Wednesday, August 10, 2022
Abed Forouzesh (University of Tehran), Fatemeh Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), Sadegh Samadi Foroushani (University of Tehran), Abolfazl Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), A New Method for Calculating Choline Content and Determining Appropriate Choline Levels in Foods, SSRN (2022):
Calculating the choline content per 100 kcal, 100 g or 100 mL, or the reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) shows the choline content of some foods inappropriately. So, making some food choices based on them to achieve adequate choline intake may increase the risks of some chronic diseases. Calculating the choline content and determining appropriate choline levels (to achieve adequate choline intake) based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), and the proposed method were performed in 4,691 food items. Making some food choices based on the FDA and CAC per serving (the serving is derived from the RACC) or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to achieve adequate choline intake exceeded energy needs, which could lead to overweight or obesity. Making some food choices based on the CAC per 100 kcal or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to achieve adequate choline intake did not meet choline requirements, which could lead to choline deficiency. Some foods that met choline requirements were not appropriate food choices based on the CAC per 100 g or 100 mL or CAC per serving to achieve adequate choline intake. On the basis of the proposed method, calculating the choline content and determining appropriate choline levels in foods are performed by considering RACCs and the energy content of foods. Thus, making food choices based on the proposed method met choline requirements and did not exceed energy needs. About 96.5% of foods contained choline. On the basis of the proposed method, the average (%) of foods containing appropriate choline levels in food groups was 21.91%, of which 19.35% was the average of choline source (good source of choline) foods, and 2.56% was the average of high choline (excellent source of choline) foods. Lamb, veal, and game products with 90.8%, pork products with 88.15%, finfish and shellfish products with 86.67%, beef products with 83.45%, and poultry products with 69.7% had the highest averages of foods containing appropriate choline levels. The highest amounts of choline were found in egg yolks, scrambled eggs, omelet, whole eggs (such as chicken egg, duck egg, goose egg, and quail egg), Braunschweiger (a liver sausage), liver pate, most meats (meat from lamb, mutton, veal, pork, beef, finfish, shellfish, poultry, and meat from other species, excluding fat, suet, poultry skin, breakfast strips, cured salt pork, bacon strips, smoked or kippered finfish, and anchovy), nutrition shake (choline-fortified), hot and sour soup, soy vermicelli, sandwich with egg, tofu yogurt, egg drop soup, caviar, edamame, soy protein, whey protein, soy milk, corn pudding, eggnog, spinach soufflé, soy burgers, pork head cheese, and shiitake mushrooms. Foods containing appropriate choline levels were not found in seven food groups (cereal grains and pasta; fats and oils; fruits and fruit juices; nut and seed products; snacks; spices and herbs; sweets) and were very few in six food groups (baked products; breakfast cereals; soups, sauces, and gravies; beverages; vegetables and vegetable products; sausages and luncheon meats). Major foods containing appropriate choline levels were allocated to meat-containing foods and egg yolk-containing foods. However, few numbers of foods containing appropriate choline levels were found in legumes and legume products, vegetables, soy protein- or whey protein-containing foods, and wheat germ-containing foods.