Tuesday, March 31, 2015

New Land Use Articles on SSRN

As it is the first of the month, it is time to see what has been posted on SSRN in land use in March.  As always, I run the search on the term "land use" in the period "last month."  I also offer my standard caveat that I realize there are plenty of land use law-related articles I am probably not catching with this search.  Some day I will think of something better.  Till then...

1 Incl. Electronic Paper Revitalizing Dormant Commerce Clause Review for Interstate Coordination Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 1 , 2015, Minnesota Legal Studies Research Paper No. 15-07 Alexandra B. Klass  and Jim Rossi  University of Minnesota Law School  and Vanderbilt University - Law School 
2 Incl. Electronic Paper Expropriation and the Socio-Economic Status of Neighbourhoods in Canada: Equal Sharing of the Public Interest Burden? Oñati Socio-Legal Series, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2015, Anneke Smit  Faculty of Law, University of Windsor 
3 Incl. Electronic Paper An Environmental Understanding of the Local Land Use System Environmental Law Reporter, p. 10215, March 2015, John R. Nolon, Protecting the Environment Through Land Use Law: Standing Ground, ELI Press, 2014 John R. Nolon  Pace University School of Law 
4 Incl. Electronic Paper How to Make America Walkable 42 Real Est. L.J. 512 (Spring 2014), Touro Law Center Legal Studies Research Paper Michael Lewyn  Touro College - Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center 
5 Incl. Electronic Paper How Often Do Cities Mandate Smart Growth or Green Building? 43 Real Est. L.J. 211 (Fall 2014), Touro Law Center Legal Studies Research Paper Series Michael Lewyn  Touro College - Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center 
6 Incl. Electronic Paper Local Government Lobbying Forthcoming chapter in City Ethics' free e-book "Local Government Ethics Programs." Robert F. Wechsler  City Ethics, Inc. 
7 Incl. Electronic Paper The Conservation versus Production Trade-Off: Does Livestock Intensification Increase Deforestation? The Case of the Brazilian Amazon FEEM Working Paper No. 020.2015 Petterson Molina Vale  London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE) 
8 Incl. Electronic Paper Application of Hazard Based Model for Choice Set Formation of Housing Location Behnam Amini  Imam Khomeini International University 
9 Incl. Electronic Paper Communities’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Ecosystem Services: Evidence from Rural Communities in Nigeria IFPRI Discussion Paper 01418 Wei Zhang  , Edward Kato  , Prapti Bhandary  , Ephraim Nkonya  , Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim  , Mure U. Agbonlahor  and Ibrahim Hussain  International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)  , International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)  , International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)  , International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)  , Federal University, Dutsin - Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria  , Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture (UNAAB)  and Federal University Dutsin‐Ma 
10 Incl. Electronic Paper Chapter 1: Inclusion by Design, Thinking Beyond a Civil Rights Paradigm - Land Use Law and Disability: Planning and Zoning for Accessible Communities Robin Paul Malloy, Land Use Law and Disability: Planning and Zoning for Accessible Communities, Cambridge University Press, 2015 Robin Paul Malloy  Syracuse University College of Law 
11 Incl. Electronic Paper Land Use Law Update: New York's New Climate Change Resiliency Law 28 Municipal Lawyer 4 (Fall 2014), Touro Law Center Legal Studies Research Paper Series Sarah Adams-Schoen  Touro College - Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center 
12 Incl. Electronic Paper Bias in Environmental Agency Decision Making Environmental Law, December 2015, Forthcoming Robert R. Kuehn  Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law 
13 Incl. Electronic Paper Geographically and Temporally Weighted Likelihood Regression: Exploring the Spatiotemporal Determinants of Land Use Change Douglas H. Wrenn  and Abdoul G. Sam  Pennsylvania State University, Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education  and Ohio State University (OSU) 
14 Incl. Electronic Paper Status and Trends in Forests and Forestry Development in Nepal: Major Success and Constraints International Journal of Sciences 2014 (05) Digambar S. Dahal  Sr. Beijing Forestry University, Students 
Date posted: 
15 Incl. Electronic Paper The Social-Ecological Resilience of an Eastern Urban-Suburban Watershed: The Anacostia River Basin Craig Anthony (Tony) Arnold  , Olivia Odom Green  , Daniel DeCaro  , Alexandra Chase  and Jennifer-Grace Ewa  University of Louisville - Brandeis School of Law  , US Environmental Protection Agency - Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory  , University of Louisville  , University of Louisville  and University of Denver 
16 Incl. Electronic Paper Time is Money: An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Regulatory Delay on Residential Subdivision Development Douglas H. Wrenn  and Elena G. Irwin  Pennsylvania State University, Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education  and Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Agricultural, Environmental & Development Economics 
17 Incl. Electronic Paper Zoning and Land Use Planning: How Real Is Gentrification? 43 Real Est. L.J. 344 (Winter 2014), Touro Law Center Legal Studies Research Paper Series Michael Lewyn  Touro College - Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center 
18 Incl. Electronic Paper Confronting Price Endogeneity in a Duration Model of Residential Subdivision Development Douglas H. Wrenn  , H. Allen Klaiber  and  David A. Newburn  Pennsylvania State University, Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education  , Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Agricultural, Environmental & Development Economics  and Texas A&M University (TAMU) - Department of Agricultural Economics 
19 Incl. Electronic Paper The Policy Implementation of Modern Market Land-Use Control in Municipality of Cirebon Bisnis & Birokrasi, Volume 20, Number 3, September 2013 Nina Asterina  and Teguh Kurniawan  House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia  and University of Indonesia (UI) 
20   A Property & Economic Approach to Street Gangs Lua K. Yuille  University of Kansas School of Law 
21   Atmospheric Pollution in Rapidly Growing Urban Centers: Spatial Policies and Land Use Patterns Efthymia Kyriakopoulou  and Anastasios Xepapadeas  University of Gothenburg  and Athens University of Economics and Business
22   L'aménagement du territoire (Town and Country Planning) Paris, Les Editions d'Organisation, Collection "Décryptons", 96 p. ISBN 2-7081-17858-0, Gérard-François Dumont  University of Paris 4 Sorbonne 
23   Right Way Wrong Way: The Fading Legal Justification for Telecommunications Infrastructure Rights of Way Benjamin W. Cramer  Pennsylvania State University 
24 Incl. Fee Electronic Paper Why are Urban Travel Times so Stable? Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 55, Issue 2, pp. 230-261, 2015 Alex Anas  SUNY at Buffalo, College of Arts & Sciences, Department of Economics 

 

March 31, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, March 27, 2015

What to make of the fierce new debate over the efficacy of California's energy codes?

