In Nonprofit Healthcare
- Federal Partners
- Envisioning The Future: New Structures
The conference organizers also gathered an extensive set of additional resources that will be helpful to anyone interested in the conference topics.
Monday, November 12, 2012
With h/t to our friends at the TaxProf Blog:
Preservation Easements in an Uncertain Regulatory Future
Jess R. Phelps (Historic New England), Preserving Preservation Easements?: Preservation Easements in an Uncertain Regulatory Future, 91 Neb. L. Rev. 121 (2012):
While federal tax deductions are an important tool for organizations operating easement programs, recent IRS enforcement activity has called the future of this incentive into question--at least as currently constituted. Even if these incentives continue, the presence of continued regulatory uncertainty will make federally subsidized easements less viable unless enforcement activity decreases or easement-holding organizations begin to change how they protect privately-owned homes. However, these challenges provide easement-holding organizations a chance to step back and evaluate their accomplishments of the past thirty years. Many significant structures have been protected, but preservation easements lag far behind in numbers, impact, and public awareness when compared to land conservation efforts. The public has yet to fully “buy in” to the concept of preservation easements and are suspicious of efforts to provide funds to protect private residences.
For this perception to change, easement-holding organizations need to fundamentally re-evaluate the role they play within the preservation movement and determine whether a larger role is possible. There are a variety of ways that easement-holding organizations can shift their thinking and practices to expand the benefit provided through their programs. Similarly, there are clear alternatives to securing the preservation of significant historic resources via reliance on the federal tax incentives. In the end, the efforts of easement-holding organizations to respond to these challenges and reimagine the possibilities of preservation easements will go a long way toward fulfilling SPNEA's original vision of obtaining control of the most significant historic properties and “let[ting] them to tenants under wise restrictions.” Perhaps more importantly, these efforts can also expand upon this vision to protect the underlying stories and preserve a more meaningful spectrum of our collective architectural heritage.
Monday, June 18, 2012
The Law and Society Association's 2012 International Meeting in Honolulu earlier this month featured the following panel and additional papers relating to nonprofits:
- Charities and Public Policy Panel
- Nina J. Crimm (St John's) & Laurence H. Winer (Arizona State),
- Terri Lynne Helge (Texas Wesleyan), Reforming the Private Benefit Doctrine
- Grace S. Lee (Alabama), Toward a More Dynamic Theory Regarding the Charitable Deduction
- Henry Ordower (Saint Lewis), Charitable Contributions of Services
- Miranda L. Stewart (Melborne), Doing Business to Do Good: Should We Tax the Business Profits of Not for Profits
- Meredith A. Cartwright (York), Tax Subsidies for the Religious Training of Children in Religious Schools in US and Canadian Tax and Constitutional Law: “Public” or “Private” “Personal” (In)Tangible Benefits of a Suspect “Gift”
- Daniel B. Rubin (Michigan), A Population Health-Based Approach to Nonprofit Hospital Tax Exemption
- Richard Schmalbeck (Duke), The Role of Declaratory Judgments in Shaping the Concept of Charity
The Charities Regulation and Oversight Project, which is part of the National State Attorneys General Program at Columbia Law School, has issued a call for papers for its February 2013 conference "The Future of State Charities Regulation". Here are the details:
Tuesday, March 13, 2012
Frede Moreno (Western Midanao State University, Philippines and Alliance for International Education, Germany) has posted a short paper on Governance of Microcredit as a Strategy for Poverty Reduction in the Philippines on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
Microcredit can be an effective tool for tackling the global poverty problem. Making microcredit work better for the poor necessitates a framework that integrates the principles of good governance in the design and implementation of a microcredit program. The integration of good governance principles in microfinance is argued to have positive consequences in improving financial viability and increasing social outreach of microcredit programs as well as in widening the livelihood and economic options of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries within Third World economic and poverty conditions. Governance principles can be applied as implementation strategies of Official Development Assistance (ODA)-assisted microfinance program as a tool for poverty reduction and development. In view of the Philippine government’s limitations, economic and fiscal challenges, the financial and technical support programs of the international donor community provide a big boost to the effectiveness and impact of microfinance in reducing the incidents of poverty in Third World countries such as the Philippines. As a tool for poverty reduction, microcredit is applicable only to the enterprising poor. The use of microcredit to assist poverty groups is recommended to be based on existing livelihood activities and micro-entrepreneurial skills and capabilities. Furthermore, the program design of the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) is found to be appropriate for the agrarian reform beneficiaries in Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX), Philippines. Joe Remenyi’s (1999) Poverty Pyramid reinforces BRAC’s graduated strategy for helping the poor when they are grouped into: (1) micro-enterprise operators or the less poor, (2) enterprising or moderately poor, (3) laboring or very poor, and (4) poorest of the poor and most vulnerable or the ultra-poor.
Tuesday, June 7, 2011
A reader alerted me that the links I previously provided for these papers were not working. I have now corrected those postings (first set of papers and second set of papers) with updated information for accessing the abstracts and, where available, drafts of the papers. My apologies for the problematic links.
Monday, June 6, 2011
The following authors presented nonprofit-related papers at the Law and Society Annual Meeting over the weekend. To see the abstracts of these papers, click on the above link, click on "Search the Preliminary Program" of the left side of the page, and then search for the author of the paper. For those papers with publicly available drafts, I have provided a link to those drafts below.
- Ellen Aprill (Loyola-L.A.), Regulating the Political Speech of Noncharitable Exempt Organizations after Citizens United
- Brian D. Galle (Boston College), The Normative Basis for Legal Restrictions on Nonprofit Political Activities
- Jill S. Manny (NYU), Lobbying: Hear the Public Voice of Public Charities
Hat Tip: TaxProf Blog
Friday, June 3, 2011
As part of the Law, Society, and Taxation portion of the Law and Society Association's annual meeting in San Francisco, the following nonprofit-related papers were presented yesterday or are being presented today. To see the abstracts of these papers, click on the above link, click on "Search the Preliminary Program" of the left side of the page, and then search for the author of the paper. For those papers with publicly available drafts, I have provided a link to those drafts below.
- Nicholas A. Mirkay (Widener), International Philanthropy and the Public Policy Doctrine: A Modern Conundrum
- Heather Elliott (Alabama) & Grace Soyon Lee (Alabama), Zoning for Dollars: What Is the True Value of Donated Real Property?
Hat tip: TaxProf Blog