Monday, December 19, 2016
The American Bar Association filed an amicus brief last week, asking the full 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to overturn a three-judge panel’s decision and give immigrant children “meaningful access to judicial review of their various legal claims.”
In filing its brief, the ABA challenges the position that “special protections” — such as the responsibilities of immigration judges and the possibility of third-party non-lawyers acting in the interest of unrepresented children — are sufficient protection.
“In the ABA’s experience, the protections outlined by the panel do not ensure meaningful judicial review,” the brief said, explaining that the ABA for more than 35 years has “advocated for the right to counsel for immigrants and refugees.”
“It is easy to recognize that virtually all unrepresented immigrants are disadvantaged in removal proceedings due to their ignorance of legal procedure and general lack of fluency in English,” the brief said. “For unrepresented children in particular, who lack the intellectual faculties, experience and resources of adults, the deck is stacked even further against them in identifying avenues of relief, marshalling evidence, adhering to mandatory deadlines and procedures, presenting their cases in chief, refuting any government arguments and ultimately prevailing. Without a lawyer, immigrant children with legitimate claims for relief do not have a fair chance of obtaining a favorable outcome.”
The ABA amicus brief in J.E.F.M., a minor, by and through his Next Friend, Bob Ekblad, et al. v. Loretta E. Lynch, Attorney General, et al. is available here.
It has been a memorable year in U.S. immigration news. Here is the ImmigrationProf top 10 immigration news items for 2016.
1. The Election of Donald Trump as President of the United States
This was an easy pick. During the 2016 Presidential campaign, Donald Trump took some tough immigration stances, including promising to "build a wall" along the U.S./Mexico border, railing on "criminals" coming to the United States from Mexico, advocating the creation of a "Deportation Force," and endorsing the "extreme vetting" of Muslim noncitizens seeking entry into the United States. After all of that on the campaign trail, President-elect Trump appears to be softening his positions on immigration.
With an eight Justice Court (due to Justice Scalia's passing) deciding the challenge by Texas and 26 states to President Obama's expanded deferred action program, the Supreme Court was deadlocked 4-4 and let stand a lower court injunction barring implementation of the program in United States v. Texas. The injunction virtually guarantees that President Obama's Deferred Action for Parents of Americans (DAPA) program will never go into effect.
Click here for an online symposium on the case.
Photo courtesy of Don Roth
4. Maricopa County Voters Oust Sheriff Joe
Maricopa County (Arizona) Sheriff Joe Arpaio, famous for his zealous -- some might say overzealous -- efforts to enforce the U.S. immigration laws, lost his bid for reelection. In 2016, Sheriff Arpaio also was charged with criminal contempt for numerous failures to comply with court orders in a lawsuit in which his sheriff's office was found guilty of racial profiling.
5. . Jeff Sessions Tapped as New U.S. Attorney General
Jeff Sessions was named by President-elect Donald Trump to be his Attorney General. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1996 and re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2014. Senator Sessions is noted for his opposition to undocumented immigration and advocacy of reducing legal immigration.
An early supporter of Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, Sessions was considered as a possible vice presidential nominee, but Indiana governor Mike Pence was ultimately selected for the ticket. On November 18, 2016, it was announced that President-elect Donald Trump plans to nominate Sessions for Attorney General of the United States when he takes office.
6. 4th anniversary of DACA
In 2012, President Obama announced the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. DACA has provided relied to thousands of migrants who were brought to the United States as children. In 2016, DACA celebrated its fourth birthday.
7. Passing of Justice Scalia
Conservative icon Justice Antonin Scalia passed away this year. As his vehement dissent in Arizona v. United States makes clear, Justice Scalia's opinions were not particularly sympathetic toward immigrants. Click here for a summary of Justice Scalia's major immigration decisions
8. Garland Nomination
With the vacancy left by the death of Justice Scalia, President Obama nominated Merrick Garland, a respected judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. There was some uncertainty about Judge Garland's views on immigration matters and he had few immigration opinions. For a review of Judge Garland's criminal and national security opinions, click here.
