Tuesday, December 12, 2023

Reforming the Exchange Visitor Program for Au Pairs

The State Department proposed a rule recently that would clarify the au pair program’s educational and cultural exchange goals by increasing education stipends, proposing new requirements to strengthen au pair protections, and offering a “part-time” program that limits childcare duties to 24 to 31 hours per week, among other changes. To compensate au pairs more fairly, the State Department proposed a national, tiered wage formula to promote wage consistency “across geographic regions and in areas with similar local economic conditions.” The State Department will accept comments on the proposed rule until January 28, 2024.

An essay in The Regulatory Review by Narintohn Luangrath, Carson Turner, and Julia Englebert describes the proposed regulation and its purpose of improved immigrant worker rights -- on par with American workers.

For more information on the J-visa on which au pairs rely, see Catherine Bowman's doctoral research and writing.


December 12, 2023 in Current Affairs, Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, December 1, 2023

Immigration Article of the Day: Improving Lawyers & Lives: How Immigrant Justice Corps Built a Model for Quality Representation While Empowering Recent Law School and College Graduates and the Immigrant Communities Whom They Serve by Jojo Annobil & Eliz

Improving Lawyers & Lives: How Immigrant Justice Corps Built a Model for Quality Representation While Empowering Recent Law School and College Graduates and the Immigrant Communities Whom They Serve by Jojo Annobil & Elizabeth Gibson, Fordham Law Review (2023)


The late Judge Robert A. Katzmann of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit formed a study group in 2008 called the Study Group on Immigrant Representation to assess the scope of the problem and find a solution.  The study group determined that the representation crisis was an issue “of both quality and quantity” and that the two most important variables for a successful outcome in a case were having counsel and not being detained.  To address this need, the study group established two innovative programs:  the New York Immigrant Family Unity Project (NYIFUP), the first public defender program to provide universal representation to detained New Yorkers; and Immigrant Justice Corps (IJC), the first and only fellowship program exclusively dedicated to increasing representation to low-income immigrants and improving the immigration bar.

IJC, launched in 2014, recruits, trains, and mentors talented Justice Fellows (recent law graduates and law clerks) and exceptional Community Fellows (college graduates who become federally accredited legal representatives).  IJC then deploys the Justice and Community Fellows (together, the “Fellows”) in the immigration field to assist low-income immigrants in defending against deportation, seeking lawful status, or applying for citizenship.  The Fellows—the great majority of whom are bilingual or multilingual with lived experience of the immigration system—come from top law schools and colleges, and many have developed litigation skills in their schools’ immigration clinics, giving them a head start in mastering the law.

This Essay focuses on the work of IJC and discusses Judge Katzmann and the Study Group on Immigrant Representation’s efforts to find solutions to the representation crisis by developing innovative programs and tackling challenges along the way.


December 1, 2023 in Data and Research, Law Review Articles & Essays | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, November 14, 2023

2023 Map the Impact Report from the American Immigration Council

Map the impactThe American Immigration Council has announced the release of its 2023 Map the Impact report.

This interactive map (available here) is packed with data measuring the contributions of immigrants across the country.

Key findings include:

• 1 in 8 U.S. residents is an immigrant.
• Immigrants paid over $500 billion in taxes in 2021.
• 22% of all U.S. entrepreneurs are immigrants.




November 14, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, November 1, 2023

Webinar on Forthcoming Report: "False Hopes: Over 100,000 Immigrant Youth Trapped in the SIJS Backlog"

On December 4, 2023, The End SIJS Backlog Coalition and Tulane’s Immigrant Rights Clinic will release a new report on the SIJS backlog.


You may register at the link below to attend the webinar accompanying the launch of the new report.


When:     Monday, Dec 4, 2023,  1:00-2:00 pm ET/10:00-11:00 am PT

Where:     Zoom. Register here.


