Saturday, May 14, 2022

Learning How to Distinguish Cases: A Basic Skill for Lawyers and Law Students

One of the legal education reforms that I have advocated is explicitly teaching miniskills, such as rule-based reasoning, analogical reasoning, and case synthesis.  I think that students need to master these skills before moving on to more advanced types of legal reasoning.  Studies have shown that second- and third-year law students have problems with these and other miniskills.  (E.g., here)

One miniskill that is rarely taught in depth in law school is distinguishing cases.  Yet, this skill is basic for competent lawyers.

A lawyer can distinguish a case based on the facts or based on the reasoning/policy (or preferably both). 

In distinguishing cases, the attorney demonstrates that the facts of case A (the precedent case) are not substantially similar to the facts of case B (your case) so that the rule from case A does not apply to case B.   In other words, distinguishing cases is the opposite of reasoning by analogy. With reasoning by analogy, the advocate shows that the facts of case A (the precedent case) are substantially similar to the facts of case B (your case) so that the rule of case A applies to case B.

Distinguishing cases involves distinctions of degree so the lawyer must make the dissimilarities convincing.  The opposing attorney will try to argue that the cases are similar enough for the rules to apply to both.

Judge Aldisert has developed criteria to test analogies:

* The acceptability of the analogy varies proportionally with the number of correlates that have been identified.

* The acceptability of the analogy depends on the number of positive resembles (similarities) and negative resemblances (dissimilarities).

* The acceptability of the analogy is influenced by the relevance of the purported analogies. An argument based on a single relevant analogy with a single instance will be more cogent than one which points out a dozen irrelevant resemblances.  (Ruggero J. Aldisert, Winning on Appeal: Better Briefs and Oral Argument 280 (Nat. Instit. Trial Advoc. 1996))

This test can be modified to apply to distinguishing cases: in making an attempt to distinguish a case convincing, find as many relevant distinguishing features as possible and compare the relevant differences with the relevant similarities.

An advocate can also distinguish cases based on the reasoning or policy of the cases. Case A (the precedent case) is distinguishable from case B because the policy (or the reasoning) behind case A is different than the policy (or the reasoning) of case B so the rule from case A does not apply to case B.

For more on distinguishing cases, including examples and exercises, see E. Scott Fruehwald, Think Like A Lawyer: Legal Reasoning for Law Students and Business Professionals 186-96 (2020)

(Scott Fruehwald)

 

May 14, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, May 9, 2022

The Economic Value of Law Clinic Legal Assistance by Robert Kuehn

"Each year law school clinics provide free legal assistance to tens of thousands of clients, most of whom would otherwise go unrepresented. The work of clinic students and faculty allows clients to advance or defend their rights or obtain assistance or funds to which they are entitled, assistance that is in many ways invaluable to clients and their communities. While the benefits of clinic work can be difficult to monetize, it is possible to estimate the dollar value of the millions of hours of free legal assistance law clinics provide each year to individuals, governmental agencies, and non-profit organizations. As explained below, law clinic students alone provide tens of millions of dollars in pro bono legal services each year."

Conclusion: " Public service is a core value of legal education[12] and pro bono legal activities a professional responsibility of law professors.[13] Although schools often bemoan their costs, law clinics play a primary role in fulfilling these ideals by providing local communities with millions of hours of much-needed legal assistance and hundreds of millions of dollars in free services each year."

Read the rest here.

(Scott Fruehwald)

May 9, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Saturday, May 7, 2022

What We Do: The Life and Work of The Legal Writing Professor by David I. C. Thomson

When Deb Green, James Garland,  and I started teaching legal writing at the University of Alabama, Dean Randall suggested we present a faculty forum about what legal writing professors do.  He wanted us to demonstrate that legal writing professors did more than just teach grammar and that we provided significant value to Alabama law students.  The forum was a great success, and most of our doctrinal colleagues accepted us as essential members of the faculty.

Professor David Thomson has just written an article that does the same thing for all law schools and professors:

What We Do: The Life and Work of The Legal Writing Professor.

This is a comprehensive article, which tells what, how, and, especially, why legal writing professors do (it).  Every law school administrator and faculty should read this article.  Also, it should be emailed to every new legal writing professor with their acceptance letter.