9. The Surge of Syrian Refugees in Europe
The nations of Europe responded in very different ways yo se to the large flow of Syrian refugees. Due to geography, Syrian refugees have not had as great an impact on the United States, although some states, such as Indiana, unsuccessfully sought to prevent the U.S. government from bringing Syrian refugees into their jurisdiction. Thousands of refugees have died seeking to cross the Mediterranean Sea.
10. Death on the border continues
It is not really news but migrants continue to die as they attempt to cross the U.S./Mexico border. Death on the border is likely to continue during the Trump administration.
Honorable Mention: Ethiopian Silver Medal Winning Olympics Marathoner Protests Government, Refugee Team Competes in Rio Olympics 2016
There were a number of immigrant stories in the Rio Olympics 2016.
The finish of the Marathon in the Olympics yesterday saw the Silver Medal winner make a political statement. As MSN explains, when he crossed the Olympics marathon finish line, Feyisa Lilesa put his hands above his head in an "X." Lilesa was protesting the Ethiopian government's killing of hundreds of the country's Oromo people — an ethnic majority that has long complained about being marginalized by the country's government. The group has held protests this year over plans to reallocate Oromo land. Many of those protests ended in bloodshed. For months, the Oromo have been using the same "X" gesture that Lilesa used at the finish line.
Sunday, December 18, 2016
Good News for Immigration Lawyers? Immigration lawyers see caseloads surge as anxious clients brace for Trump
With the Trump administration coming in little over than a month, immigrants are on high alert. Donald Trump campaigned for President with a tough set of immigration positions not seen for more than 50 years on the national stage. And immigration work will likely keep immigration attorneys busy at least for the foreseeable future.
Patricia Sullivan for the Washington Post reports that immigration attorneys "across the country say they have seen a surge in calls, consultations and clients since Election Day, a growth fueled by Trump’s anti-immigrant campaign rhetoric and the across-the-board gains of Republicans with hard-line views on border issues."
Based on USCIS statistics, the Pew Research Center calculated a 26 percent spike in citizenship applications from the first nine months (October to June) of the federal government’s fiscal 2015 to the same period in fiscal 2016. Part of that rush was driven by noncitizens who wanted to vote in the election.
Children, women and men who have fled their homes amid the ongoing refugee and migrant crisis, stand outside tents in a park next to the bus and train stations in Belgrade, Serbia.
Photo: UNICEF/ Shubuckl
International Migrants Day is an international day observed on 18 December. The General Assembly of United Nations in December 2000 designated the day to take into account the large and increasing number of migrants in the world. International Migrants Day is observed in many countries through the dissemination of information on human rights and fundamental political freedoms of migrants, and through sharing of experiences and the design of actions to ensure the protection of migrants.
The official UN page for International Migrants Day states that throughout human history, migration has been a courageous expression of the individual’s will to overcome adversity and to live a better life. Today, globalization, together with advances in communications and transportation, has greatly increased the number of people who have the desire and the capacity to move to other places.
This new era has created challenges and opportunities for societies throughout the world. It also has served to underscore the clear linkage between migration and development, as well as the opportunities it provides for co-development, that is, the concerted improvement of economic and social conditions at both origin and destination.
Migration draws increasing attention in the world nowadays. Mixed with elements of unforeseeability, emergency, and complexity, the challenges and difficulties of international migration require enhanced cooperation and collective action among countries and regions. The United Nations is actively playing a catalyst role in this area, with the aim of creating more dialogues and interactions within countries and regions, as well as propelling experience exchange and collaboration opportunities.
On September 19, 2016 the United Nations General Assembly adopted a set of commitments during its first ever summit on large movements of refugees and migrants to enhance the protection of refugees and migrants. These commitments are known as the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants (NY Declaration). The NY Declaration reaffirms the importance of the international protection regime and represents a commitment by Member States to strengthen and enhance mechanisms to protect people on the move. It paves the way for the adoption of two new global compacts in 2018: the global compact on refugees and the global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration.
For a message on International Migrants Day from the International Organization for Migration, click here.
Saturday, December 17, 2016
Supervisor Hilda Solis
State and local governments continue to brace themselves for the oncoming Trump immigration policies. Concern with legal representation long has been a concern for immigrants in removal proceedings. The immigration laws do not guarantee representation to immigrants facing possible removal from the United States and separation from family, employment, and community.