I recently listened to the Freaknomics podcast, How Efficient is Energy Efficiency?.  Despite feeling relatively up-to-date on energy codes research, I was surprised to hear in that podcast about a recent paper by Arik Levinson  (Georgetown - Economics) that had previously escaped me.  Listen to the podcast here:

 

 Here is the podcast abstract: 

Arik Levinson is an environmental economist at Georgetown who spent some time as a senior economist for environmental issues with the Council of Economic Advisors (C.E.A.) under President Obama.

“One of my jobs,” he says, “was helping the White House evaluate the environmental policies coming out of the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. And I quickly realized that most of the policies that I was seeing involved energy efficiency.”

So Levinson wanted to know: how efficient is all this energy efficiency? That’s the topic of our latest podcast. . . .

We discuss Levinson’s new working paper “How Much Energy Do Building Energy Codes Really Save? Evidence From California” (and a related Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization paper, called “California Energy Efficiency: Lessons for the Rest of the World, or Not?).

The evidence from California may surprise you: “There is no evidence,” Levinson writes, “that homes constructed since California instituted its building energy codes use less electricity today than homes built before the codes came into effect.”

That was a show-stopper for me:  anyone who has done even the most basic work on energy efficiency knows that Calfifornia's energy codes of the Seventies are routinely held up as a model for emulation.  But here is the abstract for Levinson's paper, California energy efficiency: Lessons for the rest of the world, or not?:  

Since the 1970s California’s residential electricity consumption per capita has stopped increasing while other states’ electricity use continued to grow steadily. What accounts for California’s apparent savings? Some credit the strict energy efficiency standards for buildings and appliances enacted by California in the mid-1970s. They argue that the growing gap between California and other states demonstrates that other states and countries could replicate California’s gains by adopting California-style regulations, and that California should build on its own success by tightening its standards further. Skeptics might point to three long-run trends that differentiate California’s electricity demand from other states: (1) shifting of the U.S. population toward warmer climates of the South and West; (2) relatively small income elasticity of energy demand in California’s temperate climate; and (3) evolving differences between the demographics of households in California and other states. Today, differences in climate and demographics account for almost 90 percent of the difference between California’s and other states’ residential electricity use. That difference thus provides no lessons for other states or countries considering adopting or tightening their own energy efficiency standards.

What is to be made of this?  What are its implications of this for those of us interested in the legal aspects of energy efficiency?  

I have found responses to Levinson's study by several groups, including NRDCEnergy Innovation, and ACEEE.  In a broad Westlaw search of all legal secondary sources, however, I turned up no hits, which makes me believe that either the legal academy has yet to address the debate or, alternatively, the slow pace of legal publishing means that responses are still in the publication process.  Does anyone out there have a link to other good responses to the Levinson paper?  Are there any good analyses of the legal issues this might implicate if Levinson is right and, alas, if he is wrong?  

Stephen R. Miller

 

 

March 27, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

The W&L Top 100 Law Review Rankings and the Land Use Law Scholar

I have had reason this spring to revisit--more often than I'd like--the relative rankings of law reviews.  It seems these days that many people rely upon the Washington & Lee Law Review Rankings as an indicator of what constitutes a "good" journal placement.  

In reviewing the W&L Top 100 journals, however, I have noticed that the presence of secondary journals in that top ranking seems to inure to benefit of those writing in tech law, international law, business law, and law and policy, as those are the subject areas of the secondary journals that proliferate in the W&L Top 100.  By my count, in the 2013 W&L 100--the latest data available--31 law reviews (those with an asterisk in the first column below) are aimed at topics unlikely to accept land use law-related articles.  That means that, for land use law scholars, the W&L Top 100 is really the W&L Top 69 (those journals without an asterisk).  I also did the same analysis on the 2003 W&L Top 100; at that time, 24 journals were non-land use law journals (see below).  This seems to indicate that the prevalence of secondary journals in the Top 100 has been common for some time; I have not, however, crunched the data on all ten years of rankings available at the W&L site.

Of course, there are plenty of places where land use law scholars can place their articles and, in the era of digital reproduction, placement seems to matter less and less.  I am curious, though, what others make of this, if anything.  Just as this affects land use law scholars, it would seemingly affect other scholars, such as criminal law scholars, that would not have the opportunity to place in many of the W&L Top 100 law reviews.