Here is the abstract:

The life of the legal writing professor in today’s law schools is a challenging yet rewarding one. Out of necessity, over the last thirty years the pedagogy of legal writing has expanded to include much more than just writing skills—it has become every law student’s introduction to a broad set of basic lawyering skills and is more appropriately styled the Lawyering Process (LP). The increasing gravity and responsibility of the Lawyering Process course has led to expansion of credits given to the course and gradually to greater status and equity to the faculty who teach it, although most of us still lag the benefits and privileges of our tenured colleagues. Because of the dramatic evolution of the course and in the professionalism of the faculty who teach it, many traditional tenure-track faculty members do not really know or understand what we do now. This Article seeks to fill that gap — to bring our colleagues up to date on what we teach and how. It also seeks to help our colleagues understand what sort of support we want and need to be even better and more effective at teaching this critical course in law school. Finally, it is hoped that this Article will be helpful to faculty new to the task of teaching the Lawyering Process course so they will have a more complete understanding of the joys and challenges that await.

Update: Upon rereading Professor Thomson's article, I think it is one of the most important articles ever written on legal writing.

(Scott Fruehwald)

May 7, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, May 3, 2022

"Teaching" Professional Identity: A New Book for Administrators and Professors

Professors Neil W. Hamilton and Louis D. Bilionis, two leaders of the professional identity development movement,  have just published a book to help administrators and law professors satisfy the new ABA requirement that professional identity training be included in the law school curriculum:

Law Student Professional Development and Formation: Bridging Law School, Student, and Employer Goals

You can download the book for free here.

    The authors write, "This book is written for law school faculty, staff, and administrators who would like to see their school more effectively help each student to understand, accept, and internalize the following:

1. Ownership of continuous professional development toward excellence at the major competencies that clients, employers, and the legal system need;

2. a deep responsibility and service orientation to others, especially the client;

3. a client-centered problem-solving approach and good judgment that ground each student’s responsibility and service to the client; and

4. well-being practices.

Chapters 2 and 3 focus on strategic planning to realize the foregoing benefits at your school. "Chapter 2 explains and stresses the importance of purposefulness in the law school’s efforts to help students to realize the four PD&F goals. The reader will find a framework for bringing that purposefulness to work in the law school. Chapter 3 explores how competency-based education can serve as a possible framework for purposeful support of students toward the four goals."

"Chapters 4 and 5 focus on practical implementation steps to realize the benefits we just outlined at your law school. Chapter 4 brings forward ten principles from the literature on higher education that should inform the development of any law school curriculum to foster each student’s progressive growth toward later stages of development on the four PD&F goals. Chapter 5 stays with the practical, turning attention to how interested faculty, staff, and administrators can lead their school toward more purposeful support of students and their PD&F goals."

The authors emphasize that professional identity development requires a new approach to learning: "Law professors contemplating what their school can do to better help students in their formation of professional identity likely will presuppose that the answers involve some form of transmission of knowledge by the faculty to students. After all, isn’t that what teaching is, and isn’t teaching what a law school does?

Framing the law school’s capacities that way defines legal education and the law school’s appropriate functions too narrowly. Teaching as it is customarily envisioned – the transmission of expert knowledge by a professor who imparts doctrinal wisdom and hones student skills in analysis and synthesis – figures enormously. But the education of the American lawyer involves more. Other kinds of experiences are formative for the developing lawyer and thus, in a real and meaningful sense, an integral part of the legal education. The challenge for law schools is twofold: to see legal education in those broader terms and to recognize that society expects law schools to take responsibility for legal education in those broader terms."

They continue: "Accepting this responsibility means embracing a leadership challenge. The question is not so much what additional expert knowledge the law faculty can convey, but rather what the school as a whole can do to maximize the formative potential of the pre-professional-employment period – what diverse talents, techniques, and resources it can muster and deploy."  (emphasis added)

This requires three steps.  "First, it is necessary to be frank about the period for which the law school bears responsibility. . . . The period really begins not with matriculation but with increasingly intensive recruitment and admissions processes that initiate the student’s professional socialization. The period ends not at graduation but with the passing of the bar examination and the securing of a job – activities that law schools support with expanded postgraduation services. And those summers are not 'breaks' that punctuate the period but months designated for realworld experiences that schools promote and facilitate, and even create and subsidize, because they are central to development."

