Chinese Law Prof Blog

Editor: Donald C. Clarke
George Washington University Law School

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Criminalization of test cheating? Less than meets the eye.

The Shanghaiist blog recently reported on a recent amendment to the Criminal Law that will come into effect on Nov. 1st, saying, "Chinese students who cheat on exams could now face up to 7 years in prison." (Here's a similar story from the China Daily headlined "Cheating in civil service exams means seven-year jail".) Well, not exactly. Actually, not even close.

There is indeed a new rule about cheating on official state examinations, including the all-important gaokao (university entrance examination). It will appear as Article 284A (第二百八十四条之一) in the revised Criminal Law.

Here's the full text in Chinese:

  • 在法律规定的国家考试中,组织作弊的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;情节严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。This provision provides for up to seven years' imprisonment for those who organize cheating in serious circumstances. This is not a punishment for the cheaters themselves.
  • 为他人实施前款犯罪提供作弊器材或者其他帮助的,依照前款的规定处罚。 This provides punishment under the previous paragraph for those who assist in the above offense by providing cheating equipment or other assistance. Again, no punishment for cheaters themselves.
  • 为实施考试作弊行为,向他人非法出售或者提供第一款规定的考试的试题、答案的,依照第一款的规定处罚。This provides punishment under Para. 1 for those who sell or other supply exam questions and answers in order to help people cheat. No punishment for cheaters themselves.
  • 代替他人或者让他人代替自己参加第一款规定的考试的,处拘役或者管制,并处或者单处罚金。Finally, we have some language that provides punishment for cheaters themselves. But it applies only to one kind of cheating: impersonating a test-taker to take the test, or having someone impersonate you to take the test. There is no punishment for any other kind of cheating. And the punishment for cheating by impersonation is light: detention (拘役), which is for between one and six months, or control (管制), which is similar to probation.

Bottom line: The headline should read, “Chinese students who cheat in one particular way on exams could face up to six months in detention.”

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