2013 W&L Top 100 (31 non-land use journals marked with asterisks (**) in the first column)

  Rank   Journal
  1   Stanford Law Review
  2   Harvard Law Review
  3   Columbia Law Review
  4 The Yale Law Journal
  5   University of Pennsylvania Law Review
  6 The Georgetown Law Journal
  7   UCLA Law Review
  8   Michigan Law Review
  9   California Law Review
  10   Virginia Law Review
  11   Minnesota Law Review
  12   Texas Law Review
  13   New York University Law Review
  14   Fordham Law Review
  15   Cornell Law Review
  16   Notre Dame Law Review
  17   Northwestern University Law Review
  18   Iowa Law Review
  19   Duke Law Journal
  20   Vanderbilt Law Review
  21   William and Mary Law Review
  22   Boston University Law Review
  23 The University of Chicago Law Review
  24   University of Illinois Law Review
  25   Boston College Law Review
  26   Cardozo Law Review
  27   North Carolina Law Review
  28   U.C. Davis Law Review
  29   Indiana Law Journal
  30   Southern California Law Review
  31 The George Washington Law Review
  32   Hastings Law Journal
  33   Emory Law Journal
** 34   Harvard Journal of Law & Technology
  35   Florida Law Review
  36   Connecticut Law Review
  37   Wisconsin Law Review
  38   Washington University Law Review
  39   Supreme Court Review
** 40   Harvard International Law Journal
** 41   Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review
  42   Wake Forest Law Review
  43   American University Law Review
  44   Washington Law Review
** 45   Harvard Journal on Legislation
  46   Arizona Law Review
  47   Ohio State Law Journal
  48   Lewis & Clark Law Review
** 49   Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy
  50   Washington and Lee Law Review
** 51   Virginia Journal of International Law
  52 The Harvard Environmental Law Review
** 53   University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law
** 54   Yale Journal on Regulation
  55   Alabama Law Review
** 55   Harvard Business Law Review
  57   University of Cincinnati Law Review
  58   University of Colorado Law Review
  59   Michigan Journal of Environmental and Administrative Law
** 60 The American Journal of Comparative Law
  60   George Mason Law Review
  62   Tulane Law Review
** 63   Berkeley Technology Law Journal
** 63 The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology
  65   DePaul Law Review
** 66 The Journal of Corporation Law
** 67   Journal of Legal Analysis
  67   Michigan State Law Review
** 69   American Journal of International Law
  70   Houston Law Review
  71   Florida State University Law Review
** 72   Yale Journal of Law & Technology
** 73   Harvard Law & Policy Review
  74   Georgia Law Review
** 75 The Yale Journal of International Law
** 76   Harvard Journal of Law & Gender
  77   Hofstra Law Review
  78   American Business Law Journal
  79   Buffalo Law Review
** 80   Chicago Journal of International Law
** 80 The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics
  82   Akron Law Review
  82   Pepperdine Law Review
  84   Maryland Law Review
  85   Fordham Urban Law Journal
** 86   William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal
  87   Brigham Young University Law Review
** 87   Constitutional Commentary
  89   Brooklyn Law Review
** 89   Yale Law & Policy Review
** 91   Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy
** 92   Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law
** 93 The Journal of Legal Studies
** 93   University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform
  95   Utah Law Review
  96   Missouri Law Review
** 97   Administrative Law Review
  98   University of Chicago Legal Forum
** 99   Michigan Journal of International Law
  100   Tennessee Law Review

2003 W&L Top 100 (24 non-land use journals marked with asterisks (**) in the first column)

  Rank   Journal
  1   Harvard Law Review
  2 The Yale Law Journal
  3   Columbia Law Review
  4   Stanford Law Review
** 5   DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal
  6 The Georgetown Law Journal
  7   California Law Review
  8   New York University Law Review
  9   Cornell Law Review
  10   Virginia Law Review
  11   Michigan Law Review
  12   UCLA Law Review
  13   Supreme Court Review
  14   University of Pennsylvania Law Review
  15 The University of Chicago Law Review
  16   Texas Law Review
  17   Minnesota Law Review
  18   Fordham Law Review
  19   Northwestern University Law Review
  20   Vanderbilt Law Review
  21   Duke Law Journal
  22   North Carolina Law Review
  23   Southern California Law Review
  24   William and Mary Law Review
  25   Notre Dame Law Review
  26   Indiana Law Journal
  26   Iowa Law Review
  28   Arizona Law Review
** 29   Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review
  29   Ohio State Law Journal
** 31 The Journal of Legal Studies
  32   Emory Law Journal
  33   University of Colorado Law Review
  34   University of Illinois Law Review
  35   Wisconsin Law Review
  36   Connecticut Law Review
** 37   American Journal of International Law
  38   American University Law Review
  39   Boston University Law Review
  40   Wake Forest Law Review
  41   U.C. Davis Law Review
** 42 The Business Lawyer
** 43   Harvard International Law Journal
  44   Hastings Law Journal
  45   Washington University Law Review
  46   Cardozo Law Review
  47   Tulane Law Review
** 48   American Criminal Law Review
  49   Houston Law Review
** 50   Berkeley Technology Law Journal
  51   Villanova Law Review
  52 The George Washington Law Review
  52   Oregon Law Review
  54   Buffalo Law Review
  55   Albany Law Review
** 55   Virginia Journal of International Law
  57   Georgia Law Review
  58   University of Pittsburgh Law Review
  59   Chicago-Kent Law Review
  59 The Harvard Environmental Law Review
  61   Washington and Lee Law Review
  62   Maryland Law Review
** 63   Harvard Journal of Law & Technology
** 64   Harvard Journal on Legislation
  65   Washington Law Review
  66   DePaul Law Review
  67   Florida State University Law Review
  68   Columbia Human Rights Law Review
  69   Boston College Law Review
  70   University of Cincinnati Law Review
** 71   American Journal of Law & Medicine
  72   Arizona State Law Journal
** 72   University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law
  74   Case Western Reserve Law Review
** 75   Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law
  76   SMU Law Review
  77   Brooklyn Law Review
  77   University of Miami Law Review
** 79   Michigan Journal of International Law
** 80 The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology
  80   Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review
** 80   Minnesota Journal of International Law
  83   Hofstra Law Review
  84   Brigham Young University Law Review
  85   University of Chicago Legal Forum
** 86   Yale Journal on Regulation
** 87 The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics
** 88   Yale Law & Policy Review
  89   Rutgers Law Review
  90   South Carolina Law Review
  90   William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal
  92   San Diego Law Review
** 93   Columbia Journal of Transnational Law
  93   Fordham Urban Law Journal
** 95 The American Journal of Comparative Law
** 96   Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy
  97   University of Richmond Law Review
** 98   Cornell International Law Journal
  98   Tennessee Law Review
  100   South Texas Law Review

 

March 24, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

CFP: 2015 Future of Places Conference (lead-in to Habitat III) in Stockholm: Deadline of April 15

Call for papers

Following the 2014 Future of Places conference in Buenos Aires, we are pleased to announce the next conference in the series.

The 2015 Future of Places conference will serve as a lead-in to Habitat III and its theme “Toward a New Urban Agenda.”  Conference-goers will have an opportunity to shape that agenda by helping to define the critical issues for action,particularly around the agenda of public space, place and placemaking. The Future of Places conference recognises the central importance of public spaces, not only as amenities, but as dynamic environments that are shaped by the people themselves – not abstract space but human places, shaped actively by “placemaking.”  These public places, along with their adjacent private and semi-private places, form a critical connective network within the city — profoundly influencing, and potentially limiting, social, economic and personal development.

ACADEMIC SESSION THEME

In line with the public space agenda for Habitat III, the theme of the academic session is “Growing Public Spaces: Shaping the Agenda for Science, Policy, Practice, and Civil Society.”  We recognise that it is not only the quantity of public space as an amenity that must be increased, but the quality of human places and placemaking that must be supported and enhanced, by governments, researchers, practitioners and NGOs – and ultimately, by the people themselves.