This report reveals never-before-seen data, obtained through FOIA litigation, on the current scope of the SIJS backlog which now impacts over 100,000 youth. It situates this data within the context of new administrative policies impacting SIJS youth, highlights the first-hand stories of SIJS youth, and makes key policy recommendations. This report is a follow-up to the End SIJS Backlog Coalition’s groundbreaking report, “Any Day They Could Deport Me” published in November 2021, and is jointly written and published by the End SIJS Backlog Coalition, a project of the National Immigration Project, and Tulane's Immigrant Rights Clinic



November 1, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, October 20, 2023

White House H-2B Worker Protection Taskforce Publishes New Report

White House ReportYesterday the White House H-2B Worker Protection Taskforce published a report addressing the visa program that allows U.S. employers to temporarily hire noncitizens to perform nonagricultural labor. As the Report acknowledges, workers in the H-2B program "face structural disincentives to reporting or leaving abusive conditions, and often lack power to exercise their rights in the face of exploitative employment situations."

The new Report follows last month's issuance of proposed new rules for the H-2A and H-2B programs by the Department of Labor and the Department of Homeland Security that would incorporate protections for workers who take collective action to organize their workplace and introduce greater oversight of employers who take advantage of workers.

The Report cites to 2018 study by Centro de los Derechos del Migrante, Inc., and Penn Carey Law's Transnational Legal Clinic, Engendering Exploitation: Gender Inequality in U.S. Labor Migration Programs, which found that the majority of H-2A workers paid illegal recruitment fees. 

The Taskforce makes a number of policy recommendations, including improving workers' access to information and increasing transparency in the program.

A full copy of the Report, Strengthening Protections for H-2B Temporary Workers, is available here.




October 20, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, October 2, 2023

New White Paper: Migration, Race & Criminalization: Federal Criminal Entry & Reentry Laws in the United States

image from pbs.twimg.comOn March 7, 2023, a coalition of organizations working on issues related to racism and human mobility in the Americas presented testimony at a hearing before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (“IACHR”).

A report detailing the findings presented during the hearing was submitted to the IACHR in June 2023.

Last week, the Center for Immigration Law and Policy (“CILP”) at the UCLA School of Law released a new white paper detailing coalition's findings of the racial animus behind the the criminalization of border crossing in the United States. The paper outlines how the modern law violates Inter-American human rights jurisprudence. Finally, the white paper argues that the entry and reentry laws should be proactively addressed by IACHR. 

You can read the full white paper here.



October 2, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 25, 2023

Language attrition and immigrant assimilation: two sides of the story

A touchpoint experience for many first-generation immigrants is learning English. A touchpoint for the second-generation and later children of immigrant families is the struggle to retain their heritage language. Two recent articles and a Pew Poll (covered by Immprof blogger KJ) speak to the phenomenon of language attrition, or language loss in later generations of immigration: one related to Spanish-speakers and the other to Chinese-speakers (especially non-Mandarin speakers, like the Cantonese speaker in the story).

  • Some Latinos in US Shamed When They cannot Speak Spanish, USA Today (September 20, 2023) 
  • The Parents Trying to Pass Down a Language They Hardly Know, The Atlantic (September 25, 2023) 

These stories are told against a backdrop of playground teasing and grown-up nativism toward immigrants for not learning the English language or not learning it quickly (as Samuel Huntington famously set forth more than a decade ago).

Empirical data on immigrant assimilation and language from a report on Immigrant Assimilation in the US by the National Academy of Sciences shows that language acquisition and loss show itself in the third-generation, squaring the circle of the first-person narratives and Samuel Huntington's complaint against the immigrant and second-generation. The Pew Poll is here.


September 25, 2023 in Current Affairs, Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, September 19, 2023

New Report by Human Rights First on Disability Access at USCIS

Human Rights First has released a new report, "I Felt Not Seen, Not Heard" Gaps in Disability Access at USCIS for People Seeking Protection (September 2023).

A copy of the report is available here.

The report recommends taking immediate access to improve disability access, including the following:

  • Designate disability access coordinators in each asylum office and make their contact information publicly available and easily accessible;
  • Provide increased and regular disability training for USCIS asylum officers and other staff;
  • Clarify and expand existing USCIS guidance on disability access including strengthening the process for requesting reasonable accommodations and appealing denials; and
  • Create policy requiring asylum officers to affirmatively inquire into whether an applicant has a disability during both asylum adjudication and credible fear interviews, engage in an informal, interactive process to provide accommodations, and ensure that people with disabilities are taken out of the expedited removal process and given an opportunity to apply for asylum.


