Marijuana Law, Policy & Reform

Editor: Douglas A. Berman
Moritz College of Law

Saturday, December 15, 2018

"Why are so many countries now saying cannabis is OK?"

MJ-World-Legality-InfographicThe title of this post is the headline of this effective recent piece by John Collins of the London School of Economics written for the BBC. Here are excerpts:

Around the world attitudes towards the use of cannabis are shifting. Mexico's new government plans to legalise recreational cannabis use, as does the incoming government of Luxembourg. Meanwhile, New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern is considering a referendum on what its approach should be....

What has led one country after another to move towards a relaxation of their laws and, in many cases, outright legalisation?

It was only in 2012 that Uruguay announced it would be the first country in the world to legalise recreational cannabis use. In large part, the move was aimed at replacing links between organised crime and the cannabis trade with more accountable state regulation.

Later the same year, voters in Washington State and Colorado became the first in the US to support legalisation of the drug for non-medical use. Under President Barack Obama, a critic of the US-led war on drugs, the US government stepped back from enforcing federal laws and effectively gave states a green light to explore alternatives....

The tide has crept across the Americas, with Canada legalising the sale, possession and recreational use of cannabis nationwide in October.

That Mexico will legalise marijuana seems a virtual certainty. The new government of Andrés Manuel López Obrador has introduced a bill that would legalise its medical and recreational use, while the country's supreme court recently ruled an absolute ban on recreational use unconstitutional.

Other countries are pushing ahead. Although the sale of cannabis remains illegal, possession of small amounts is no longer a crime in countries including Brazil, Jamaica and Portugal. In Spain it is legal to use cannabis in private, while the drug is sold openly in coffee shops in the Netherlands. Still more countries allow the use of medicinal cannabis.

Around the world, there are many more countries where change is under way:

In the UK, doctors have been allowed to prescribe cannabis products since November

South Korea has legalised strictly-controlled medical use, despite prosecuting residents for recreational use overseas

A death sentence given to a young man selling cannabis oil has stirred debate about legalisation in Malaysia

South Africa's highest court legalised the use of cannabis by adults in private places

Lesotho became the first African country to legalise the cultivation of marijuana for medicinal purposes

Lebanon is considering the legalisation of cannabis production for medical purposes, to help its economy....

With countries worldwide moving towards some form of legalisation, others are rushing to catch up. Often, as in many parts of Latin America, governments want their farmers to have access to the potentially lucrative medicinal cannabis markets that are developing.

Corporations have also expressed interest. For example, Altria, which owns cigarette brands including Marlboro, has made a $1.86bn (£1.46bn) investment in a Canadian cannabis company. Over time, as the US demonstrates, it is quite possible that the medical trade could quite easily morph into recreational sales - potentially opening up an even bigger market.

One immediate obstacle is that cannabis for recreational purposes cannot be traded across borders. Countries can only import and export medicinal cannabis under a licensing system supervised by the International Narcotics Control Board.

Farmers in countries such as Morocco and Jamaica may have a reputation for producing cannabis, but they can't access markets that domestic producers sometimes struggle to supply - as happened in Canada following legalisation....

Governments that want to move towards legalisation face a challenge: steering a course between uncontrolled legalisation and hard prohibition. Poorly-regulated industry and mind-altering substances are not a combination about which many societies would feel comfortable. But it seems a virtual certainty that more countries will change their approach to cannabis in the coming decades. As such, domestic and international rules will need to catch up.

International Marijuana Laws and Policies, Medical Marijuana Commentary and Debate, Recreational Marijuana Commentary and Debate, Who decides | Permalink


Mind altering substances are a real problem. Take alcohol for instance.

Posted by: MSimon | Dec 18, 2018 3:43:58 AM

As public opinion - and that of governments - changes, it seems increasingly likely that other countries will follow, and also for many medical research says that cannabis is ok for as a medicines.

Posted by: kevin joseph | Jan 7, 2019 2:35:19 AM

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