We invite your submission of a paper abstract of no more than 300 words for initial consideration.  If invited, you will be asked to complete a paper of between 3,000 and 6,000 words for the conference proceedings, accompanied by an oral presentation (with slides if desired) of 15 minutes.

It is recommended (but not required) that submissions be focused on one of the four following areas:

SCIENCE: Advancing New Theoretical Insights and Opportunities for Growing Public Space.

POLICY: Removing Barriers and Inserting Reforms to Promote a Stronger Public Realm.

PRACTICE: Advancing New Tools and Models for Public Space and Placemaking.

CIVIL SOCIETY: Organising Groups and Strategies to Achieve the Needed Changes.

 

We invite you to consider the following sub-themes, among others:

– Places and placemaking – Urban spatial networks and networks of place – Economic spillovers and social dynamics – Innovation districts and placemaking – Ingredients of successful urban places – Urban capacity and capability – Diversity and equity – Multi-modal mobility – Street design for health – Emerging tools and toolkits – Implementation strategies for short-term impacts – Priorities for research, education, policy and practice – Streets as drivers of urban prosperity – Placemaking in small towns and rural settings

 

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS

Invited speakers include:

Harrison Fraker Jan Gehl Bruce Katz Phil Hadfield Arif Hassan Bruce Katz Jennifer Keesmaat Eva de Klerk Julian Agyeman Vikas Mehta Fran Tonkiss Saskia Sassen Richard Sennett

And others to be announced

VENUE

Elite Hotel Marina Tower Saltsjöqvarns Kaj 25 131 71 Nacka Stockholm CALL FOR PAPERS

Abstracts will be reviewed by a qualified panel of referees, and selected abstracts will be invited to submit full papers. Abstracts should be no more than 300 words, on one page, including author(s)’ name and contact information at the top of the page. Email submissions to the address below by the dates specified.

ACADEMIC COMMITTEE

Michael Mehaffy, Sustasis Foundation, Portland, Chair, Academic Committee

Tigran Haas, Ph.D., Royal Institute of Technology, SE Fred Kent, President Project for Public Spaces, US Helene Littke, Visiting Scholar, City University Graduate Center, US Ali Madanipour, Ph.D., Newcastle University, UK Stephen Marshall, Ph.D., University College London, UK Paul Murrain, Principal Murrain Urban Design, London, UK Ernesto Philibert-Petit, Ph.D., Tecnologico de Monterrey, MX Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Dean Emeritus University of Miami, FL, US Sergio Porta, Ph.D., University of Strathclyde, UK Yodan Rofe, Ph.D., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, IL Ombretta Romice, Ph.D., University of Strathclyde, UK Nikos Salingaros, Ph.D., University of Texas, US Wolfgang Sonne, Ph.D., Technical University of Dortmund, DE Emily Talen, Ph.D., Arizona State University, US

 

KEY DATES

Call for Papers – Abstracts Due …………. 15 April2015 (extended deadline)

Notification of Selected Abstracts ………  25 April 2015 Invited Papers Due…………………………….. 1 May 2015 Notification of Selection, Revisions…….. 1 June 2015 Final Revised Papers Due…………………… 15 June 2015

Early Registration is open ………………….. 3 Feb 2015 (Use application form on website) Early Registration Ends …………………….. 1 May 2015 Conference date……………………………….. 29 June – 1 July 2015

CONFERENCE FEES AND PAYMENT

The conference is free for invited attendees (including those with accepted papers) and includes all meals.  You may apply to attend the conference without a paper by applying at the following website: http://futureofplaces.com/application-2015/

PUBLICATIONS

Abstracts will be reviewed by a qualified panel of referees. Selected papers will be invited to participate in a second round of peer review toward publication in a conference proceeding volume or partner journal to be announced, in the field of urban design and development.

CONTACT INFORMATION

Future of Places

Project leader Peter Elmlund <peter@futureofplaces.com> Send your abstract (or paper, if completed) to: academic@futureofplaces.com

This article is posted under Conference info

March 24, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, March 23, 2015

Water Down Under: A Report from Australia by Barbara Cosens: Post 7: Conjunctive Management Down Under

[The Water Down Under series of posts is by Barbara Cosens, who is in Australia this semester working on water law issues there.  See more about this series, and previous posts hereherehereherehere, and here.]

In both the United States and Australia, the intersection of the development of drilling technology, the conversion of a pump used in the oil field for use in water wells, and the post-World War II availability of rural electricity, led to rapid development of groundwater for irrigation beginning in the 1950’s.  The ability to tap into a steady supply, not (at least in the short term) subject to the seasonal and year-to-year fickle nature of surface water was an arid lands farmer’s dream come true. 

Scientists knew even then of the connection between surface and groundwater, but pre-World War II levels of development did not warrant recognition of that connection in the law.  Unfortunately, the rapid post-war development outpaced the response of our legal systems and today both countries are seeking to manage the impact of groundwater development on surface water use for both economic and environmental purposes. The treatment of ground and surface water as one resource is referred to as conjunctive management and even in those parts of the United States where it has been around on paper for a bit, it can be considered in its infancy in terms of sophistication. 

Although Australia and the United States began with English common law, they have diverged in their subsequent development of the law and thus, in how they are addressing the surface-ground water connection.  The English common law takes the view that a landowner may access and exploit the water beneath their land, even when pumping draws water from beneath neighboring land.  To understand how the United States and Australia have diverged from this approach, it is useful to look at specific applications in New South Wales and in Idaho. 

Australia’s National Water Initiative of 2004 was an agreement among the State, Territorial, and Commonwealth governments to address some of Australia’s pressing water problems.  Among those problems was the massive increase in groundwater use, particularly in response to the millennium drought which spanned the period of 1995-2011.  During this period, farmer’s switched to groundwater, a response to drought similar to that of California’s Central Valley farmers in recent years.  Among the solutions the States and Territories agreed to was a process of defining water access entitlements to eliminate the double counting of available water from a connected source as if surface and ground water were separate pools of water. 