"The second step is to draw into view the diverse formative experiences that occur (or could occur) in that pre-professional-employment period, together with the varied times, spaces, and talents associated with those experiences. These represent the assets that can be committed to supporting students in the formation of their professional identity. By inventorying the experiences carefully, and associating each experience with one or more of the competencies that the school sees as integral to its working conception of professional identity, the school can see with clarity the student’s development opportunities and the functions they serve."

"A richer picture of the pre-professional-employment period allows the law school to move to the third step – the formulation of purposeful strategies to fortify each formation experience and to unite them all in a coherent, staged, sequenced, and supported whole that maximizes the benefits for students."

This stage has two dimensions.  "On a more general level, relationships and collaborations need to be forged among the many people and organizations that afford students formation experiences. Lines of communication between these parties need to be opened. Ways of coordinating, enhancing, reinforcing, and leveraging their varied efforts need to be imagined and implemented. These things will not occur unless the law school takes the lead in spearheading them. On the finer level of specific strategies and actions, appraisals of the value and potential of each formation experience need to be conducted. What pedagogies can be introduced around each experience – before, during, and after it – to maximize its benefit? Who among the many, from the school’s faculty and staff to stakeholders and participants outside the school, are best situated to help the student maximize that experience, and in what way may they help? What formative assessment opportunities are presented by the experience? What developmental milestones, or assessments that might later be bundled into a summative assessment, might be involved?"

The authors further develop how professional identity training should occur.  "What Dr. Robert Sternszus has said for medical education holds for law: '[T]he role of professional education should be to guide and support learners in the process of identity formation, rather than ensuring that learners understand medical [or legal] professionalism and demonstrate professional behaviors.'  Students need experiences as active participants in situations that signal the profession’s shared values, beliefs, and behaviors. They need encouragement to make the process of their identity formation their own and to reflect on the process as it unfolds. They need assistance in comprehending what they are going through."

"This calls for teachers who can curate and coach. By curating, we mean staging the experiences and environments that will promote professional identity development, connecting them conceptually to one another in an intelligently sequenced fashion, and guiding students through them with a framework that helps the students understand their own development through the process."

"'Coaching is the thread that runs through the entire apprenticeship experience and involves helping individuals while they attempt to learn or perform a task. It includes directing learner attention, providing ongoing suggestions and feedback, structuring tasks and activities, and providing additional challenges or problems. Coaches explain activities in terms of the learners’ understanding and background knowledge, and they provide additional directions about how, when, and why to proceed; they also identify errors, misconceptions, or faulty reasoning in learners’ thinking and help to correct them. In situated learning environments, advice and guidance help students ... to maximize use of their own cognitive resources and knowledge, an important component in becoming a professional.'"

The authors stress that professional identity development should not only be across-the-curriculum, but throughout the entire law school.  For example, "Law school colleagues working in the career services area have much to gain by implementing professional identity formation initiatives in their work with students."

The above only gives a sample of the detail about professional identity training that is in Hamilton's and Bilionis's book.  As someone who has been studying professional identity training for the last few years, I can attest that the advice they give in their book will help administrators and faculty create a new approach to legal education.

(Scott Fruehwald)

Note: The authors recommend two of my books to help students develop their professional identities. (p. 126) “Models and guides are available to make initiative practicable, easy to execute, efficient, compatible with one's practices and values, and likely to succeed - the criteria that make it easier for people to change and innovate.8

Fn. 8: See Bilionis, supra note 1, at 612-16. For example, Scott Fruehwald has a number of useful professional identity exercises in his book, How to Grow a Lawyer 166-95 [(2018). Fruehwald also has many useful reflection questions on professional identity and self-regulated learning in his book, Developing Your Professional Identity: Creating Your Inner Lawyer 1-39 (2015)."

I should point out that the "How to Grow" book is intended for law professors and administrators, while "Developing Your Professional Identity" is written for law students.  I believe that the best way to teach professional identity is through reflection questions.  Both books include lots of reflection questions.

 

 

May 3, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, April 29, 2022

Workshop on Professional Identity Training at the Holloran Center

As I have mentioned before, the ABA made significant changes to the standards for legal education at their mid-year meeting, including adding a new requirement for professional identity training.  Neil Hamilton has just informed me that the Holloran Center will have a workshop on professional identity training on May 23-24.  (Here)  60 schools have already signed up.

Also, Neil and Louis Bilionis have just published a book on professional identity development for law faculty.  Law Student Professional Development and Formation: Bridging Law School, Student, and Employer Goals.  I will have some comments about this book in a few days.