September 19, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 18, 2023

Immigration Article of the Day: Saving Agency Adjudication by Aaron L. Nielson, Christopher J. Walker, and Melissa F. Wasserman

The Immigration Article of the Day is Saving Agency Adjudication by Aaron L. Nielson, Christopher J. Walker, and Melissa F. Wasserman, just posted on SSRN.

Here is the abstract:

When discussing the federal judiciary, commentators typically fixate on the 800 or so “Article III” judges who are nominated by the President, confirmed by the Senate, and enjoy life tenure and salary protection. Yet most federal adjudication does not take place in federal courthouses at all. Instead, it occurs in nondescript hearing rooms in administrative agencies—if not telephonically. Indeed, the more than 12,000 agency adjudicators scattered across the federal government collectively issue millions of decisions per year on subjects ranging from Social Security and veterans benefits to immigration and patent rights. In recent years, however, scholars and agency adjudicators have raised alarms that agency adjudication may be reaching a crisis point. Following the Supreme Court’s lead, federal courts have begun holding that how agency adjudicators are appointed and removed violates Article II of the Constitution because these agency officials are not sufficiently subject to the President’s control. Political control, however, threatens the perceived legitimacy of the adjudicatory process, and perhaps sometimes its actual legitimacy as well. The more entrenched the unitary executive theory becomes, reformers argue, the greater the risk that decisional independence will collapse. Reformers therefore have advanced sweeping proposals to save agency adjudication, including most prominently creating a new “central panel” agency to house agency adjudicators, expanding the Article I courts, or even moving agency adjudication into Article III courts.

This Article examines these proposals to save agency adjudication and explains why none of them will work, at least as a general matter. Each of these proposed solutions ultimately will not solve the problem and could have significant unintended consequences—some potentially catastrophic to the millions of individuals who participate in agency adjudication each year. One purpose of this Article therefore is to save agency adjudication from these well-intentioned but ultimately misguided reforms. But just because these proposals will do more harm than good does not mean that reformers are wrong to worry about the threat Article II poses to agency adjudication. Instead of fundamentally restructuring agency adjudication, however, we argue that Congress and federal agencies can more creatively use certain independence-enhancing tools that the Constitution itself provides, including prospectively raising the political costs of presidential interference in adjudicatory decisions and adopting self-imposed restrictions on agency-head appointment and removal. Unlike more sweeping and untested proposals, these longstanding tools do not raise constitutional concerns and will not cause systemic disruption. Yet they will safeguard decisional independence, thus saving agency adjudication from both Article II and imprudent reforms.


September 18, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, September 13, 2023

Immigration Article of the Day: US Asylum Lawyering and Temporal Violence by Catherine L. Crooke

image from soc.ucla.eduThe Immigration Article of the Day is US Asylum Lawyering and Temporal Violence by Catherine L. Crooke, just published in Law & Social Inquiry.

The full article is available here.

Here is the abstract:

Research on the temporal dimensions of international migration focuses on how migrants experience time. This study instead turns attention to public interest lawyers, whose work plays a crucial role in ensuring favorable legal outcomes for immigrants, in order to consider time’s salience within the US asylum context. Based on twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork with Los Angeles-based public interest asylum attorneys, this article argues that lawyers confront both weaponized efficiency and weaponized inefficiency in the course of representing asylum seekers. Advocates must rush to keep pace, on the one hand, as various state actors accelerate asylum processes and, on the other, find ways to advance clients’ interests even as state agencies selectively slow procedures to a standstill. These findings affirm that temporal contradictions define the US asylum system. Further, they demonstrate that lawyers experience these contradictions not as natural phenomena but, rather, as temporal violence: in a range of contexts, government action mobilizes time—whether actively or passively—in the service of migration control.


September 13, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, September 8, 2023

Immigration Article of the Day: Refugee Detention as Constructive Refoulement by Shana Tabak

Tabak_2011_B-300x300The Immigration Article of the Day is Refugee Detention as Constructive Refoulement by Shana Tabak, forthcoming in the Yale Journal of International Law and available on SSRN.