Under the Act, the Commonwealth entered a funding agreement with New South Wales in which the State would impose reductions on groundwater licenses during the process of converting old bore licenses to aquifer access licenses to achieve the goals of water planning.  Massive collaborative planning efforts were undertaken to determine water supplies and relative allocations between consumptive and environmental uses.  Despite reductions of up to 70%, constitutional challenges by water users failed on the basis that water use has always been subject to government authority to regulate, thus nothing was taken from the water user that the government did not already possess. 

The western United States chose a different path and the experience in Idaho serves as a useful example.  Idaho adopted the doctrine of prior appropriation for both surface and ground water and as the late comer on the block, groundwater use is generally junior.  With massive increases in the development of groundwater in Idaho’s Eastern Snake Plain (now the third most productive irrigated agriculture region in the United States), the cumulative effect of pumping began to be apparent to surface water users as early as 1990. Two decades of litigation would be required to sort it out.  Although some efforts at a state funded, planning style approach to augment supplies (rather than reduce use as in Australia), were attempted, in the end Idaho concluded that this was better addressed as a matter of private property.  The state courts narrowed the issues by allowing adjustment of legal principles developed for surface water to account for the differences in the groundwater resources.  Cumulative, not just seasonal, impact would be the basis for identifying harm.  Models, rather than direct evidence, could be used to identify the existence of and estimate the magnitude of a well-to-surface diversion connection.  Given the absence of a 1-1 correlation between groundwater pumped and down gradient surface water impact, well owners could avoid curtailment by providing make up water through a mitigation plan. 

It is far too soon to say whether the planning approach of Australia or private approach of Idaho will have the best results.  The planning approach may miss some of the subtle local differences and thus either over or under curtail water use.  The private approach may ignore long term impacts creating problems down the road.  If I were a betting woman, I would say the two locations are likely to use various settlement and market tools to address the inadequacies of both extremes and will converge on a workable system that lies somewhere in between.  Let’s hope they do it in time.

March 23, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, March 20, 2015

Interior unveils final rule governing fracking regulations on public lands

NYT has the story here.  Interior press release here.  Final rule here.  From the Interior press release:

Key components of the rule, which will take effect in 90 days include:  

  • Provisions for ensuring the protection of groundwater supplies by requiring a validation of well integrity and strong cement barriers between the wellbore and water zones through which the wellbore passes;
  • Increased transparency by requiring companies to publicly disclose chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing to the Bureau of Land Management through the website FracFocus, within 30 days of completing fracturing operations;
  • Higher standards for interim storage of recovered waste fluids from hydraulic fracturing to mitigate risks to air, water and wildlife;
  • Measures to lower the risk of cross-well contamination with chemicals and fluids used in the fracturing operation, by requiring companies to submit more detailed information on the geology, depth, and location of preexisting wells to afford the BLM an opportunity to better evaluate and manage unique site characteristics.

March 20, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Updates from Pace Land Use Law Center

New updates from the Pace Land Use Law Center...  

(I'm always happy to post updates from any land use centers, clinics, etc.  I try to re-post major updates when I see them, but I'm sure I miss many, as well.) 

 
 

Planning and Zoning for Solar Energy

 

The Land Use Law Center joins the NY-Sun PV Trainers Network, which is part of the NY-Sun Initiative, a statewide initiative that aims to increase the number of solar electric (also referred to as photovoltaic, or PV) systems across New York State by stimulating the marketplace, so that costs associated with installing solar electric systems for residents and businesses are reduced. As a network partner, the Center is creating resources and workshops to present strategies and best practices for developing a clear, comprehensive, and enforceable solar regulatory framework.

 

 

Promoting the Use of Green Infrastructure
 

On behalf of the City of Newburgh Conservation Advisory Council (CAC), the Center completed a Green Infrastructure Guide.  The Guide directs CAC decision-making, recommending the use of natural processes to address stormwater and air quality impacts that result from development.  The Guide is available by clicking here.
 

Building Community through Effective
Public Engagement
 


 

The Center partnered with the Town of New Castle to lead a public engagement process that identified residents' planning goals, objectives, and vision.  The resulting New Castle Master Planning Public Engagement Report, will inform the Town's new master plan, which the Center will continue to help develop.
 

Protecting the Environment Through Land Use Law

 
A new book by Prof. John R. Nolon, "Protecting the Environment Through Land Use Law: Standing Ground", takes a close look at the historic struggle that local governments face balancing land development with natural resource conservation.  For more details and ordering information click here.
 
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March 20, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, March 17, 2015

March Madness - Parking Edition

Streetblog is doing a funny spoof of March Madness asking readers to compare the relative "parking madness" of cities across the country.  Today's match pits Tampa versus Waterville; weigh in here.

parking_madness_2015

 

March 17, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Art in Rural Storefronts Project in Corvallis, OR a potential model for other rural communities

 

Another great project I learned about at the Stanford Bill Lane Center's Rural West Conference was the Art in Rural Storefronts Project, which was launched by the Arts Center in Corvallis, Oregon.  Here is how the Center described the Project:

Two locations in Sweet Home and one in Philomath will host contemporary art installations.

This exciting new exhibition opportunity arose this year via the Regional Development Initiative and SweetHome Economic Development. Part of The Arts Center’s mission is to serve Linn and Benton Counties by providing innovative, thought provoking art to the public. The goal for this project is to bring art to communities that currently do not have space for contemporary/non-commercial art, and at the same time attract renewed attention to the properties involved.

Three artists were selected to create installations in empty storefronts. The proposed artwork was required to be relevant to rural communities in Linn and Benton Counties. Once selected the artists refined their designs to the surroundings and history of Sweet Home and Philomath, as well as making them fit in the specific locations to which they were assigned. Andrew Myers and Gale Everett were selected for Sweet Home. Avantika Bawa’s project will be in Philomath at the old liquor store).

Above is an embedded radio show that discusses the project (minutes 22:00 through 28:00).  Some images of the projects below:

AndrewMyers1

 

AndrewMyers2

 

A really interesting project that, it seems, could be emulated in a lot of rural areas without high costs and potentially high community benefit.

Stephen R. Miller

 

March 12, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Two job openings at San Francisco Planning Department

For the planners out there, several great and rare opportunities...