Finally, a reminder that I have published a book on professional identity development for students, which contains a plethora of exercises to help them develop this skill.  Developing Your Professional Identity: Creating Your Inner Lawyer.

(Scott Fruehwald)

 

April 29, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, April 14, 2022

Experiential Legal Education: An Antidote to Law Student Stress

How does experiential education affect law students' stress levels?

Bloomberg Law: Experiential Legal Education: An Antidote to Law Student Stress

"A recent Insight suggested that one source of law students’ stress is the expansion of experiential learning. Three New York University School of Law professors disagree, and say experiential learning is active, engaging, and helps to bring meaning to students’ legal education. This experience—and closer work with instructors—helps law students learn to manage stress, they contend."

(Scott Fruehwald)

April 14, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, April 11, 2022

Teaching Law Students Cross-Cultural Competence

The ABA recently made significant changes to the standards for legal education.   Among these changes is a new requirement to include cross-cultural competence training in the curriculum.  Here is a new book to help law students learn cross-cultural competence.

A Guide to Help Lawyers, Law Students, and Business Professionals Develop Cross-Cultural Competence by E. Scott Fruehwald (2021).

We live in a diverse world, and cross-cultural competence is important for everyone. This is especially true for lawyers and business professionals.

A key part of being a lawyer or business professional is the ability to deal with others. Part of this ability is the recognition that the people you will deal with come from many different cultures and backgrounds. We are all human, but there is a great deal of variation among humans. This is why I have written this book.

While cross-cultural competence has been an essential part of medical education and business for years, it is not usually part of legal education. However, it is essential to attorney competence, and it can give practitioners a competitive edge. Similarly, lack of cross-cultural competence can cause international business failure and ruin careers.

"Cross-cultural competence" is the "ability to understand people from different cultures and engage with them effectively." It involves "‘the ability to function effectively in another culture', consisting of three interdependent dimensions: 1) an affective dimension (personality traits and attitudes), 2) a cognitive dimension (how individuals acquire and categorize cultural knowledge), and a communicative, behavioral dimension (being an effective communicator)."

(Scott Fruehwald)

April 11, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Saturday, April 2, 2022

Honoring Deborah Jones Merritt

Claudia Angelos (NYU), Mary Lu Bilek (Dean, CUNY), & Joan Howarth (UNLV), The Deborah Jones Merritt Center for the Advancement of Justice

Abstract

When invited to write an essay on clinical legal education honoring our friend, we were struck by the importance of a focus on clinical legal education in any collection of work paying tribute to Professor Deborah Jones Merritt. Legal education has benefited from a fifty-year movement for clinical education. This movement necessarily interrogates and seeks to overcome the anachronistic, inherited Langdellian paradigm that dominates and continues to define the curricula and policies of our law schools. But the movement for clinical education has been exponentially confounded by contemporary legal education’s shape as a pyramid of statuses and privileges accumulated over time and embedded in the straight, white, male, ableist, classist structures of American universities, our legal system, and our laws.

Progress has been made. Thousands of lawyers now enter the profession with the advantage of having practiced under the supervision of faculty who choose to live in the fray of the reality of clients’ lives, the ambiguity of the real world, and the politics of the profession. Thousands of lawyers have learned through clinical education the habits of planning, doing, and reflecting that are otherwise invisible in the academy.

But clinical faculty typically work at lower pay in smaller offices on cases that don’t run on an academic timetable, in physical and ideological structures that are ill-suited for law practice, and in statuses that deprive them of the ability to build a better-suited environment. Perhaps most cruelly in an academic environment, clinical faculty have faced the pervasive stigma of the foolish but well-entrenched notion that classroom teaching far removed from practice demands a higher order of intellect. Professor Merritt understood this to be untrue, unjust, bad for students, and potentially disastrous for their future clients.

With the ambition to undertake her best work and motivated to hew her efforts to their highest calling, Professor Merritt unflinchingly and joyfully crossed the divide to become a clinician. At the height of an exceptional professorial career, Professor Merritt cheerfully changed course. She had learned from her students that she should become a different kind of professor so they could become the lawyers they wanted to be, the lawyers their future clients deserved. We are humbled to write in honor of such a clear-eyed colleague.

