Tuesday, December 20, 2016
The New York Court of Appeals has answered a certified question in litigation between a famous 1960s rock band and Sirius XM Radio.
The Second Circuit Court of Appeals has certified the following question to this Court: "Is there a right of public performance for creators of sound recordings under New York law and, if so, what is the nature and scope of that right?" Because New York common-law copyright does not recognize a right of public performance for creators of sound recordings, we answer the certified question in the negative.
From rock history
Plaintiff is a corporation owned by two of the original members of The Turtles, a band formed in 1965 and most famous for its No. 1 hit song "Happy Together." Plaintiff controls the master recordings of approximately 100 Turtles songs that were recorded before 1972. Defendant is the nation's largest satellite digital radio service. Defendant acknowledges that it broadcasts pre-1972 sound recordings, including Turtles songs, but does not have licenses with the performers or the sound recording copyright-holders, nor does it pay them for broadcasts. Plaintiff commenced this federal putative class action, on behalf of recording artists of pre-1972 sound recordings -- or the owners of their rights, who are mostly record companies -- alleging common-law copyright infringement and unfair competition. Defendant moved for summary judgment dismissing the complaint.
On the result
... common sense supports the explanation, articulated by the Third Circuit, that the record companies and artists had a symbiotic relationship with radio stations, and wanted them to play their records to encourage name recognition and corresponding album sales (see Bonneville Int'l. Corp., 347 F3d at 487-489). As the dissent acknowledges (see dissenting op at 25), the Federal Copyright Office explicitly recognized the technological advances affecting the interests of the various participants in the music industry as early as 1991 (see Register of Copyrights, Report on Copyright Implications of Digital Audio Transmission Services, at 154-155 [Oct 1991]). Nevertheless, those participants have co-existed for many years and, until now, were apparently "happy together." While changing technology may have rendered it more challenging for the record companies and performing artists to profit from the sale of recordings, these changes, alone, do not now warrant the precipitous creation of a common-law right that has not previously existed.
Simply stated, New York's common-law copyright has never recognized a right of public performance for pre-1972 sound recordings. Because the consequences of doing so could be extensive and far-reaching, and there are many competing interests at stake, which we are not equipped to address, we decline to create such a right for the first time now. Even the District Court here, while finding the existence of a common-law copyright of public performance in sound recordings, acknowledged that such a right was "unprecedented," would upset settled expectations, and would "have significant economic consequences" (62 F Supp 3d at 352). Under these circumstances, the recognition of such a right should be left to the legislature.
Justice Fahey concurred and Justice Rivera dissented
Contrary to the conclusion of my colleagues, New York's broad and flexible common-law copyright protections for sound recordings encompass a public performance right that extends to the outer boundaries of current federal law, and ceases upon preemption by Congress.