Here is the abstract:

The most fundamental obligation that states owe to refugees under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees is the commitment of non-refoulement. This commitment to “not force back” a refugee to a country where she may face serious harm to her life or liberty demands that states interrogate whether their treatment of refugees comports with their legal obligations toward these individuals. One urgent site for inquiry is the widespread practice of immigration detention. The practice of immigration detention raises human rights concerns, including the stripping of due process, the lack of individualized assessment, and the arbitrary deprivation of liberty.

In the United States, the detention of refugees presents an apparent contradiction: the state posture is one of respect for rule of law and its legal obligation of non-refoulement, yet perversely, the country detains refugees in such intolerable conditions and with such limited access to legal counsel that their chances at winning asylum are slim to none. The result is a pandemic of asylum denials and deportations of asylum-seekers. This Article identifies and describes this dissonance and offers a potential framework for thinking about a legal remedy.

Drawing on an analysis of the human rights violations in the United States’ practice of migrant detention, this Article presents a framework for a legal concept as yet untested in U.S. case law: constructive refoulement. Constructive refoulement arises when a state orchestrates material conditions so intolerable for an asylum-seeker that she has no choice but to return to the country from which she fled. This Article characterizes the refugee detention regime in the United States as anarchic, violative of due process, and morally corrupt. Such a characterization also demonstrates that the refugee detention regime breaches international and domestic law obligations. Ultimately, the United States’ practice of detaining refugees frustrates the intent of asylum-seekers to pursue protection and thereby amounts to constructive refoulement in violation of international law.


September 8, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, August 28, 2023

Immigration Article of the Day: Reversing Racist Precedent by Ahilan Arulanantham

image from law.ucla.eduThe Immigration Article of the Day is Reversing Racist Precedent by Ahilan Arulanantham, forthcoming in the Georgetown Law Journal and available here in SSRN.

Here is the abstract:

The Supreme Court has long read the Constitution to prohibit state action motivated by racial animus. Courts have applied that prohibition to various forms of governmental decisionmaking, from the individual decisions of judicial officers to constitutional amendments enacted by states. Yet they have not applied it to their own prior precedent. No court, including the Supreme Court, has ever held that courts must disregard prior court decisions that were themselves motivated by racial animus on the ground that such decisions violate the Constitution’s anti-discrimination constraint.

I first noticed that strange omission while litigating immigration cases against the federal government, several of which involved race discrimination claims. Time and time again I found government attorneys relying on cases from the Chinese Exclusion Era to support their positions, despite the fact that those cases are full of racist reasoning and rhetoric.

Courts often accepted those arguments, occasionally even citing the Chinese Exclusion Era cases themselves.

In this Article, I identify racist precedent as a key feature of our legal system that furthers racial injustice. I argue that the Constitution’s prohibition on invidious race discrimination should apply to court decisions by stripping such decisions of precedential force. Courts should apply that principle by creating a new exception in stare decisis doctrine: cases should be denied precedential force if they were motivated by racial animus. I ground this argument in anti-discrimination caselaw and show how it could operate alongside extant stare decisis doctrine. I then respond to various objections. Finally, I illustrate how the approach would work in detail by applying it to two Chinese Exclusion Era cases that remain foundational to contemporary constitutional immigration law.

Applying the Constitution’s prohibition on invidious race discrimination to prior precedent would dramatically alter the legal landscape in areas like immigration law, where the governing doctrine rests on cases infected by racism. It would give lawyers a reason, and judges an obligation, to examine the potentially racist origins of many rules that would otherwise be left undisturbed. If embraced fully, this doctrinal shift could disrupt a foundational source of structural racism in our legal system—the continued force of racist precedents.


August 28, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, August 16, 2023

Green Card Game

David Biers of the Cato Institute created a "game" to illustrate the perils of migrating to the US... legally.

Try it here.


August 16, 2023 in Data and Research, Film & Television | Permalink | Comments (0)

The Changing Make-Up of Immigration Court Cases Now That Title 42 Has Ended

According to a new report by TRAC, the end of Title 42 coincides twith an increase in new Mexican and Central American cases in court alongside a decline in cases from South America and elsewhere.

