Marijuana Law, Policy & Reform

Editor: Douglas A. Berman
Moritz College of Law

Friday, October 30, 2020

"Weed, Dogs & Traffic Stops"

The title of this post is the title of this new article recently posted to SSRN and authored by Alex Carroll.  Here is its abstract:

The Supreme Court has long characterized a dog sniff as a binary investigative technique.  For nearly four decades, the Court has held that a dog sniff conducted during a routine traffic stop is not a Fourth Amendment “search” because it reveals only the location of an illegal substance.  Marijuana, however, is now legal in thirty-four states. Accordingly, this Article closely reexamines the Fourth Amendment’s treatment of dog sniffs.

In doing so, it makes three overarching arguments.  First, a dog sniff conducted during a routine traffic stop is a nonbinary type of investigative technique in states that have legalized recreational or medicinal marijuana.  Second, a dog sniff conducted during a routine traffic stop is a Fourth Amendment “search” in those same states.  Third, law enforcement agencies operating in those states must retrain or replace their drug-detection dogs.

Moving forward, the Article further demonstrates, law enforcement agencies will encounter significant challenges associated with retraining or replacing their drug-detection dogs.  It therefore concludes by providing law enforcement agencies with ways to mitigate those challenges.  At its core, this Article offers the judiciary and law enforcement profession with a constitutional path forward.

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/marijuana_law/2020/10/weed-dogs-traffic-stops.html

Criminal justice developments and reforms, History of Marijuana Laws in the United States, Medical Marijuana Commentary and Debate, Recreational Marijuana Commentary and Debate, Who decides | Permalink

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