Saturday, December 31, 2022

RIP Pope Benedict


Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

RIP to Pope BenedictAlthough recognizing the complexities of the issue of immigration, the late Pope was a supporter of comprehensive immigration reform.  Pope Benedict saw immigration as an opportunity to foster peace.

Pope Benedict XVI (1927-2022) headed the Catholic Church from 19 April 2005 until his resignation in February 2013.  He was the first Pope in more than 600 years to step down before death.


December 31, 2022 in Current Affairs, Law Review Articles & Essays | Permalink | Comments (0)

U.S. ICE immigration arrests and deportations in the U.S. interior increased in fiscal year 2022


Camilo Montoya-Galvez for CBS News reports on the ICE Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2022, which was released yesterday. A few highlights:

"Arrests and deportations by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) increased in fiscal year 2022 after plummeting to record-low levels in 2021 . . . .  During fiscal year 2022 . . . , ICE . . . agents carried out 142,750 immigration arrests and 72,177 deportations, increases of 93% and 22%, respectively, compared to the previous fiscal year. 

While the number of deportations in fiscal year 2022 is the second-lowest tally recorded by ICE, it represents a notable increase from 2021 . . . ." 

"In fiscal year 2022, U.S. officials along the southern border reported a record 2.3 million migrant interceptions. Over 1 million of those detentions led to migrants being expelled to Mexico or their home country under a pandemic-related measure known as Title 42 . . . . .

More than 96,000, or 67%, of the arrests ICE carried out in fiscal year 2022 involved immigrants without criminal convictions or charges, compared to 39% in 2021, a shift the agency attributed to the large number of migrants and asylum-seekers it received from border authorities."  (bold added).

Here is the ICE press statement on the release of the 2022 annual report.  It begins:

"U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) released today the agency’s annual report showcasing how the agency has responded to increasingly complex transnational security threats in fiscal year (FY) 2022. The FY 2022 annual report highlights how ICE is helping secure the Southwest Border and rebuilding a humane and orderly immigration system; combatting transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) including disrupting the supply of opioids coming to U.S. communities; improving transparency to stakeholders and the public; and supporting its dedicated, resilient workforce."


December 31, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Celebrating Immprof Books & Book Chapters of 2022

Vincent Le Moign, CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The best way to celebrate the last day of 2022 is with a look back at the wonderful things that immigration law professors published this year.

Here are some of the book chapters that immprofs published:

And here are some of the books authored by immprofs in 2021:


December 31, 2022 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, December 30, 2022

Immigration @ AALS 2023

Your executive committee for the AALS section on immigration is looking forward to seeing you all in San Diego in just a few days! Here's a handy post with information about the times and locations of immigration programs.

Wednesday, January 4, 2023: 3-4:40PM. New Voices in Immigration Law. This session will take place in the Marriott Grand Ballroom 6 on the Lobby Level of the North Tower. If you're interested in participating, please just show up. if you've got the time to read papers ahead of the program -- shoot me (Kit) and email and I'll share them with you. We've got an interesting balance of paper topics this year.


  • Nermeen Arastu and Qudsiya Naqui, Standing on Our Own Two Feet: Disability Justice as a Frame for Achieving Abolition and Dismantling Our Ableist Immigration System. Principal commentator: Daniel Morales
  • Jocelyn B. Cazares, Legalized Removals of Noncitizens Deemed to Have [In]Credible or [Un]Reasonable Fears: The Role of Discretion in the Review Process of Fear Determinations. Principal commentator: Jaya Ramji-Nogales
  • Richard H. Frankel, Restoring “Civil”ity in Immigration Proceedings. Principal commentator: Lenni Benson.


  • Eunice Lee, Immigration in the Shadow of Death. Principal commentator: Angela Banks
  • Talia Peleg, The Dangers of ICE's Unrestrained Rearrest Power. Principal commentator: Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia
  • Carrie Rosenbaum, Arbitrary Arbitrariness Review. Principal commentator: Jayanth K. Krishnan

Thursday, January 5, 2023: 8-9:40AM. Racism in Immigration Regulation. This session will take place in the Mission Hills room on the Third Floor of the South Tower. Our panelists are David Cook-Martín (University of Colorado, Boulder, Sociology), Kevin Johnson (UC Davis School of Law), Emily Ryo (USC Gould School of Law), and Claire Thomas (New York Law School). Ming Hsu Chen (Hastings) will be the moderator.