A large influx of new Immigration Court cases was widely expected after the termination on May 11, 2023, of Title 42 -- a public health policy that allowed individuals arriving at the U.S.-Mexico border to be immediately expelled without a hearing. According to the latest data released by the Immigration Courts, this influx did not occur.

The largest segment (45%) of immigrants with new Immigration Court cases towards the end of Title 42 came from South America. Individuals from Venezuela and Colombia made up three out of every ten South Americans. The other countries with the largest numbers were Peru, Ecuador, and Brazil.

The next largest segment (22%) was from countries outside of North and South America. Here immigrants from India, Russia, and China were most numerous. These were followed by immigrants from Mauritania, Uzbekistan, and Turkey, each with closely similar numbers.

The remaining third came from countries north of South America. Leading the list were Central American countries accounting for 13 percent, followed closely by Caribbean nations with 11 percent. The rest were Mexicans who made up 8.5 percent. After Mexicans, the next largest nationalities were Haitians, followed by Nicaraguans, Hondurans and Guatemalans.

Read the report here: https://trac.syr.edu/reports/727/


- Austin K.

August 16, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, July 31, 2023

Directory of Migration Research Institutes



The global Directory of Migration Research Institutions (DMRI) provides a comprehensive mapping of dedicated centres and institutes that pool resources for training researchers with special focuses on migration in the period between 1945 and 2020, with information on their location, year of establishment, the size, the type, and the main subjects of analysis.

Yet to be added are the research institutes Center for Race, Immigration, Citizenship, and Equality or RICE at UC Law (led by ImmigrationProf Bloggers Ming H. Chen) and the UC Davis Global Migration Center (led by ImmigrationProf Blogger Kevin Johnson). Still it's an amazing resource and encouraging to see how migration studies have expanded globally!


July 31, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, July 18, 2023

New Report and Webinar on Immigration Court Backlog from the Center for Migration Studies

On June 6, 2023 the Center for Migration Studies of NY (CMS) hosted a webinar on a new paper The US Immigration Courts, Dumping Ground for the Nation’s Systemic Immigration Failures: The Causes, Composition, and Politically Difficult Solutions to the Court Backlog.y The webinar features the authors of the report, Donald Kerwin and Evin Millet, as well as other experts including immigrationprof Richard Boswell and Mimi Tasankov, President of the National Association of Immigration Judges.

The paper and accompanying webinar highlight systemic problems in the US immigration system that have caused and sustained the backlog, and offers recommendations for reversing the backlog.



July 18, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, July 16, 2023

Global Immigration Backlash

This summer, there was more than one boat tragedy. There was the tragic sinking of a fishing boat carrying up to 750 migrants near Greece.  The boat was carrying Pakistani, Syrian, Egyptian, and Palestinian refugees and migrants. Barely 100 had been rescued alive. The news was shrouded in mystery due to the uncertain involvement of the Greek coast guard and then further eclipsed by media coverage of a submarine carrying wealthy sea adventurers to see the shipwrecked Titanic.

It remains uncertain exactly how and why the migrant ship capsized and whether the Greek coast guard acted neglectfully. But their troubles are part of a larger tide of anti-immigrant sentiment sweeping the globe. Migrant vessels are sometimes left to chance survival rather than assisted in accordinance with international obligations, according to UN Special Envoy for thte Central Mediterranean Vincent Cochetel. Others are provided food, water, life jackets and fuel precisely so they will stay afloat long enough to drift away from the nearest coast and left to the care of countries further downstream, often Italy.  These "pushbacks" mean to avoid the legal obligation to rescue and process aslyum requests by forcing refugees out of their territory. The migrants, and the accompanying legal obligations, are foisted onto someone else. According to the Berlin-based European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR), pushbacks are a violation of international law and European regulations. (Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis denies that his country engages in pushbacks.)

Outside of pushbacks at sea, many countries have declined to absorb migrants since the 2015 refugee crisis -- both in Europe (where 1 million have entered) and in the US.  Unrest in Syria is one reason for the great migration but, all told, the scale of global migration is at the highest levels that it's been in more than one hundred years. The New York Times has a country-by-country analysis showing that the foreign-born share of the population has progressively risen in several wealthy western countries: 30% in Australia and 13-15% in the US, Spain, UK, Netherlands, and France.