The San Francisco Planning Department is pleased to announce exciting employment opportunities for the positions of Planner II and Planner III for the City and County of San Francisco. This is an opportunity to work in a dynamic, inter-disciplinary, and innovative department and share in our vision to make San Francisco the world’s most livable urban place – environmentally, economically, socially and culturally.  We work in a collaborative, team-oriented environment with opportunities to work on a wide variety of projects and topic areas, both individually and on project teams.  In performing our planning work, we work closely with staff of other City and regional agencies, the development community, and the general public.  Community outreach and engagement is a big part of our work, and we hold frequent public forums to present and get input on our work.

The links to the job announcements and application process are listed below.  The filing deadline for both positions is March 17, 2015. 

5278 Planner II:  http://www.jobaps.com/SF/sup/bulpreview.asp?R1=TEX&R2=5278&R3=064583

5291 Planner III:  http://www.jobaps.com/SF/sup/bulpreview.asp?R1=TEX&R2=5291&R3=064876

March 11, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Water Down Under: A Report from Australia by Barbara Cosens: Post 6: The Goyder Line

[The Water Down Under series of posts is by Barbara Cosens, who is in Australia this semester working on water law issues there.  See more about this series, and previous posts hereherehere, here, and here.]

This weekend we drove for the first time across the “Goyder Line” into Australia’s famous outback. George Goyder was the Surveyor-General of South Australia from 1861-1893. In 1864, Goyder drew the line that bears his name to mark the northern extent of potential for development of agriculture in Southern Australia.   

 

Goyder Line 


Like the 100th Meridian in the United States which marks the line dividing the eastern United States, in which agriculture is possible without irrigation, from the western United States where irrigation is necessary (until the coast or isolated pockets like Idaho and Washington’s Palouse). 

100th Meridian 

The Goyder Line is also defined by climate – south of it the precipitation can support agriculture, north of the Line it cannot.  In contrast to the north-south 100th Meridian, the Goyder Line is east-west highlighting the influence of the Southern Ocean as opposed to the Atlantic and Pacific.  Also in contrast to the 100th Meridian, the Goyder Line is absolute, marking the area of agriculture and no agriculture. 

As you drive north from Adelaide you leave the now famous wine regions and areas of fruit, nuts and vegetables and enter the northern wheat fields.  Then all of a sudden, it ends.  Scrub hills and red gum, dry drainages and large sheep stations run by pastoralists (what we would refer to as ranchers).  The land is used for grazing.  Red banded mountains like the Flinders Range rise from the valleys.  Kangaroos and emus bed down under the gum trees to escape midday heat.  The simple difference from the western United States is that there is no water source adequate for large scale irrigation in Australia’s outback.  No Missouri, Colorado, Snake, or San Joaquin.  Attempts to defy the Goyder Line, including the planting of wheat in Wilpena Pound in the Flinders Range during a series of wet years in the 1800’s, failed when drought returned. 

Pastoralists in this part of the outback rely on the massive aquifers of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) to water stock.  Like the Olgallala aquifer, the GAB receives limited recharge.  Unlike the Olgallala, the GAB quality is marginal even for stock and is not suitable to grow crops. 

“Artesian” in the GAB name means the aquifer is under pressure and a well into it will flow at the surface – similar to early wells in Pullman WA into the Grand Rhonde aquifer.  Pastoralists used this feature, drilling approximately 4000 wells in the late 1800’s to early 1900’s, and leaving them to flow.  This made possible the raising and driving of livestock to market.  The cumulative flow of these bores has begun to impact the GAB and the famous mound springs and waterholes it supports with their rare and fragile ecosystems.  In recent years the Commonwealth, in partnership with the States and Territory overlying the GAB, has implemented a bore rehabilitation program to cap and control the flow. Pastoralists now use stock tanks and run wells only when needed.  The more difficult bores or those that support ecosystems thought important remain.  Some recovery of GAB pressure has been measured.  Life of the rehabilitation is estimated at 30-50 years and no program is yet in place for cap maintenance. 

The outback of Australia is as much a lifestyle as it is an ecosystem.  Many of the stations now supplement income with tourism, like Rawnsley Station where we stayed.  Like our western ranch towns, the population is aging with the young headed to the coastal cities.  Whether the capping programs will render the water supply for this lifestyle sustainable, whether enough children will stay to find out, remains to be seen.  Crossing the Goyder Line back into wheat fields and then grapevines, it seems an iconic part of Australia would be lost if they fail.  

 

March 11, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Uber Goes to the State House Seeking Preemption of Local Government Control

It appears the next step in the sharing economy wars is upon us.  When the sharing economy company is stymied by local government regulation, it appears that sharing economy companies are increasingly willing to go for the nuclear option:  a state statute preempting local control of sharing economy uses.  

Such a bill was just introduced before the Idaho Legislature a couple weeks ago.  The bill was largely written by Uber, which has had an acrimonious negotiation with Boise City because the city wants the company to do very basic things, such as run background checks on drivers.  Uber has decided, apparently, that it can't be bothered to follow even the most cursory of regulations (Boise is requesting far less than major cities have of Uber).  As a result, Uber has decided to do an end-run around the city and try its hand at the state level.  More about the back story here and here.

The proposed Idaho legislation is here.  A cursory review of the Internet found legislation for "transportation network companies" filed in Florida on the same day as in Idaho (February 26).  Washington also appears to be considering such legislation, and other states have previously considered TNC legislation.  However, the Idaho legislation appears unique, thus far, in preempting local control completely.  The Idaho legislation would provide:

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, TNCs and TNC drivers are governed exclusively by this chapter. No municipality or other local entity may impose a tax on, or require a license for, a TNC, a TNC driver, or a vehicle used by a TNC driver where such tax or licenses relates to providing TNC services, or subject a TNC to the municipality or other local entity's rate, entry, operational or other requirements.

Do any other states have such legislation?  Perhaps an uber-end-run around local governments is coming to a state house near you!

Stephen R. Miller

 

March 10, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (1)

How to Read the American West

I spent much of last week at Stanford's Bill Lane Center Rural West Conference, which was held this year in Troutdale, Oregon just outside of Portland.  The excellent interdisciplinary conference introduced me to some wonderful scholars and works that I plan to share over the coming weeks.  