Thursday, January 5, 2023: 10-11:40AM. Leveraging Service Opportunities to Maximize Student Learning in Immigration Law. This session will take place in the Marriott Grand Ballroom 12 on the Lobby Level of the North Tower. This panel will feature discussion amongst immprofs Kif Augustine-Adams, Lenni Benson, Richard Boswell, and Violeta Chapin, moderated by David Thronson.

Thursday January 5, 2023: 1:15-2:30PM. AALS Awards Ceremony. This session will take place in the San Diego Ballroom on the Lobby Level of the North Tower. Come to cheer on Dean Kevin Johnson as he receives the inaugural Michael A. Olivas Award for Outstanding Leadership in Diversity and Mentoring in the Legal Academy.

Friday January 5, 2023: 8-9:40AM. AALS Hot Topic Program--Biden v. Texas and the Federal-State Battle over Immigration Law. This session will take place in the Marriott Grand Ballroom 9 on the Lobby Level of the North Tower. Full disclosure, I don't know the organizers of this panel but it's bound to be interesting!

We are excited about these programs and hope to see you all there.


December 30, 2022 in Conferences and Call for Papers, Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Democratic Congress was disappointment for immigration activists

Overview image

No real surprises?  Another Democratic Congress, another failure at passing immigration reform.  Rafael B3ernal on the Hill writes:

"The first Congress of the Biden era is ending with a significant list of legislative accomplishments under its belt, but Democrats will once again relinquish a House majority without delivering on immigration reform.

Though inaction on immigration reform has become a constant, the stakes are somewhat higher for the outgoing 117th Congress, as the fate of hundreds of thousands of so-called Dreamers is now in the hands of the conservative majority of the Supreme Court."

For details on the latest congressional failure, click the link above.


December 30, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Podcast: USA v. Garcia Luna -- "True Crime Meets Telenovela"

Are you looking for a crime podcast for that long walk with the family dog?  Here is an intriguing one released earlier this month:  

"A story where true crime meets telenovela. Futuro Investigates and Latino USA —in partnership with Lemonada Media— present USA v. García Luna, a new investigative series about the most powerful Mexican official to ever face trial in the U.S. for allegedly accepting million-dollar bribes from the Sinaloan drug cartel."

A more detailed podcast description from the website:

"A Mexican-American journalist and a Cuban-Mexican investigative reporter walk into a recording studio with a bottle of tequila and reveal one of the most shocking true crime investigative stories you will ever hear.

USA v. García Luna tells the story of the most powerful Mexican government official ever to face trial in the United States for his alleged ties to the infamous drug lord Joaquín `El Chapo' Guzmán.

His name is Genaro García Luna. Maybe you’ve never heard about him, but in five episodes, Pulitzer Prize winner Maria Hinojosa and Emmy Award winner Peniley Ramírez will tell you why he matters and how his story connects to the U.S. government, the war on drugs and millions of dollars from U.S. taxpayers.

This is not your regular narco series. It’s the result of a 10-year investigation and a shared journalistic obsession. We tackle corruption in the DEA, question how U.S. money funds the war on drugs and how Washington picks its allies. It gets deep, personal and absurd. It’s really like true crime meets telenovela."

 Here is the teaser for Episode 1 (Untouchable):

"Peniley Ramírez has one obsession: Genaro García Luna, Mexico’s top security official from 2006 to 2012. For years, Peniley broke news of his alleged corruption in Mexico and the U.S. Yet, García Luna seemed untouchable. That is, until his name was brought up by a former cartel leader during Joaquín `El Chapo' Guzmán’s U.S. trial. Now, he faces his own trial. In this episode, Peniley dives into the latest with her new friend Maria Hinojosa. Over a bottle of tequila, they raise questions about what García Luna’s upcoming trial says about the role of the U.S. in the `war on drugs.'”

