Wednesday, August 17, 2022
A New Method for Calculating Magnesium Content and Determining Appropriate Magnesium Levels in Foods
Abed Forouzesh (University of Tehran), Fatemeh Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), Sadegh Samadi Foroushani (University of Tehran), Abolfazl Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), A New Method for Calculating Magnesium Content and Determining Appropriate Magnesium Levels in Foods, SSRN (2022):
Calculating the magnesium content per 100 kcal, 100 g or 100 mL, or the reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) shows the magnesium content of some foods inappropriately. So, making some food choices based on them to achieve adequate magnesium intake may increase the risks of some chronic diseases. Calculating the magnesium content and determining appropriate magnesium levels (to achieve adequate magnesium intake) based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), and the proposed method were performed in 7,887 food items. Making some food choices based on the FDA and CAC per serving (the serving is derived from the RACC) or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to achieve adequate magnesium intake exceeded energy needs, which could lead to overweight or obesity. Making some food choices based on the CAC per 100 kcal or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to achieve adequate magnesium intake did not meet magnesium requirements, which could lead to magnesium deficiency. Some foods that met magnesium requirements were not appropriate food choices based on the CAC per 100 g or 100 mL or CAC per serving to achieve adequate magnesium intake. On the basis of the proposed method, calculating the magnesium content and determining appropriate magnesium levels in foods are performed by considering RACCs and the energy content of foods. Thus, making food choices based on the proposed method met magnesium requirements and did not exceed energy needs. About 97.2% of foods contained magnesium. On the basis of the proposed method, the average (%) of foods containing appropriate magnesium levels in food groups was 13.81%, of which 10.7% was the average of magnesium source (good source of magnesium) foods, and 3.11% was the average of high magnesium (excellent source of magnesium) foods. Legumes and legume products with 64.84%, nut and seed products with 54.41%, baby foods with 53.7%, breakfast cereals with 35.34%, and cereal grains and pasta with 32.04% had the highest averages of foods containing appropriate magnesium levels. The highest amounts of magnesium were found in breakfast cereal (made with bran, germ, or whole grain containing an appropriate magnesium level), snail, lambsquarters, hemp seeds, conch, soybean curd cheese, pumpkin and squash seeds, watermelon seed kernels, protein shake (magnesium-fortified), meat extender, papad, moth beans, fireweed leaves, cottonseed kernels, whey protein powder isolate, yardlong beans, whelk, leafy tips of bitter gourd, prickly pears, peanut butter (magnesium-fortified), flaxseed, rice bran, oat bran muffins, dock, cottonseed meal, spinach, Brazil nuts, Swiss chard, amaranth grain, cottonseed flour, nutrition shake (magnesium-fortified), sesame seeds, hyacinth beans, safflower seed kernels, chinook salmon, buckwheat, white and wild rice mix, chia seeds, soybeans, sunflower seed butter, formulated bar (made with whole grain, nut, legume, soy or whey protein, or chocolate containing an appropriate magnesium level), yellow beans, lima beans, Sisymbrium sp. seeds, spinach spaghetti, mungo beans, wheat bran, Piki bread made from blue cornmeal, quinoa, almond butter, white beans, cashew nuts, chili with beans, almonds, rose hips, pink beans, chocolate instant breakfast drink (magnesium-fortified), pili nuts, teff, cashew butter, oats, wild rice, black bean soup, buckwheat pancakes, buckwheat flour, sesame crunch, scotch kale, sorghum, Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic Pollock, French beans, whole wheat pasta, beaked hazelnuts, lupin beans, pine nuts, common ling, cowpeas, tempeh, spelt, cocoa-rich chocolate (at least 70% cocoa solids), chocolate yogurt, tofu yogurt, fava beans, great northern beans, mung beans, durum wheat, medium-grain brown rice, pigeon peas, Indian buffalo milk, and yellow rice with seasoning. Foods containing appropriate magnesium levels were not found in five food groups (beef products; fats and oils; pork products; sausages and luncheon meats; spices and herbs) and were few in 11 food groups (fast foods; lamb, veal, and game products; poultry products; baked products; fruits and fruit juices; soups, sauces, and gravies; sweets; restaurant foods; dairy and egg products; meals, entrees, and side dishes; beverages).