The first of these is Bill Wyckoff's (Montana State - Geography) wonderful new book, How To Read the American West.  Below is a YouTube video in which Bill gives a description of the project, which is organized around 100 western cultural and geographic features.  In the video, you can see some of Bill's pictures taken from several years of traveling through every county in the western United States.  It seems destined to be a classic work on the American west of the early twenty-first century.

 

March 10, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, March 2, 2015

Water Down Under: A Report from Australia by Barbara Cosens: Post 5: Indigenous Rights to Water and Capacity Building

[The Water Down Under series of posts is by Barbara Cosens, who is in Australia this semester working on water law issues there.  See more about this series, and previous posts herehere, here, and here.]

The colonial and frontier history of both the United States and Australia had devastating impacts on Indigenous populations.  Similar to other areas of law, both countries began with a basis in the laws and approach to colonization of England, but they diverged in their definition of the rights of the Indigenous people inhabiting the land they came to colonize. 

While the United States “negotiated” treaties with Tribes, Australia adopted the concept of terra nullius – the land belonged to no one.  It was not until the High Court of Australia in Mabo v. Queensland, rejected the concept in 1992 (yes, 1992 not 1892) and the Commonwealth passed the Native Title Act in 1993, that Indigenous people could begin to assert the right to land and water in Australia. 

In rejecting the application of terra nullius to Australia in Mabo, High Court Justice Brennan stated: 

[a]ccording to the cases, the common law itself took from indigenous inhabitants any right to occupy their traditional land, exposed them to deprivation of the religious, cultural and economic sustenance which the land provides, vested the land effectively in the control of the Imperial authorities without any right to compensation and made the indigenous inhabitants intruders in their own homes and mendicants for a place to live. Judged by any civilized standard, such a law is unjust and its claim to be part of the common law to be applied in contemporary Australia must be questioned. 

Mabo was a watershed moment in the rights of Aboriginal Australians, yet it was also a ruling with limitations. The High Court in Mabo recognized no sovereign role for Aboriginal people.  Instead, it considered the rejection of terra nullius to lead to recognition of traditional ownership of land and water, not to recognition of sovereign control over that territory.  The Native Title Act allows exercise of certain hunting, fishing and cultural rights free from State regulation, but to date this has been a fairly limited area of sovereign authority. 

In contrast, the United States began by negotiating treaties with Tribes that at least legally reflected the same process it would use with foreign nations (i.e. Advice and Consent of the Senate) it quickly eliminated that approach and at the same time the U.S. Supreme Court articulated the concept that Tribes were “quasi-sovereigns” subject to the plenary power of Congress.  In recent decades the U.S. Supreme Court has taken an increasingly narrow view of Tribal sovereignty.  Nevertheless, the recognition of even limited sovereignty stands in stark contrast to Australia. 

This difference struck a chord with me as the result of my experience in both observing and participating in the review of the Columbia River Treaty.  The Tribal voice as sovereigns at the table and their expertise and credibility as co-managers of the U.S. Columbia River salmon fisheries altered the shape and substance of the U.S. regional review process.  Their participation was instrumental in the regional decision to recommend elevation of ecosystem function to a third prong of the treaty, along with hydropower and flood control.  This broadening of management values away from optimization for limited engineered services, if followed, would enhance basin resilience in the face of growing population and climate change for all basin residents. 

Tracing the rising voice of the four U.S. Columbia Basin Tribes that now form the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), a three stage process emerges: (1) original articulation of the right in the 1855 treaties guaranteeingthe right of taking fish at all usual and accustomed places in common with citizens of the Territory; (2) definition of the right in the 1974 Boldt decision as up to 50% of the harvestable fish passing a U&A (as a usual and accustomed place is referred to); and (3) capacity building to assert that right.  It is this final step, capacity building, in which the Tribes have built the sophisticated fisheries science and policy management agency we see today in CRITFC.  Only through development of capacity have the Tribes been able to assert their own vision, incorporate their own traditional knowledge, and bring to the table a sophisticated view of modern tribal needs that are not arrested in a historical romanticized view of Native peoples.  Truly this is what the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples means by self-determination. 

My own view was that the two stages of articulation and definition of the right were necessary precursors to capacity building.  Not so.  I have learned of an innovative approach by the Ngarrindjeri Nation in South Australia that approaches capacity building from the opposite direction and holds substantial promise for broadening the vision of land and water management in areas with claims to Native Title. 

Without treaties or the recognition of even limited sovereignty, and with claims to Native Title pending, the Ngarrindjeri Nation has begun the process of entering private contracts with local government to secure their voice in management of the land and water at the Murray Mouth – the biologically rich estuary and wetlands near the mouth of the Murray-Darling River (see photo below).  The Ngarrindjeri Nation has reached out to federal, state and local government to both seek funding for capacity building and to participate in resource decisions.  The partnerships they are developing not only resemble what we see with CRITFC, but may go a long way to easing tension over claims to Native Title in areas shared by non-Native people. 

                 

I learned of the work of the Ngarrindjeri Nation from two amazing scholars and activists at the Yunggorendi First Nations Centre at Flinders University – Daryl Rigney and Steve Hemming.  In what might be referred to as participatory action research, they have both worked with the Ngarrindgeri Nation to develop this approach and studied the results, an approach that not only speaks to the effectiveness of the Yunggorendi Centre, but increases the potential for transfer of this approach to other settings.  It has convinced me that while rights, or at least the threat of their establishment, are an important step in the process, it is the building of capacity for First Nations to speak for themselves that is the key component to their success.

March 2, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, March 1, 2015

Land Use Law-Related Articles Posted on SSRN in February

Here are all the articles posted on SSRN  in February that self-identified as being land use law-related (search term "land use," time period "one month").