The Garcia Luna trial is set to begin in January 2023.

I must say that the podcast sounds all to similar to the fictional television drama from a few years back, Queen of the South. Drug sales, violence, romance, and corruption prevail.



December 30, 2022 in Current Affairs, Film & Television | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, December 29, 2022

Opting Out of Border Biometrics, A Twitter Tale

Here's a Twitter tale about opting out of border biometrics that immprofs should flag:


December 29, 2022 in Current Affairs, Teaching Resources | Permalink | Comments (0)

Mexico draws more asylum seekers despite violence, Second in the world only to U.S., Germany


This story from the Los Angeles Times surprised me.  I am not sure why but perhaps because it is because we in the United States consistently hear of the crisis along the U.S./Mexico border.     

Violence and economic inequality in Mexico drive many people to come to the United States. However, for others, Mexico offers a measure of peace and prosperity relative to that in their homelands.  "A safe, robust asylum system in Mexico eases pressure on the United States, which is looking more to other governments to manage migration."  Funny, many U.S. observers loudly blame the Mexican government for not doing enough to stem migration to the U.S.  

Mexico was the world’s third-most popular destination for asylum seekers in 2021, according to the United Nations. The top two nations were the United States and Germany.  Mexico is on pace to end the year just below an all-time high of 131,400 asylum claims in 2021, led by Hondurans, Cubans and Haitians.


Map Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons


December 29, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Humanitarian Crisis on the U.S./Mexico Border


The heartbreaking nightly news reports on migrants on the streets of El Paso, Texas in freezing temperatures   The human tragedy is breathtaking.  Al Jazeera soberly outlines the plight of the people, the policy issues, and the political realities.  The report ends on an ominous note:

"That was echoed by Brad Jones, a political science professor at UC Davis, who urged the Biden administration to drop the US’s longstanding policy of deterrence in favour of more humane measures on immigration.

` Issue more visas, lift immigration quotas, better fund immigration courts,' he said. `But the issue has become so politicised that I don’t see that happening.

`It’s a pressure cooker ready to explode.'”



December 29, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (1)

Supreme Court's Title 42 Case in a Nutshell


Need the basics for New Years gatherings on the developments in on the Title 42 case pending before the Supreme Court?  Check out Brett Samuels's summary in The Hill

The long story short is that we will probably not get a decision from the Supreme Court on the issue whether states can intervene in a case in which the Title 42 order is challenged.  Even then, the Court will not likely decide the merits of the dispute, including the lawfulness of the Title 42 order and the propriety of the injunction ordering that it be lifted.


December 29, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, December 28, 2022

Celebrating Immprof Achievements in 2022

Rahuljakhmola, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Immigration law professors around the country had a whole lot to celebrate in 2022. Check out these professional developments.

New Jobs:

  • Jennifer Chacón joined the faculty at Stanford Law School.
  • Ming Hsu Chen joined the faculty at UC Hastings.
  • Eugenio Mollo, Jr. joined Toledo as a Clinical Assistant Professor of Law to launch and direct the school's Immigrant Justice Clinic.
  • Aadhithi Padmanabhan (Maryland) started her first full-time job in academia as an Assistant Professor of Law directing the new Federal Appellate Immigration Clinic. 
  • Carrie Rosenbaum joined Chapman as a Visiting Assistant Professor in Fall 2022.
  • Tania N. Valdez started her first tenure-track job as an Associate Professor of Law at The George Washington University Law School.

Promotions and Awards:

  • Lauren R. Aronson (Illinois) was promoted to Full Clinical Professor in August and granted Clinical Tenure.
  • Jennifer Chacón (Stanford) received the Bruce Tyson Mitchell professorship.
  • Ming Hsu Chen (Hastings) was named the Harry & Lillian Hastings Research Chair and Founding Director of the Center for Race, Immigration, Citizenship, and Equality (RICE) .
  • Kevin Johnson (Davis) was named the first recipient of the Michael A. Olivas Award for Outstanding Leadership in Diversity and Mentoring in the Legal Academy. We look forward to the formal celebration in 2023.
  • Kit Johnson (Oklahoma) received the Thomas P. Hester Presidential Professorship.
  • Gabriela Kahrl (Maryland) was promoted from Associate Director to Co-Director of the Chacón Center for Immigrant Justice.
  • Jennifer Lee (Temple) was approved for tenure by a vote of the law school faculty -- their first tenured clinician! We look forward to celebrating the formal approval from central campus in 2023.
  • Mauricio E. Noroña (Cardozo) became a VAP this year after a stint as a teaching fellow in the Cardozo Immigration Justice Clinic.
  • Shalini Bhargava Ray (Alabama) was approved for tenure by a vote of the law school faculty. We look forward to celebrating the formal approval from central campus in 2023.
  • Rachel Rosenbloom (Northeastern) is a fellow with Northeastern's Center for Law, Equity and Race (CLEAR) while she is on sabbatical this year.
  • Scott Titshaw (Mercer) was promoted in 2022 from Associate Professor to Professor. 

Administrative Gigs:

  • Hemanth Gundavaram (Northeastern) became Associate Dean of Experiential Education and Director of Clinical Programs; he continues to also serve as Director of the Immigrant Justice Clinic.
  • Anita Maddali (Northern Illinois) became the Associate Dean for Student Affairs in August 2022, stepping down from the Director of Clinics role she'd been in since 2011.
  • Rachel Rosenbloom (Northeastern) finished her term as Associate Dean for Experiential Education.

Other Exciting News:

  • Jill Family (Widener) became Chair of the ABA Administrative Law section.
  • Geoffrey Hoffman (formerly Houston) became an immigration judge!

Congratulations to all!


December 28, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Death by Policy: Crisis In The Arizona Desert


The ImmigrationProf blog frequently has reported on death on the border resulting from U.S. border enforcement measures.  See, for example, here, here, here.

Latino USA often includes stories that touch on immigration and Latina/o identity.  "In this year-long investigation from Futuro Investigates, [Latino USA] dig[s] into how the U.S. government and Border Patrol’s decades-long “prevention through deterrence” policies have knowingly created a deadly funnel, pushing migrants attempting to cross from Mexico to the U.S. into the deadliest terrain in the country, including the Sonoran Desert in southern Arizona."

December 28, 2022 in Film & Television | Permalink | Comments (0)

“Title 42” Comes to the Court


I meant to post this a few days ago but it remains timely.

Stephen Vladeck discusses in plain English the Title 42 case before the Supreme Court that resulted in Chief Justice Roberts's order staying the injunction ending the Title 42 order.  Nineteen states sought the stay in an effort to keep the Title 42 order in place.


December 28, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Responses to the Supreme Court's Latest Title 42 Order


Ingrid Eagly blogged about the Supreme Court's order yesterday that allows the extraordinary Title 42 expulsion order to remain in place while the Court decides whether states should be permitted to intervene to challenge a district court ruling requiring the lifting of the Title 42 order.  Chief Justice Roberts had previously stayed the district court order. 


Amy Howe for Howe on the Court and SCOTUSBlog analyzes what the Court's latest Title 42 action means.  She emphasizes that "[t]he court directed the states, the Biden administration, and the families to focus their briefs on whether the states can intervene to challenge [the district court's] ruling. Although the substantive merits of . . . ruling are relevant to the intervention question, the court stressed, the justices will only weigh in on intervention. That procedural issue is similar to one raised last term in Arizona v. City and County of San Francisco – another dispute over a Trump-era immigration policy that the Biden administration sought to revoke but that red states fought to retain. The justices dismissed that case without resolving the question about state intervention." (bold added).  In the end, the Court will likely say more about the requirements for intervention under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24 and the interests of the states in immigration than it will about the lawfulness of the Title 42 order.

