HealthLawProf Blog

Editor: Katharine Van Tassel
Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Saturday, August 6, 2022

A New Method for Calculating Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Contents and Determining Appropriate Cholesterol Levels in Foods

Abed Forouzesh (University of Tehran), Fatemeh Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), Sadegh Samadi Foroushani (University of Tehran), Abolfazl Forouzesh (Islamic Azad University), A New Method for Calculating Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Contents and Determining Appropriate Cholesterol Levels in Foods, SSRN (2022):

Calculating the cholesterol and saturated fat contents per 100 g or 100 mL, 50 g, or the reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) shows the cholesterol and saturated fat contents of some foods inappropriately. So, making some food choices based on them to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes may increase the risks of some chronic diseases. Calculating the cholesterol and saturated fat contents and determining appropriate cholesterol levels (to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes) based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), and the proposed method were performed in 8,068 food items. Making some food choices based on the FDA per serving (the serving is derived from the RACC, 100 g, or 50 g) or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes exceeded cholesterol or saturated fat needs, which could lead to high LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol concentration in the blood. Some foods that did not exceed cholesterol and saturated fat needs were not appropriate food choices based on the FDA per serving or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes. Making food choices based on the proposed method to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes did not exceed cholesterol and saturated fat needs. Also, foods that did not exceed cholesterol and saturated fat needs were appropriate food choices based on the proposed method to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes. About 56% and 95% of foods contained cholesterol and saturated fat, respectively. On the basis of the proposed method, the averages (%) of cholesterol free and low cholesterol foods in food groups were 34.83% and 38.67%, respectively. Fruits and fruit juices (99.35% and 99.35%), vegetables and vegetable products (94.39% and 94.92%), breakfast cereals (93.55% and 93.55%), cereal grains and pasta (90.24% and 90.24%), spices and herbs (88.71% and 88.71%), beverages (85.99% and 89.25%), and legumes and legume products (75.07% and 78.43%) had the highest averages (%) of cholesterol free and low cholesterol foods. Foods containing appropriate cholesterol levels were not found or were very few in eight food groups (lamb, veal, and game products; poultry products; pork products; beef products; finfish and shellfish products; sausages and luncheon meats; fast foods; restaurant foods). The highest amounts of cholesterol were found in animal organs (such as brain, kidney, liver, testes, giblets, spleen, sweetbread, gizzard, lungs, pancreas, heart, thymus, stomach, chitterlings, tongue, and tripe), egg yolks, scrambled eggs, omelet, whole eggs (such as turkey egg, duck egg, goose egg, quail egg, and chicken egg), sandwich with egg, breaded fried chicken, liver pate, chocolate mousse, fish oils (such as herring oil, sardine oil, cod liver oil, menhaden oil, and salmon oil), caviar, squid, cuttlefish, shrimp, lobster, and eel. In general, the cholesterol free and low cholesterol claims were not met in meat-containing foods, egg yolk-containing foods, and fat- or oil-containing foods. However, these claims were met in foods containing small amounts of meat, egg yolk, fat, or oil. Meats (such as beef, veal, lamb, mutton, pork, poultry, finfish, shellfish, and meat from other species), egg yolks, fats, and oils of animal origin contained cholesterol and saturated fat, and fats and oils of plant origin contained saturated fat.

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/healthlawprof_blog/2022/08/a-new-method-for-calculating-cholesterol-and-saturated-fat-contents-and-determining-appropriate-chol.html

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