Monday, October 29, 2018
The reported announcement that the United States is sending "5,200 troops, military helicopters and giant spools of razor wire to the Mexican border in the coming days to brace for the arrival of Central American migrants President Trump is calling 'an invasion," raises the question of Presidential authority under the Constitution.
Professor Rudesill (pictured) asks "What is the constitutional textual basis for key statutes that constrain the national security apparatus and condition the President’s ability to direct it – statutes that are neither spending limitations, nor war declarations or authorizations for the use of military force (AUMFs), nor militia laws?"
He notes that there are a series of such statutory frameworks, including the Posse Comitatus Act and its relatives which generally operates as a default ban on active duty federal armed forces engaging in law enforcement. He argues that the best textual footing for such statutes is Article I, Section 8, Clause 14 of the Constitution. This clause gives Congress the power “To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces.”
The statutory frameworks at the heart of the national security legal regime that find textual grounding in the Forces Clause are important to the republic at any moment. There are constant and enduring operational pressures and political incentives for the Executive Branch to disregard the law and its liberty/security balancing work. These statutory frameworks are of special importance, however, in a time of chronic national insecurity: war without end against transnational terrorist networks and within cyberspace, and the alarm and constant engagement of the military and intelligence apparatus they engender. These statutory frameworks safeguard liberty in the atmosphere of uncertainty and fear that national insecurity, together with dysfunctional government and volatile politics, produces. Such anxiety was not, of course, unknown to the Framers . . . .
He contends that Courts could take up the issues, but also Congress has an important role:
Congress’s authority to govern and regulate the land and naval forces and control their Commander in Chief is contingent. The Forces Clause does not stipulate a one-way ratchet toward greater liberty protections. Congress could choose not to use the Forces Clause’s authority – it could acquiesce to harsh presidential discipline of the military, authoritarian employment of it against the people, or reckless use of it abroad. Congress could use the Clause’s authority to weaken FISA, the Posse Comitatus Act, and other liberty-protecting laws. Or, Congress could choose to use the Clause’s authority actively – and more explicitly and consistently – to balance liberty and security considerations in a manner that protects both. The Clause’s potential, like the republic’s fate, ultimately resides with Congress and the love of liberty among the people the Article I branch represents, governs, and protects.
An interesting read as the composition of Congress is at issue in the midterm election.