The Biden administration, which had announced a plan to lift the Trump era Title 42 order, quickly responded to the Supreme Court's latest action, which keeps the Title 42 order in place even though the Court will not address the merits of the order.  Statement by White House Press Secretary Karine Jean-Pierre on Supreme Court Title 42 Order.  Here is the gist of the statement:

"[W]e are advancing our preparations to manage the border in a secure, orderly, and humane way when Title 42 eventually lifts and will continue expanding legal pathways for immigration.  Title 42 is a public health measure, not an immigration enforcement measure, and it should not be extended indefinitely.  To truly fix our broken immigration system, we need Congress to pass comprehensive immigration reform measures like the ones President Biden proposed on his first day in office. Today’s order gives Republicans in Congress plenty of time to move past political finger-pointing and join their Democratic colleagues in solving the challenge at our border by passing the comprehensive reform measures and delivering the additional funds for border security that President Biden has requested." (bold added).

Here is the Statement by the Department of Homeland Security on Supreme Court Title 42 Order:

"As required by today’s Supreme Court order, the Title 42 public health order will remain in effect and individuals who attempt to enter the United States unlawfully will continue to be expelled to Mexico or their home country.

People should not listen to the lies of smugglers who take advantage of vulnerable migrants, putting lives at risk. The border is not open, and we will continue to fully enforce our immigration laws.

We will continue to manage the border, but we do so within the constraints of a decades-old immigration system that everyone agrees is broken. We need Congress to pass the comprehensive immigration reform legislation President Biden proposed the day he took office." 

Ilya Somin on the Volokh Conspiracy criticizes the Supreme Court's action from a conservative perspective.  For criticisms of the Court's order from immigrant rights advocates, click here.


December 28, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, December 27, 2022

Breaking News: U.S. Supreme Court Issues Order in Arizona et al. v. Mayorkas, Keeping in Place Title 42 for Now

image from

Today the U.S. Supreme Court issued an order in Arizona et al. v. Mayorkas that keeps in place the pandemic-era emergency Title 42 program that turns away asylum seekers at the border.

A copy of the one-page order and two-page dissent authored by Justice Gorsuch is available here

In the unsigned order, the Court granted the application as a petition for writ of certiorari and ordered the parties to "brief and argue the following question: Whether the State applicants may intervene to challenge the District Court’s summary judgment order."

The Court also granted a stay, which means that Title 42 will stay in place while the case is briefed. As the Court explained, by granting the stay, the Court "precludes giving effect to the District Court order setting aside and vacating the Title 42 policy; the stay itself does not prevent the federal government from taking any action with respect to that policy. The Court’s review on certiorari is limited to the question of intervention."

The Court further directed the Clerk to set an expedited briefing schedule so that the case will be argued in February 2023.

Justices Sotomayor, Kagan, Gorsuch, and Jackson dissented, with Justice Jackson joining Justice Gorsuch in a written dissent. In it, Gorsuch explains why he would deny the states' request for a stay of the district court order and request for an expedited briefing:

Reasonable minds can disagree about the merits of the D. C. Circuit’s intervention ruling. But that case-specific decision is not of special importance in its own right and would not normally warrant expedited review. The D. C. Circuit’s intervention ruling takes on whatever salience it has only because of its presence in a larger underlying dispute about the Title 42 orders. And on that score, it is unclear what we might accomplish. Even if at the end of it all we find that the States are permitted to intervene, and even if the States manage on remand to demonstrate that the Title 42 orders were lawfully adopted, the emergency on which those orders were premised has long since lapsed. In April 2022, the federal government terminated the Title 42 orders after determining that emergency immigration restrictions were no longer necessary or appropriate to address COVID–19. 87 Fed. Reg. 19944. The States may question whether the government followed the right administrative steps before issuing this decision (an issue on which I express no view). But they do not seriously dispute that the public-health justification undergirding the Title 42 orders has lapsed. And it is hardly obvious why we should rush in to review a ruling on a motion to intervene in a case concerning emergency decrees that have outlived their shelf life.

For more on the devastating impact of Title 42 and other Trump-era changes on asylum seekers, see Lindsay Muir Harris, Asylum Under Attack, 67 Loyola Law Review 1 (2021).


December 27, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Welcoming America in San Jose


Welcoming America convenes its interactive workshop from April 26-28 in San José, California. 

There will be 500 inclusion practitioners from around the world for networking opportunities, deep dive sessions, and powerful plenary presentations from thought leaders in the DEI space, and of course, our legendary city tours. 