KPCC in Los Angeles reports that Los Angeles County supervisors, which governs the county that is the home of one of the largest immigrant communities in the United States, are expected to consider next week whether to set aside an initial $1 million to help cover legal services for unauthorized immigrants facing deportation.
The proposal from supervisors Janice Hahn and Hilda Solis would direct the county to earmark the funds for the current fiscal year to help immigrants living in the county without authorization. By some estimates, they number more than 800,000.
Nonprofit legal providers that serve immigrant clients would administer the program, according to Hahn's office. More funds would be sought next year.
The move to fund immigrant legal assistance comes as California state and local officials prepare to oppose President-elect Donald Trump's pledge to deport millions of immigrants living in the country illegally.
Samantha PowerU.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations
New York, New York
Ambassador Samantha Power is the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations (UN) and a member of President Barack Obama’s Cabinet. At the United Nations, Ambassador Power works to advance U.S. interests, promote and defend universal values, and address pressing global challenges to global peace, security, and prosperity. Prior to this role, Ambassador Power served as Special Assistant to President Obama and Senior Director for Multilateral Affairs and Human Rights on the National Security Staff at the White House. In this role she focused on issues including UN reform; LGBT and women’s rights; the promotion of religious freedom and the protection of religious minorities; human trafficking; and democracy and human rights.
Before joining the U.S. government, Ambassador Power was the Anna Lindh Professor of the Practice of Global Leadership and Public Policy at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, teaching courses on U.S. foreign policy, human rights, and UN reform. She was also the founding Executive Director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard. Ambassador Power began her career as a journalist, reporting from places such as Bosnia, East Timor, Kosovo, Rwanda, Sudan, and Zimbabwe, and contributed regularly to The Atlantic Monthly, The New Republic, the New York Review of Books, and The New Yorker Magazine.
Ambassador Power immigrated to the United States from Ireland at the age of nine and became a U.S. citizen in 1993. She is a Pulitzer Prize-winning author of two books and has received many accolades and awards. She received a B.A. from Yale University and a J.D. from Harvard Law School.
Immigration Article of the Day: Chaidez v. United States - You Can't Go Home Again by Aram A. Gavoor & Justin M. Orlosky
Chaidez v. United States - You Can't Go Home Again by Aram A. Gavoor (The George Washington University Law School) & Justin M. Orlosky, Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2015
Abstract: This article examines a 2013 Supreme Court decision, Chaidez v. United States, in which the Court declined to apply retroactively another recent decision, Padilla v. Kentucky. To many observers, Chaidez appears to be a discrete departure from previous Sixth Amendment right to counsel jurisprudence. On a personal level, noncitizens who pled guilty to a crime without being apprised of the plea’s removal risks are now unable to seek redress under Padilla and return to their homes in the United States. This article examines relevant Sixth Amendment and retroactivity jurisprudence and proposes an explanation for the Court’s apparent about-face.
Friday, December 16, 2016
The International Organization for Migration is reporting today (16/12) 7,189 migrants and refugees have died or remain missing on world migratory routes. This is the highest yearly number IOM has ever recorded, and represents an average of 20 deaths per day, suggesting the deaths of another 200-300 men, women and children well may be recorded worldwide before 2016 comes to an end.
This week’s number of migrant deaths recorded globally in 2016 was compiled by IOM’s Missing Migrants Project and Global Migration Data Analysis Centre. By comparison, total fatalities compiled by IOM in 2014 (5,267) and 2015 (5,740) both fell hundreds of victims short of the 6,000 mark, a figure that was surpassed this year before the end of November. As in the previous two years, the number of deaths on the three principal Mediterranean routes linking North Africa and the Middle East with Europe accounted for over 60 percent of all deaths worldwide.
IOM reports the number of migrants recorded as dead or missing and presumed dead – appears to be rising across all regions, including the Mediterranean, Northern and Southern Africa, as well as in Central America and in the United States-Mexico border region. Each already has surpassed those recorded in these regions through all of 2015, according to recent IOM data.