(Scott Fruehwald)

April 2, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, March 30, 2022

Chapman business law prof sues his own students for posting final exams on the web

The New York Times recently reported that a professor who teaches business law at Chapman University's George L. Argyros School of Business and Economics has sued his own students for copyright infringement after discovering that they had posted his midterm and final exam from last spring on a website called "Course Hero."   The website is used by students to share lecture notes, quizzes, syllabi and similar course related materials. Or as Course Hero itself describes it:  "a peer to peer study platform through which students and faculty can upload documents to share with one another - almost like a library."  Like the Chapman professor, I'd never heard of Course Hero before either but he stumbled across it in January where he discovered that his final exam from the previous spring had been uploaded to the site. Course Hero allows students who upload documents to get free access to some documents while the site also sells monthly subscriptions for $9.99 for full access (sounds a bit like the old Napster/Grokster peer sharing model).  

The professor told the NYT that his copyright infringement suit is not aimed at recovering damages from his students but instead he wants to identify them so that he can refer the matter to his university's honor court. Before filing the lawsuit, he registered his final exams with the U.S. Copyright Office so he could then sue in federal court and then seek to serve a subpoena on Court Hero turn over the names of the offending students. 

Hoping to Identify Cheaters, a Professor Sues His Own Students

The professor, David Berkovitz, who teaches business law at Chapman University in Orange, Calif., filed a lawsuit against an unnamed group of his students — identified only as “Does” — after he discovered in January that the midterm and final exams he had given in the spring of 2021 had been uploaded to a popular website that students use to share lecture notes, sample quizzes, syllabuses and other documents.

 

In filing the suit, which accuses the students of copyright infringement, Professor Berkovitz hopes to force the website, Course Hero, to identify those who uploaded the exams along with sample answers that were also on the website, his lawyer, Marc E. Hankin, said on Thursday.

 

If successful, Professor Berkovitz plans to turn over the names to Chapman’s honor board, Mr. Hankin said. Because Chapman’s business school requires grading on a curve, Professor Berkovitz is worried that students who cheated may have unfairly caused their classmates who played by the rules to receive grades lower down on the curve.

. . . . 

“The moral and ethical failing notwithstanding, the real concern is these students are hurting their fellow classmates,” Mr. Hankin said.

Students whose scholarships are tied to a minimum grade point average could lose those scholarships through no fault of their own and could even have to leave school, he said. “That’s the real harm he’s trying to prevent,” Mr. Hankin said.

. . . . 

More from the New York Times here.

(jbl).

March 30, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, March 27, 2022

Precedent and Similarity by Frederick Schauer & Barbara A. Spellman

Here is an excellent article that uses cognitive science to show how judges apply precedent:

Precedent and Similarity by Frederick Schauer & Barbara A. Spellman.

Abstract

Given that no two acts, events, situations, and legal cases are identical, precedential constraint necessarily involves determining which two different cases and situations are relevantly similar. One traditional view posits that these determinations are made on the basis of the rationale in the earlier case, another traditional view sees similarity in the facts of the earlier case plus the outcome, and the Legal Realist view insists that determinations of similarity are ex post attributions based on a judge’s outcome or policy preferences. In contrast to all of these positions, however, is a view informed by research in cognitive psychology. This research supports the conclusion that outcome-independent perceptions of similarity, perceptions based on the experiences and background of the perceiver, not only play a role in the determination of similarity, but often lead precedential reasoners to reason from particular to particular without the conscious mediation of any rule or principle.

(Scott Fruehwald)

March 27, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Megan Bess, Transitions Unexplored: A Proposal for Professional Identity Formation Following the First Year

Megan Bess, Transitions Unexplored: A Proposal for Professional Identity Formation Following the First Year

Abstract

Like students in other professional fields, law students experience significant transitions during their education. These transitions consist of intense learning periods associated with major change as students develop their professional identities. These challenges and experiences allow students to develop and internalize the skills needed to be a successful lawyer. Law schools are in a unique position to create and reinforce structures to help students navigate these transitions and maximize professional identity formation. This paper will detail some of these transitional challenges and provide suggestions for law schools to further support students during transitions—most notably during the summer following their 1L year.