A description of past Welcoming Interactives is here: 2022 recap. Sign-up and registration for the 2023 Welcome Interactive is here.



December 27, 2022 in Conferences and Call for Papers, Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, December 26, 2022

Biden administration restarts Task Force on New Americans

The Biden administration announced they will be reestablishing the Task Force on New Americans during the National Immigrant Inclusion Conference (NIIC) in December 2022. 

According to the White House, the task force will look at existing integration policies and programs and work to sharpen them and identify new key areas of need. Rachel Perić, Executive Director of Welcoming America, who has lobbied for the re-creation, said: “The Task Force builds on the many years of advocacy and leadership by all those working to advance the civic, social, and economic participation of new Americans and will be a vital mechanism for reviving and driving these efforts across the federal government in partnership with communities.

The Task Force seeks to work with a broad range of federal agencies on five lines of work: language learning and access, health and wellbeing, workforce development training, financial access and education, data and research. The Task Force’s objectives for the first six months are to 1) convene the various federal agencies with equity in immigration and review the efficacy of existing welcoming efforts, and 2) produce recommendations for expanding these efforts at the state and federal levels. 

A prior version of the task force during the Obama administration lapsed during the Trump administration.


December 26, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

American or US citizen: Stanford language guide aims for inclusivity, ignites public debate

Stanford University's IT department released an internal guidance on the use of harmful language. Among other terms, they recommend the term "US citizen" instead of "American." Their reasoning is that the term American is overinclusive, and it overlooks Canadians, Central Americans, South Americans and other countries who are implied to be less important than the United States of America. 

Conservative media outlets, like the Washington Times, have decried the Stanford language guide as bending to wokeness and the specific guidance on "American" to be unpatriotic. Stanford has said that banning language is not their intent and clarified for the broader public that the guide is not a ban on language, nor is it endorsed by the university writ large. Steve GallagherStanford chief information officer, said 

 “We have particularly heard concerns about the guide’s treatment of the term ‘American.’ We understand and appreciate those concerns. To be very clear, not only is the use of the term ‘American’ not banned at Stanford, it is absolutely welcomed.”

He continued by clarifying that the intent of this specific entry “was to provide perspective on how the term may be imprecise in some specific uses, and to show that in some cases the alternate term ‘U.S. citizen’ may be more precise and appropriate.”

Nevertheless, the public debate raises the question of whether US citizen is an inclusive term? Many Immprofs consider immigrants to be social or political members of communities, lending the term "American" an inclusive valence by recognizing identification with a community, not withstanding legal status. The status designation of "US citizen", in contrast, is the exclusive one, especially considering that legal designations of undocumented status can be inconclusive. In a related vein, critical race theorists express skepticism toward overemphasizing formal citizenship. Rose Cuison Villazor, in Rejecting Citizenship, elaborates on the point as a response to my book, Pursuing Citizenship in the Enforcement Era.  It is an issue of importance and one that I wrestle with in a new article, Colorblind Nationalism and the Limits of Citizenship, while trying to envision alternatives to the binary legal status imprinted on policies surrounding membership and belonging in America. In short, the language and terms of belonging for immigrants is complex terrain that extends beyond the point-counterpoint debates surrounding the Stanford language guide.


December 26, 2022 in Current Affairs, Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

The Most Inspiring Immigration Stories Of 2022

Stuart Anderson for Forbes lists "The Most Inspiring Immigration Stories Of 2022."  Its an uplifting read for the new yer.


December 26, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)

On the Road With Ukraine’s Refugees: An Update

This week, The Daily is revisiting some of our favorite episodes of the year and checking in on what has happened in the time since they first ran.

This year, in response to Russia’s increasingly brutal campaign against Ukrainian towns and cities, millions of people — most of them women and children — fled Ukraine. It was the fastest displacement of people in Europe since World War II.

Today, we return to the beginning of the invasion and reporting from our host Sabrina Tavernise, who traveled alongside some of those fleeing the conflict.


It is a fascinating podcast episode.


December 26, 2022 in Current Affairs | Permalink | Comments (0)