For Eastern and Northern Africa, the Missing Migrants Project relies on the work of the Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat’s (“RMMS”) Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism Initiative (“4Mi”), which surveys migrants from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia. Data collection monitors in migration hubs in 13 countries across Europe and Africa ask migrants in transit a variety of questions to do with their journey, including whether they have witnessed the deaths of other migrants along the way.
The findings of 4Mi’s survey indicates that over 700 migrants from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia have died during migration in 2016. These deaths are due to vehicle accidents, violent attacks and other harm associated with a lack of access to medicines, shelter, food and water during their journey. The majority of these deaths occurred in Sudan, Egypt and Libya. It is likely that many more deaths go unrecorded by any official government or humanitarian aid agency.
But they often are recorded by migrants themselves. Among IOM’s most important sources of information are testimonies of other migrants, who are videotaping these daily tragedies on cell phones, or alerting family members and friends of the deceased via Facebook posts and other social media. Mining these veins of information IOM’s Missing Migrants team this year discovered hundreds of victims in Latin America, off the coast of Yemen or on lonely highways across Africa.
Supreme Court News: Supplemental Briefing Ordered in Jennings v. Rodriguez, Cert Granted in Ineffective Assistance of Counsel Case
There are two pieces of immigration news from the Supreme Court.
First, the Court ordered supplemental briefing on the constitutional issues in Jennings v. Rodriguez, the immigration detention case in which the Court heard oral arguments on November 30. As discusssed in this post on SCOTUSBlog, the Ninth Circuit had interpreted the immigrant detention statutory provisions in a manner to avoid the constitutional questions and imposed the requirement that a bond hearing be held if a noncitizen were detained for longer than six months. At the oral argument, Chief Justice Roberts and others suggested that the Court might need to address the constitutional issues. The briefing ordered by the Court centers on the constitutional issues in the case.
As Amy Howe describes, the Court decided to review Lee v. United States, in which an immigrant facing removal on criminal grounds from the United States claims that he received in effective assistance of counsel in the underlying criminal proceeding. Jae Le lawfully me to the U.S. from South Korea in 1982 and eventually became a successful restauranteur. In 2009, he was charged with possession of ecstasy with intent to distribute. Lee’s attorney recommended that Lee plead guilty, so that he would receive a shorter sentence. Despite Lee’s attorney’s assurances to the contrary, a guilty plea would result in Lee’s permanent and mandatory deportation.
Lee later sought to vacate his conviction, arguing that he had been deprived of his constitutional right to have adequate assistance from his attorney. The government agreed that Lee could satisfy the first prong of the test to determine whether an attorney’s representation violated the Constitution: The attorney had indeed provided deficient advice when he told Lee that a guilty plea would not expose him to deportation. But the lower courts ruled that Lee could not show, as required by the second prong of the test, that he was prejudiced by that bad advice, because the evidence of his guilt was so overwhelming that he would have been convicted and deported anyway. The Court agreed to review this question.
Yesterday, Trump met with heavy hitters in the Tech industry including Apple CEO Tim Cook, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, Alphabet's Larry Page, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg and Tesla Motors CEO Elon Musk.
Silicon Valley news site Recode reports that immigration was discussed:
Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella brought up perhaps the most thorny issue: Immigration and how the government can help tech with things like H-1B visas to keep and bring in more talent. Nadella pointed out that much of the company’s spending on research and development was in the U.S., even if 50 percent of the sales were elsewhere, so that immigration would benefit those here.
Surprisingly to the group, Trump apparently responded favorably, “Let’s fix that,” he said, without a specific promise, and then asked, “What can I do to make it better?”
Immigrant of the Day: Antonia Hernandez, President and Chief Executive Officer, California Community Foundation
Nationally regarded for a career spanning four decades in social justice, expertise in philanthropy and the nonprofit sector, and a lifelong devotion to underserved communities in Los Angeles County and beyond, Antonia Hernández joined the California Community Foundation as president and chief executive officer in 2004. Established in 1915, the California Community Foundation is one of the largest and most active philanthropic organizations in Southern California, with assets of more than $1.5 billion. In partnership with its more than 1,600 individual, family and corporate donors, the foundation supports nonprofit organizations and public institutions with funds for health and human services, affordable housing, early childhood education, community arts and culture and other areas of need.
