Friday, December 30, 2022
A New Method for Calculating Potassium Content and Determining Appropriate Potassium Levels in Foods
Abed Forouzesh (University of Tehran), Fatemeh Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), Sadegh Samadi Foroushani (University of Tehran), Abolfazl Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), A New Method for Calculating Potassium Content and Determining Appropriate Potassium Levels in Foods (2022):
Calculating the potassium content per 100 kcal, 100 g or 100 mL, or the reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) shows the potassium content of some foods inappropriately. So, making some food choices based on them to achieve adequate potassium intake may increase the risks of some chronic diseases. Calculating the potassium content and determining appropriate potassium levels (to achieve adequate potassium intake) based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), and the proposed method were performed in 8,192 food items. Making some food choices based on the FDA and CAC per serving (the serving is derived from the RACC) or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to achieve adequate potassium intake exceeded energy needs, which could lead to overweight or obesity. Making some food choices based on the CAC per 100 kcal or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to achieve adequate potassium intake did not meet potassium requirements, which could lead to potassium deficiency. Some foods that met potassium requirements were not appropriate food choices based on the CAC per 100 g or 100 mL or CAC per serving to achieve adequate potassium intake. On the basis of the proposed method, calculating the potassium content and determining appropriate potassium levels in foods are performed by considering RACCs and the energy content of foods. Thus, making food choices based on the proposed method met potassium requirements and did not exceed energy needs.
About 98.2% of foods contained potassium. On the basis of the proposed method, the average (%) of foods containing appropriate potassium levels in food groups was 4.61%, of which 4.43% was the average of potassium source (good source of potassium) foods, and 0.18% was the average of high potassium (excellent source of potassium) foods. Legumes and legume products with 19.46%, soups, sauces, and gravies with 16.27%, vegetables and vegetable products with 15.71%, finfish and shellfish products with 8.68%, American Indian/Alaska Native foods with 8.51%, pork products with 8.5%, meals, entrees, and side dishes with 8.43%, fruits and fruit juices with 7.28%, beverages with 4.37%, and dairy and egg products with 4% had the highest averages of foods containing appropriate potassium levels. The highest amounts of potassium were found in hearts of palm (not canned), lambsquarters, meat extender, beet greens, arrowhead, yam, yautia (tannia), vegetable soup, tomato soup, amaranth leaves, immature seeds of pinto bean, leafy tips of bitter gourd, breakfast cereal (made with bran or germ containing an appropriate potassium level), chrysanthemum, white beans, prune juice, pork ham with added potassium, potherb jute, chili with beans, green soybeans, carrot juice, plantains (not fried), passion-fruit juice, breadfruit, pink beans, lima beans, black bean soup, Sisymbrium sp. seeds, mamey sapote, taro, soybeans, jackfruit, chunky minestrone soup, dried apricots, coconut water, boiled potatoes, spinach, breadnut tree seeds, red potatoes (flesh and skin), white potatoes (flesh and skin), taro leaves, prune puree, durian, pork top loin chops with added potassium, tomato bisque prepared with milk, baked potatoes (flesh and skin), guavas, pork tenderloin with added potassium, chocolate yogurt, pinto beans, black beans, butterbur, potatoes au gratin, refried beans, cocoa mix (potassium-fortified), protein powder (potassium-fortified), spot (fish), kidney beans, cuttlefish, Florida pompano, pomegranate juice, wild Atlantic salmon, octopus, tomato juice, custard apple (bullock's heart), clam, water (potassium-fortified), grouper, scalloped potatoes, wild rainbow trout, chili beef soup, garden cress, Great Northern beans, goat milk, whelk, orange juice, bananas, papad, split pea soup with ham, hot cocoa made with milk, pigeon peas, chocolate malted milk drink (potassium-fortified), winged bean tuber, Chinese water chestnuts, chili con carne with beans, hashed brown potatoes, Spanish mackerel, potato chips (reduced fat), catjang cowpea, passion-fruit, chocolate dairy drink mix (potassium-fortified), yellowfin tuna, lingcod, Atlantic and Pacific halibut, king mackerel, tilefish, lotus root, and chum salmon. Foods containing appropriate potassium levels were not found in five food groups (baked products; cereal grains and pasta; fats and oils; spices and herbs; sweets) and were very few in 10 food groups (beef products; lamb, veal, and game products; poultry products; fast foods; sausages and luncheon meats; snacks; baby foods; breakfast cereals; nut and seed products; restaurant foods).