1

 

State Initiatives 
Global Climate Change and U.S. Law, Ch. 10, p. 303, 2014, Widener Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 15-05
David Hodas 
Widener University - School of Law 

2

 

Regulating the Underground: Secret Supper Clubs, Pop-Up Restaurants, and the Role of Law 
University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 82, No. Dialogue, 2015
Sarah Schindler 
University of Maine - School of Law 

3

 

Land Use Exactions, Anti-Evasion, and Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District 
Michael B. Kent Jr. 
Campbell University - Norman Adrian Wiggins School of Law 

4

 

Legislative Exactions after Koontz v. St. Johns River Management District 
Luke Anthony Wake and Jarod M. Bona 
National Federation of Independent Business and Bona Law PC 

5

 

What Will China Do When Land Use Rights Begin to Expire? The Evolution Toward Rule of Law in Real Estate 
Gregory M. Stein 
University of Tennessee College of Law 

6

 

Facing Down the So-Called Agenda 21 ‘Conspiracy’ Lessons for Planners 
Planning Magazine, February 2015, Widener Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 14-26
John C. Dernbach 
Widener University - School of Law 

7

 

First Principles for Regulating the Sharing Economy 
Stephen R. Miller 
University of Idaho College of Law - Boise 

8

 

Islam Incarcerated: Religious Accommodation of Muslim Prisoners Before Holt v. Hobbs 
Khaled A. Beydoun 
Barry University - Dwayne O. Andreas School of Law 

9

 

'A Tinge of Melancholy Lay Upon the Countryside': Agricultural Historic Resources within Contemporary Agricultural and Historic Preservation Law 
Virginia Environmental Law Journal, Vol. 33, No. 56, 2015
Jess R. Phelps 
USDA 

10

 

Understanding Flood Risk Decisionmaking: Implications for Flood Risk Communication Program Design 
Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 15-01
Carolyn Kousky and Leonard Shabman 
Resources for the Future and Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University - Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics 

11

 

The Case for Evidence-Based Free Exercise Accommodation: Why the Religious Freedom Restoration Act Is Bad Public Policy 
Harvard Law & Policy Review, Vol. 9, 2015, Cardozo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 448
Marci A. Hamilton 
Cardozo Law School 

12

 

On Engineering Urban Densification 
Brigham-Kanner Property Rights Conference Journal, Vol. 4 (Forthcoming), George Mason Law & Economics Research Paper No. 15-06
Steven J. Eagle 
George Mason University School of Law 

13

 

How Local is Local?: A Response to Professor David B. Spence's The Political Economy of Local Vetoes 
Texas Law Review See Also, Vol. 93, pages 61-74, 2015
Joshua P. Fershee 
West Virginia University - College of Law 

14

 

Farmer's Response to Changing Climate in North East India 
De, U. K., Farmer’s response to changing climate in North East India, 2015, AIP Conference Proceedings, Malaysia, 1643, 30., 
U. K. De Sr. 
North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU) - Department of Economics 

15

 

Modeling the Effects of Land Use Change and Management Practices on Runoff and Sediment Yields in Fincha Watershed, Blue Nile 
OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 07, No. 11, pp. 75-88, 2014
Abdi Boru Ayana Desalegn Chemeda Edossa and Ekasit Kositsakulchai 
Oromia Bureau of Agriculture , Central University of Technology - Department of Civil Engineering and Kasetsart University - Department of Irrigation Engineering 

16

 

The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism 
Cato Institute Policy Analysis, No. 764, November 2014
Chris Edwards 
Cato Institute 

17

 

Economic Behavior, Market Signals, and Urban Ecology 
NBER Working Paper No. w20959
Joshua Abbott H. Allen Klaiber and V. Kerry Smith 
Arizona State University (ASU) , Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Agricultural, Environmental & Development Economics and Arizona State University (ASU) - Economics Department 

18

 

Free Exercise in the Lobbying Nineties 
Nebraska Law Review, Vol. 84, p. 795, 2010
Brad Jacob 
Regent University School of Law 

19

 

How to Make America Walkable 
42 Real Est. L.J. 512 (Spring 2014), Touro Law Center Legal Studies Research Paper
Michael Lewyn 
Touro College - Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center 

20

 

Lenient in Theory, Dumb in Fact: Prison, Speech, and Scrutiny 
Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 15-08
David M. Shapiro 
Northwestern University School of Law 

21

 

More than Just a Housing Problem: Learning from Gawad Kalinga's Experience 
AKI Policy Brief, Volume III, No. 4, 2012
Raymund Basco Habaradas and Martin Lorenzo Aquino 
De La Salle University and De La Salle University 

22

 

Urbanization and Economic Development in Madhya Pradesh: Policy Implications for Sustainable Forest Management 
A. K. Singh, V. B. Gupta, Ram Kumar Jha (2013), “Urbanization and Economic Development in Madhya Pradesh: Policy Implications for Sustainable Forest Management”, Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 22-30 (ISSN: 2249- 8621), 
A. K. Singh V. B. Gupta and Ram Kumar Jha 
Devi Ahilya University , Devi Ahilya University and CUTS International 

23

 

Water and Wastewater Infrastructure in the United States: The Clean Water-Energy-Climate Nexus 
Geo. Wash. Journal of Energy and Environmental Law 1-21 (Summer 2013)
Robert W. Adler 
University of Utah - S.J. Quinney College of Law 

24

 

Determining Rural Areas Vulnerable to Illegal Dumping Using GIS Techniques. Case Study: Neamț County, Romania 
13th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference on ECOLOGY, ECONOMICS, EDUCATION AND LEGISLATION, SGEM 2013 Conference Proceedings Vol 1 : 275-282,DOI:10.5593/SGEM2013/BE5.V1/S20.037 
Florin Constantin Mihai A. Ursu Pavel Ichim and Dan-Adrian Chelaru 
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Department of Geography , Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Department of Geography , Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Department of Geography and Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Department of Geography 

25

 

From Litigation to Legislation in Exclusionary Zoning Law 
Harvard Civil Rights- Civil Liberties Law Review (CR-CL), Vol. 22, p. 623, 1987
Harold A. McDougall 
Howard University School of Law 

26

 

Pour une politique d'équilibre du territoire (For a Balance Territory Politic) 
Revue des Deux Mondes, May 1993
Gérard-François Dumont 
University of Paris 4 Sorbonne 

27

 

Comparing Three Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods from an Endpoint Perspective 
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 20-26, 2015
Bo Weidema 
Aalborg University 

28

 

Shared Spatial Regulating in Sharing-Economy Districts 
Arizona Summit Law School Research Paper No. 2015-A-01
Michael N. Widener 
Arizona Summit Law School 

29

 

The Land Use Act and Land Ownership Debate in Nigeria: Resolving the Impasse. 
Akintunde Kabir Otubu 
University of Lagos - Faculty of Law 

 

March 1, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0)