Previously, Hernández was president and general counsel of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), a national nonprofit litigation and advocacy organization dedicated to protecting the civil rights of the nation’s Latinos through the legal system, community education, and research and policy initiatives. Hernández earned her B.A. in History at UCLA in 1970 and J.D. at the UCLA School of Law in 1974. She became a U.S. citizen in 1975.
Immigration Article of the Day: No Hablamos Habeas: How Incarcerated Immigrant Inmates Struggle with Ineffective Assistance of Counsel Language Access Claims by Maria Pabon Lopez & Jessica Salafia
No Hablamos Habeas: How Incarcerated Immigrant Inmates Struggle with Ineffective Assistance of Counsel Language Access Claims by Maria Pabon Lopez (Loyola University New Orleans College of Law) & Jessica Salafia October 15, 2016 56 Santa Clara L. Rev. 703 (2016).
Abstract: This article examines the constitutional requirements of a fair and impartial criminal justice system that are impacted when a defendant does not speak English and is provided neither with an attorney who speaks their native language nor effective translation and interpretation services. It examines the Strickland v. Washington test for ineffective assistance of counsel claims and discusses language access habeas cases to demonstrate the inadequate state of language access in the legal system. The article concludes by reiterating the importance of safeguards for clients who speak foreign languages inside and outside the courtroom and provides some recommendations to assist in implementing necessary safeguards.
Thursday, December 15, 2016
The Honorable Sally Jewell
Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior
Washington, District of Columbia
Sally Jewell was sworn in as the 51st Secretary of the Interior on April 12, 2013 to lead an agency with more than 70,000 employees. Interior serves as steward for approximately 20 percent of the nation's lands, including national parks, national wildlife refuges, and other public lands; oversees the responsible development of conventional and renewable energy supplies on public lands and waters; is the largest supplier and manager of water in the 17 Western states; and upholds trust responsibilities to the 566 federally recognized American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.
Prior to her confirmation, Secretary Jewell served in the private sector, most recently as President and CEO of Recreation Equipment, Inc. (REI). She is also a former banker and oil industry engineer. An avid outdoorswoman, Secretary Jewell has worked to ensure that public lands are accessible and relevant to all people from all backgrounds, and to build a connection between the great outdoors and a new generation of Americans.
Secretary Jewell became a naturalized citizen in 1975 while in college. She had immigrated to the United States with her parents from England as a young child. She is the only member of President Barack Obama's Cabinet who is a naturalized citizen.
Immigration Article of the Day: Immigrants Outside the Law: President Obama, Discretionary Executive Power, and Regime Change by Leti Volpp
Immigrants Outside the Law: President Obama, Discretionary Executive Power, and Regime Change by Leti Volpp,University of California, Berkeley - School of Law December 1, 2016 3 Critical Analysis of Law 385 (2016)
Abstract: In November, 2014, President Barack Obama announced the creation of DAPA, a program which instructed executive branch officials to exercise their administrative discretion to defer the deportation of eligible applicants. The President’s announcement was met with a firestorm of controversy. Critics charged that, by altering the legal regime from one in which undocumented immigrants were to be deported to one of “executive amnesty,” the President had exceeded his authority, turning him into an “emperor” or a “king.” The President’s supporters saw no such regime change, insisting that the President was acting fully within his executive authority. Understanding this debate requires one both to delve into the complicated legal context, and to look beyond legal doctrine. The firestorm of controversy reflected broader concerns about discretionary executive power and the law, linked to anxiety regarding the sovereign’s head of state as “he who decides on the state of exception.” It also derived from specific concerns about President Obama as the embodiment of the sovereign: his racialized body, depicted as illegitimate and foreign, furthered the perception of his policies as illegal. Lastly, the fact that undocumented immigrants are not perceived as members of the body politic helped to produce this vision of DAPA as lawless regime change. In this telling, the sovereign actor, the beneficiaries of his action, and the act itself are all cast as illegitimate through a mutually reinforcing logic; all are exceptions that stand “outside the law.”
