Friday, July 23, 2021
Professor Martin Edwards (Belmont University College of Law) and I are excited to moderate a discussion group titled, “A Very Online Economy: Meme Trading, Bitcoin, and the Crisis of Trust and Value(s)—How Should the Law Respond,” at the 2022 American Association of Law Schools Annual Meeting. The discussion group is scheduled to take place (virtually) on Friday, January 7, 2022. We welcome responses to the call for participation (here). Here’s the description:
Emergent forces emanating from social and financial technologies are challenging many underlying assumptions about the workings of markets, the nature of firms, and our social relationship with our economic institutions. The 21st century economy and financial architecture are built on faith and trust in centralized institutions. Perhaps it is not surprising that in 2008, a time where that faith and trust waned, a different architecture called “blockchain” emerged. It promised “trustless” exchange, verifiable intermediation, and “decentralization” of value transfer.
In 2021, the financial architecture and its institutions suffered a broadside from socialmedia-fueled “meme” and “expressive” traders. It may not be a coincidence that many of these traders reached adulthood around 2008, when the crisis called into question whether that real money, those real securities, or that real, fundamental value were really real at all. People are engaging with questions about social values in an increasingly uneasy way. There is a flux not only in the substantive values, but also with what set of institutions people should trust to produce, disseminate, and enforce values.
One question is what role business corporations might play in this moment, which is being worked out most prominently through discussions about environmental and social governance (ESG). Social and financial technologies may be rewriting longstanding assumptions about social and economic institutions. Blockchains challenge our assumptions about the need for centralization, trust, and institutions, while meme or expressive trading and ESG challenge our assumptions about economic value, market processes, and social values.
It promises to be a great discussion!
Saturday, June 26, 2021
The AALS Section on Financial Institutions and Consumer Financial Services invites submissions of no more than five pages for its session at the 2022 annual meeting of the AALS. Next year’s annual meeting will be held virtually from January 5-9, 2022, with the date and time of the Section’s session yet to be announced. The submission can be the abstract and/or introduction from a longer paper, and it should relate to the following session description:
Climate Finance and Banking Regulation: Beyond Disclosure?
In the United States, banking regulation has been slower than other forms of financial regulation (and slower than its European counterparts) to address climate-related financial risks. This panel explores the proper role of banking regulation in addressing the physical and transition risks from climate change. Possible measures include: standardized, mandatory climate risk disclosures by banks; supervisory assessments of climate-related financial risk; capital and liquidity regulation; climate risk scenario tests; determination of the appropriate role of banks in mitigating climate risk; financial stability oversight of climate risk; and action (through the Community Reinvestment Act and otherwise) to deter harms to disadvantaged communities and communities of color from climate change.
Please email your anonymized materials by Friday, July 16, 2021, to Joe Graham, firstname.lastname@example.org. Please also indicate, in addition to the proposal submission of up to five pages: (a) whether you are tenured, pre-tenure, or other; (b) whether you are in your first five years as a law professor (including any years spent as a fellow or visiting assistant professor); (c) how far along the full article is and when you expect to complete the discussion draft; and (d) optionally, how you would contribute to diverse perspectives in our field or on the panel.
The Section will announce the author(s) selected to present by no later than early September, 2021.
On behalf of the Section on Financial Institutions and Consumer Financial Protection
Chair: Patricia A. McCoy (Boston College)
Chair-Elect: Paolo Saguato (George Mason University)
Executive Committee Members:
Hilary Allen (American University)
Abbye Atkinson (University of California, Berkeley)
Felix Chang (University of Cincinnati)
Gina-Gail S. Fletcher (Duke University)
Pamela Foohey (Indiana University)
Kathryn Judge (Columbia University)
Michael Malloy (University of the Pacific)
Christopher Odinet (University of Iowa)
Jennifer Taub (Western New England University)
Rory Van Loo (Boston University)
David Zaring (The Wharton School)
Friend of the BLPB, Professor Sagi Peari, recently shared the great news about the publication of his second book with Oxford University Press, International Negotiable Instruments (w/Professor Benjamin Geva). A huge congratulations to the profs on this impressive accomplishment on such an important topic! Here's the book abstract:
For centuries, negotiable instruments have played a vital role in the smooth operation of domestic and international commerce. The payment mechanisms have been subject to rapid technological progress and law has needed to adapt and respond to ensure that the legal framework remains relevant and effective. This book provides a comprehensive and thorough analysis of the question of applicable law to negotiable instruments. Specifically, the authors challenge the conventional view according to which the fundamentals of negotiable instruments law are excluded from the scope and insights of general contract and property law doctrines and as such not subject to the general conflict of laws rules governing them. The authors make concrete suggestions for reform and contemplate on the nature of the conflict of laws rules that can also be applied in the digital age of communication.
Wednesday, June 16, 2021
Lev Menand, Academic Fellow and Lecturer in Law at Columbia Law School, has recently published Why Supervise Banks? The Foundations of the American Monetary Settlement, 74 Vanderbilt Law Review 951 (2021). Menand has actually worked in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York's Bank Supervision Group. I'm excited to read this article as banking law scholars are increasingly focused on the area of bank supervision and I've no doubt it makes a significant contribution to the literature. Here's the article's abstract:
Administrative agencies are generally designed to operate at arm’s length, making rules and adjudicating cases. But the banking agencies are different: they are designed to supervise. They work cooperatively with banks and their remedial powers are so extensive they rarely use them. Oversight proceeds through informal, confidential dialogue.