While some of these countries have a tradition of receiving and even welcoming immigrants, the general population in these countries criticize the migrant flows. They say the volume of migration places strain on the welfare state. Even less popular is irregular migration deemed to disrespect local laws, disrupt the workforce, and interfere with customary ways of life. Government responses have roiled and divided the countries, as illustrated dramatically with the recent collapse of the Netherlands government amid discord and the hateful rhetoric of right-wing politicians in France (Marine Le Pen), Spain, and the US (Donald Trump).

Politicians on the left have waffled in their response to migration, struggling to project the appearance of openness while also promising the keep migration levels manageable to appease workers in their parties or appeal to skeptical voters from other parties. This is one way of understanding the shifting posture of Democratic New York City Mayor Eric Adams in response to the diversion of migrants to NYC and the vacillation of President Biden toward asylees: whether motivated by pragmatics, politics, or hate, they are playing into a greater global backlash.


July 16, 2023 in Current Affairs, Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, July 13, 2023

Human Rights First Publishes a Report on the Biden Asylum Ban

Screenshot 2023-07-13 200439Human Rights First released a new report by Eleanor Acer, Christina Asencio, and Rebecca Gendelman this week: “Refugee Protection Travesty: Biden Asylum Ban Endangers and Punishes At-Risk Asylum Seekers."

The report analyzes the ways in which President Biden administration’s asylum ban violates basic principles of human rights laws and puts lives at risk.

Key findings of the report include:

  • The asylum ban endangers the lives of thousands of at-risk asylum-seeking children, families, and adults waiting in Mexico for limited CBP One appointments
  • The asylum ban rigs the expedited removal and credible fear processes against people seeking asylum, with pass rates plummeting by 45%
  • People waiting to seek asylum overwhelmingly did not know about the Biden asylum ban nor understand the penalties it inflicts, contrary to government assertions touting the ban as a key factor in lowered border apprehension rates
  • People seeking asylum face unlawful, accompanying barriers to access U.S. ports of entry including limited and inequitable access to CBP One appointments and actions by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Mexican authorities to illegally turn away or meter people without appointments.
  • Black, Indigenous, LGBTQ+ people, and those without financial resources face particular difficulties, dangers, and disparities when seeking asylum under the new process established by the Biden asylum ban
  • People waiting to seek asylum are forced to endure inhumane standards of shelter, safety, water, sanitation, and hygiene even in extreme summer heat.

The report recommends, among other measures, that the Biden administration immediately end and rescind its asylum ban, which received widespread opposition and which U.S. agencies have stated is a “temporary” measure and subject to review.


July 13, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, July 12, 2023

How much work are asylum cases? New AILA research says 50-75 hours of attorneys' time.

New in-depth research by the American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA) provides original insight into the key components of asylum cases and, more importantly, how much time a competent attorney needs to complete an asylum case.

Their research says that a competent attorney requires around 50-75 hours of time spread out over a few months to adequately prepare an asylum case, although complicating factors add considerable time.

The new report is available online on AILA's website here. To learn more about the report and the implications for policy, AILA is hosting a virtual public discussion on Friday, July 14 at 1:30 PM. Register here to join.

- Austin Kocher

July 12, 2023 in Data and Research | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, July 7, 2023

How fine dining in Europe and the US came to exclude immigrant cuisine and how social media is pushing back – podcast


In this episode of The Conversation Weekly, three experts who study food culture and fine dining talk about the perceptions and definitions of “good food.” They explore how food trends are deeply tied to immigration, how the history of Western culinary techniques limits the creativity and authenticity of modern restaurants and how social media compares with the Michelin Guide as a tool in the quest for good food:

"The history of restaurants, food and, especially, fine dining, is deeply tied to the history of immigration to the U.S. and French cultural power in the early 20th century. Not surprisingly, the story that leads to Yelp and Anthony Bourdain is not without its share of racism that the modern food world and its tastemakers are still grappling with today."


July 7, 2023 in Data and Research, Food and Drinks | Permalink | Comments (0)