Wednesday, December 14, 2016
A class action suit has been filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois (aka Chicago) alleging systematic discrimination by Personnel Staffing Group, a temp agency, the Chicago Tribune reports. The plaintiffs, a group of African American men, allege that PSG improperly favored Hispanics over Black workers.
The plaintiffs allege that this preference was driven by the temp agency's clients, who routinely demanded Hispanic workers in lieu of Black workers. "An immigrant-dominated workforce, with language barriers and legal status concerns, is less likely to complain about failure to pay overtime, workplace injuries, wage theft or overwork," their attorney said.
This will be an interesting case to watch as it progresses.
The number of physical assaults against Muslims in the United States reached 9/11-era levels last year, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of new hate crimes statistics from the FBI. There were 91 reported aggravated or simple assaults motivated by anti-Muslim bias in 2015, just two shy of the 93 reported in 2001. Separately, the number of anti-Muslim intimidation crimes – defined as threatening bodily harm — also rose in 2015, with 120 reported to the FBI. Again, this was the most anti-Muslim intimidation crimes reported in any year since 2001, when there were 296.
OECD Development Centre: Perspectives on Global Development 2017 International Migration in a Shifting World
OECD Development Centre, Perspectives on Global Development 2017 presents an overview of the shifting of economic activity to developing countries and examines whether this shift has led to an increase in international migration towards developing countries. The report focuses on the latest data on migration between 1995 and 2015, and uses a new three-way categorisation of countries. It describes the recent evolution of migration overall as well as by groups of countries according to their growth performance.It analyses what drives these trends and also studies the special case of refugees. It examines the impact on migration of migration policies as well as various sectoral policies in developing countries of origin as well as of destination, and studies the impact of migration on these countries. The report also develops four illustrative future scenarios of migration in 2030 and recommends policies that can help improve the benefits of migration for origin and destination countries, as well as for migrants. Better data, more research and evidence-based policy action are needed to prepare for expected increases in the number of migrants from developing countries. More needs to be done to avoid situations that lead to refugee spikes as well as to foster sustainable development.
As an actor, he was best known for “Growing Pains,” the multi-camera family comedy that aired on ABC from 1985 to 1992. Thicke played Jason Seaver, a psychiatrist and patriarch of a Long Island family. Working out of the family’s home after his wife went back to work as a reporter, Seaver balanced his professional duties with his role caring for the couple’s three children. Thicke starred alongside Joanna Kerns, Kirk Cameron, Tracey Gold, Jeremy Miller, and later a young Leonardo DiCaprio.
Born in Kirkland Lake, Ontario in 1947, Thicke attended the University of Western Ontario after graduating from secondary school. Thicke came to U.S. television after having risen to prominence as a host and frequent talk-show guest in his native Canada.
The San Francisco Chronicle reports that the ImmigrationProf's blog own Bill Hing was appointed yesterday to the San Francisco Police Commission. Bill, adorned in cool shades in the photo above, will replace former prosecutor and deputy public defender Victor Hwang, who resigned after winning a race for San Francisco Superior Court judge in November.
Congratulations and good luck in your new role, Bill!
The blog IntLawGrrls: voices on international law, policy, practice, will celebrate its first decade with“IntLawGrrls! 10th Birthday Conference” on Friday, March 3, 2017. The daylong event will be held at the Dean Rusk International Law Center of the University of Georgia School of Law, which is hosting as part of its Georgia Women in Law Lead initiative.
Organizers Diane Marie Amann, Beth Van Schaack, Jaya Ramji-Nogales, and Kathleen A. Doty welcome paper proposals from academics, students, policymakers, and advocates, in English, French, or Spanish, on all topics in international, comparative, foreign, and transnational law and policy. In addition to paper workshops, there will be at least one plenary panel, on “strategies to promote women’s participation in shaping international law and policy amid the global emergence of antiglobalism.” The deadline for submissions will be January 1, 2017, though papers will be accepted on a rolling basis. Thanks to the generosity of the Planethood Foundation, a fund will help defray travel expenses for a number of students or very-early-career persons whose papers are accepted. For more information, see the call for papers/conference webpage and organizers’ posts, or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.