Summer employment is a key transition point and a crucial opportunity for professional development and growth. The challenge for law schools is that summer employment falls outside their curriculum and oversight. But even when such transformational experiences occur outside of the traditional curriculum, law schools can still prepare students to maximize their development and internalization of professional values by utilizing effective pedagogy for professional identity formation. Externship pedagogy uniquely aligns with professional identity formation. By implementing common externship pedagogical tools, such as goal setting, reflection, and skills assessment, law schools can help students maximize development of professional identity in real world practice settings, particularly over the summer after 1L year. This article proposes that law schools implement professional identity formation programs comprised of key externship pedagogical tools and provides suggestions for creating stakeholder buy-in for such programs.

(Scott Fruehwald)

March 27, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, March 17, 2022

Congratulations . . . to me!

At the recent 20th Anniversary meeting of the Rocky Mountain Legal Writing Conference, I received the "Envisioning Award" for my role in founding the conference a little more than 20 years ago when I was a legal writing professor at the University of Colorado School of Law (Boulder!). I very much appreciated having my contributions recognized in this way. Thank you.

And an interesting bit of trivia about the founding of the conference . . . . As we batted around ideas about what to call it (my first suggestion was to call it the "Southwest Legal Writing Conference" but we quickly realized that wasn't going to work as there was already a Southwest School of Law in Los Angeles), I then thought the most geographically appropriate name was the "Mountain Region Legal Writing Conference" since that would take into account the variety of mountain ranges in the general vicinity that includes Utah, Wyoming, Montana, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado (with which I was familiar due to my fanatical devotion to skiing at the time). But the others liked the sound of "Rocky Mountain Conference" better even though it doesn't accurately describe the area that we had hoped to draw participants from. But since I was employed by CU at the time, I had no objection to calling it the "Rocky Mountain Conference" and so it became. Yet another example of a "happy accident" that worked out for the better since I now agree that "Rocky Mountain Conference" rolls off the tongue a wee bit better than "Mountain Region Conference."

View this photo

Finally, to our loyal readers, I confess my embarrassment at how much I've been slacking in my blogging duties over the past year. I don't have a really good excuse except to say that I've been feeling pretty burned out (no doubt exacerbated by the pandemic). However, the Legal Skills Prof Blog is still very much alive and kicking (though concededly languishing a bit) so please keep those tips, stories, and other news items rolling in . . . . . We will report them in due course. 

(jbl).

March 17, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, February 15, 2022

A Book for Teaching Professional Identity

As mentioned below, the ABA made significant changes to the standards for legal education at their mid-year meeting.   Among these changes is a new requirement to include professional identity training in the curriculum:

303 b) A law school shall provide substantial opportunities to students for:. . .

(3) the development of a professional identity.

Interpretation 303-5
Professional identity focuses on what it means to be a lawyer and the special obligations lawyers have to
their clients and society. The development of professional identity should involve an intentional
exploration of the values, guiding principles, and well-being practices considered foundational to
successful legal practice. Because developing a professional identity requires reflection and growth over
time, students should have frequent opportunities for such development during each year of law school
and in a variety of courses and co-curricular and professional development activities.

Law schools need to plan how to implement this new requirement.  I have written a text for students on how to develop their professional identities.

Developing Your Professional Identity: Creating Your Inner Lawyer (2015, 2020).

Professors can adopt this book as a text, or students can use it on their own.  It is chock full of exercises for developing professional identity.

Abstract: "Who will I be as a lawyer? This is the most important question any law student can ask. Yet, in traditional legal education, this question rarely comes up. The purpose of this book is to change this. Professional identity is a lawyer’s personal legal morality, values, decision-making process, and self-consciousness in relation to the practices of the legal profession (legal culture). It provides the framework that a lawyer uses to make all a lawyer’s decisions. This book takes a variety of approaches to help you develop your professional identity.

Chapter One asks you to take a close look at yourself by asking questions about your childhood, your college years, and who you are today. It is important to know who you are before you can fit into a profession. Chapters Two (Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner), Six (Overcoming Cognitive Biases), Seven (Behavioral Legal Ethics), and Eight (Attorney Well-Being) give you the tools you will need to develop your professional identity. Chapter Two introduces you to “practical wisdom,” an important approach to understanding and solving ethical problems. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 deal with professional identity within certain topics–the attorney-client relationship, the lawyer and society, and attorney advertising and solicitation of clients. Chapter Nine presents the legal profession’s and society’s views on lawyers and the legal profession. Chapter Ten focuses on your role as a lawyer. It asks you what area of law you want to practice, how you will deal with clients, your place in the legal profession, standards of civility in the legal profession, and working with subordinates. Finally, Chapter Eleven contains a variety of extended problems to help you further develop your professional identity. The revised edition adds a chapter on behavioral legal ethics, focusing on ethical blindness."

(Scott Fruehwald)

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February 15, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, February 14, 2022

ABA Passes Revisions to Legal Education Standards

Despite some strong opposition, the ABA House of Delegates has just passed the revisions to 205, 303, 507, and 508.  Summary of changes.  Comments welcome.

(Scott Fruehwald)

Update: Karen Sloan, U.S. law students to receive anti-bias training after ABA passes new rule.

February 14, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Justice for All: Repairing American Criminal Justice (Introduction and Sample Chapter) by Charles MacLean & Adam Lamparello

Justice for All: Repairing American Criminal Justice (Introduction and Sample Chapter) by Charles MacLean & Adam Lamparello.

Abstract

This book highlights infirmities in the criminal justice system that have led to pervasive unfairness, inequality, and injustice. But make no mistake. No one is a victim. Your choices, not your circumstances, determine your destiny.

Notwithstanding, unfairness, injustice, and inequality plague the criminal justice system in many areas, such as in policing, adjudication, and sentencing. Identifying the problem, however, is not sufficient. Likewise, it is not sufficient to simply acquire knowledge and regurgitate facts.

Anyone can do that.

But it solves nothing.

It helps no one.

Developing practical and sustainable solutions is imperative if injustice is to become a thing of the past and equality a reality in the present and a staple of the future.

Leaders propose solutions. And leaders recognize that, no matter how compelling or sensible a policy proposal, real change requires great people. Talented people. Visionary people. As the legendary football coach Woody Hayes said, “You win with people.”

Leaders are bold, creative, and courageous. They strive to effectuate meaningful change that improves people’s lives.

That is the point of this book: to develop meaningful solutions that address the flaws in the criminal justice system. To that end, each chapter challenges you to be a leader by proposing solutions that will change the lives of others and reaffirm the values on which this country is based: equality, fairness, and justice – for all.

This book has neither a liberal nor conservative bias. Unfortunately, some professors are ideologically biased and strive to impose their views on students. This is professionally irresponsible and unethical. Professors should teach students how to think, not what to think. They should welcome diverse perspectives from across the political spectrum and encourage civil discourse. Sadly, many professors and universities have made the decision to replace instruction with ideology, and emphasize conformity over critical thinking. In so doing, the quality of education – and its ability to train students for the real world – has been compromised. If you experience this at your university, you are not alone – but you are not helpless. On any given issue, research and respect all perspectives. Form your views based on facts and evidence, not emotion and bias.

We have no ideological agendas and have no regard for people whose opinions are driven more by underlying agendas than critical analysis and study. We likewise rely on facts and evidence. We hope you will too.

Most importantly, we hope that you embrace the challenge of not merely learning, but creating ideas and solving problems.

And in that process, you will discover if you really can be the change you want to see in the world.

(Scott Fruehwald)

February 14, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, February 10, 2022

Transitions Unexplored: A Proposal for Professional Identity Formation Following the First Year by Megan Bess

Important new article on professional identity development: Transitions Unexplored: A Proposal for Professional Identity Formation Following the First Year by Megan Bess

Abstract

Like students in other professional fields, law students experience significant transitions during their education. These transitions consist of intense learning periods associated with major change as students develop their professional identities. These challenges and experiences allow students to develop and internalize the skills needed to be a successful lawyer. Law schools are in a unique position to create and reinforce structures to help students navigate these transitions and maximize professional identity formation. This paper will detail some of these transitional challenges and provide suggestions for law schools to further support students during transitions—most notably during the summer following their 1L year.

Summer employment is a key transition point and a crucial opportunity for professional development and growth. The challenge for law schools is that summer employment falls outside their curriculum and oversight. But even when such transformational experiences occur outside of the traditional curriculum, law schools can still prepare students to maximize their development and internalization of professional values by utilizing effective pedagogy for professional identity formation. Externship pedagogy uniquely aligns with professional identity formation. By implementing common externship pedagogical tools, such as goal setting, reflection, and skills assessment, law schools can help students maximize development of professional identity in real world practice settings, particularly over the summer after 1L year. This article proposes that law schools implement professional identity formation programs comprised of key externship pedagogical tools and provides suggestions for creating stakeholder buy-in for such programs.

(Scott Fruehwald)

February 10, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, February 9, 2022

ABA Journal: Which law schools overperformed on the bar exam? Some are unranked by US News

BA Journal:

Which law schools overperformed on the bar exam? Some are unranked by US News

"'Overall, top-performing schools are “not spending extravagantly more resources, and in many instances are spending less, than other schools to achieve bar success,' the study said."

The top overperforming law schools were:

  1. Florida International University

  2. Stanford University

  3. The University of Southern California

  4. The University of California at Berkeley

  5. The University of North Carolina

  6. Belmont University

  7. The University of Michigan

  8. Florida State University

  9. The University of California at Los Angeles

  10. The University of Virginia

  11. Campbell University

  12. Yale University

  13. Louisiana State University

  14. The University of Georgia

  15. Duke University

  16. Harvard University

  17. Wake Forest University

  18. Georgia State University

  19. The University of Chicago

  20. The University of Pennsylvania

  21. The University of Illinois

  22. Baylor University

  23. Washington & Lee University

  24. Liberty University

  25. Vanderbilt University

(Scott Fruehwald)

February 9, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, February 8, 2022

Pushing Back Against Langdell by Emily Zimmerman

Pushing Back Against Langdell by Emily Zimmerman.

Abstract

Legal education is dominated by the study of court opinions, which are the product of litigation. This focus on the law in the context of litigation can have detrimental consequences for law students. First, law students may come to believe that the vast majority of disputes are resolved by litigation, which is not the case. Second, law students may believe that the vast majority of law practice is litigation focused, which is also not the case. Third, law students may develop a warped view of the world in which situations and relationships (both business and personal) are destined to end in catastrophe and breakdown. This Article explores how legal education can remedy the tyranny of litigation, particularly during the first year of law school. In particular, the Article highlights the need for transparency with our students about the focus on litigation in the law school curriculum and the impact that such a focus may have on our students. We should remind students that most relationships do not end in litigation, most situations do not end in catastrophe, and most disputes are resolved in ways other than litigation. The Article also describes how engaging students in alternatives-to-litigation counterfactuals can help students develop a broader and more realistic view of relationships, dispute resolution, and the role of lawyers.

(Scott Fruehwald)

February 8, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (1)

Sunday, February 6, 2022

Law Students Face Mandatory Bias Training Beginning In Fall 2022 Under Proposed ABA Diversity Accreditation Requirement

From Reuters.

Excerpts:

"Law schools would have to train students in bias, racism and crosscultural competency under a proposal before the American Bar Association’s policymaking body this month.

The ABA’s House of Delegates on Feb. 14 will consider a series of changes to its law school accreditation rules, including a new requirement that schools provide bias training at least twice during a student’s time on campus — once at the start of their studies and at least once more before they graduate."

"But the proposal has garnered skepticism from some inside and outside the legal academy. The majority of public comments the council received warned that requiring bias training would interfere with curricula or convey a particular ideology. Some also said the proposal is too vague."

"'It is more constructive to foster spaces that encourage the free exchange of ideas than to impose consensus through mandatory training and courses,' the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education said in a comment it submitted."

"A group of 10 Yale law professors wrote that requiring bias training is an 'unwarranted intrusion' on the autonomy of law schools."  (here)

"The organization is also slated to consider the addition of ethnicity, gender identity and military status to the accreditation standard prohibiting discrimination, as well as requirements that schools provide information about student well-being resources and student loan repayment."

(Scott Fruehwald)

 

February 6, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, January 17, 2022

More on Professor Robert Kuehn's study of the changing demographics of legal skills faculty

An astute reader pointed out that some key graphics that help illustrate Professor Kuehn's data on the changing demographics of legal skills faculty didn't make it into my previous post (even after more than a decade of using this blogging platform, I still get befuddled by idiosyncrasies of Typepad). My apologies to Professor Kuehn. To see the results of his research including the helpful charts and graphics, please go here to SSRN where you can download his study yourself.

Here's an abstract of his article:

This paper tracks law school faculty demographics by gender and race/ethnicity since 1980. While the diversity of law school faculty has been increasing over the past four decades, it still lags behind the gender and racial/ethic diversity among law students. Also, the demographics of faculty subgroups diverge widely, particularly by gender, with women continuing to be disproportionately hired into traditionally lower status/lower paying clinical and legal writing positions.

(jbl).

January 17, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)