Today, supervision is under threat: banks oppose it, the banking agencies restrict it, and scholars misconstrue it. Recently, the critique has turned legal. Supervision’s skeptics draw on a uniform, flattened view of administrative law to argue that supervision is inconsistent with norms of due process and transparency. These arguments erode the intellectual and political foundations of supervision. They also obscure its distinguished past and deny its continued necessity.
This Article rescues supervision and recovers its historical pedigree. It argues that our current understanding of supervision is both historically and conceptually blinkered. Understanding supervision requires understanding the theory of banking motivating it and revealing the broader institutional order that depends on it. This Article terms that order the “American Monetary Settlement” (“AMS”). The AMS is designed to solve an extremely difficult governance problem—creating an elastic money supply. It uses specially chartered banks to create money and supervisors to act as outsourcers, overseeing the managers who operate banks.
Supervision is now under increasing pressure due to fundamental changes in the political economy of finance. Beginning in the 1950s, the government started to allow nonbanks to expand the money supply, devaluing the banking franchise. Then, the government weakened the link between supervision and money creation by permitting banks to engage in unrelated business activities. This transformation undermined the normative foundations of supervisory governance, fueling today’s desupervisory movement. Desupervision, in turn, cedes public power to private actors and risks endemic economic instability.
Wednesday, June 9, 2021
On June 3rd, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (Court) decided Lacewell v. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (here). I’d previously blogged about the “Dueling Law Professor Amicus Curiae Briefs” (here and here, see Appendix A of the Opinion for a listing of these briefs) in this heavily watched federal fintech charter case about whether the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) has the authority to issue special-purpose national bank (SPNB) charters for fintech firms “engaged in the ‘business of banking,’ including those that do not accept deposits.” I promised to update BLPB readers when the Court rendered its decision.
In a nutshell, the Court reversed the district court's amended judgement and remanded “with instructions to enter a judgement of dismissal without prejudice.” The Court explained that DFS [the New York State Department of Financial Services, of which plaintiff Lacewell is Superintendent] lacked “standing because it failed to allege that the OCC’s decision caused it to suffer an actual or imminent injury in fact and...that DFS’s claims are constitutionally unripe for substantially the same reason.” Given these considerations, the Court stated that it did not have the jurisdiction to “address the district court’s holding, on the merits, that the ‘business of banking’ under the NBA [National Bank Act] unambiguously requires the receipt of deposits, nor whether that holding warrants setting aside Section 5.20(e)(1)(i) [OCC regulation permitting issuance of SPNB charters] nationwide with respect to non-depository fintechs applying for SPNB charters.” It added that “we express no view on the district court’s determinations regarding these issues.”
Of course, what constitutes the business of banking – whether deposit taking is required by the NBA to be a chartered bank – is the critical issue. Stay tuned! In the meantime, law firm analyses are available (for example, here and here) for readers interested in a more extensive discussion of this decision!
Wednesday, June 2, 2021
I thought I'd essentially copy the idea behind co-blogger Joshua Fershee's post from yesterday (thanks, Josh!) and share with readers that my new short article, Clearinghouse Shareholders and "No Creditor Worse Off Than in Liquidation" Claims is now available! Similarly, my article is a combination of a prior post and my presentation at the fourth annual Business Law Prof Blog Symposium. Here's its abstract:
Clearinghouses are the centerpiece of global policymakers’ 2009
framework of reforms in the over-the-counter derivative markets in
response to the 2007–08 financial crisis. Dodd-Frank’s Title VII
implemented these reforms in the U.S. More than ten years have now
passed since the establishment of this framework. Yet much work
continues on outstanding issues surrounding the recovery and
resolution of a distressed or insolvent clearinghouse. This Article
examines one of these issues: the possibility of clearinghouse
shareholders raising no creditor worse off than in liquidation claims
in resolution. It argues that such claims are nonsensical and should
be unavailable to clearinghouse shareholders. This would decrease
moral hazard in and promote the rationalization of the global
clearing ecosystem for derivatives.
I also want to encourage BLPB readers to review the perceptive commentary by Professor Thomas E. Plank on my article (here). Finally, I'd like to thank the Transactions law review student editors for their excellent work!
Wednesday, May 26, 2021
If you missed this past Monday's Regulating Megabanks: A Conference in Honor of Art Wilmarth, don't worry, it was recorded! I'll keep BLPB readers posted about when the recorded webinar is available online [now available -see link at bottom of post!]. In the meantime, Professor Wilmarth has just posted a new working paper, Wirecard and Greensill Scandals Confirm Dangers of Mixing Banking and Commerce, to keep you busy until then! Here's the abstract:
The pandemic crisis has accelerated the entry of financial technology (“fintech”) firms into the banking industry. Some of the new fintech banks are owned or controlled by commercial enterprises. Affiliations between commercial firms and fintech banks raise fresh concerns about the dangers of mixing banking and commerce. Recent scandals surrounding the failures of Wirecard and Greensill Capital (Greensill) reveal the potential magnitude of those perils.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) have encouraged commercial enterprises to acquire fintech banks. The FDIC has authorized commercial firms to acquire FDIC-insured industrial banks in reliance on a controversial loophole in the Bank Holding Company Act (BHC Act). The OCC is seeking to charter nondepository fintech national banks, which commercial firms could own under a separate exemption in the BHC Act. The FDIC’s and OCC’s initiatives undermine – and could potentially destroy – the BHC Act’s longstanding policy of separating banking and commerce.
The disasters at Wirecard and Greensill demonstrate the importance of maintaining a strict separation between banking and commerce. Regulators in Germany and other countries allowed banks controlled by Wirecard and Greensill to engage in risky and abusive transactions that benefited their parent companies and other related parties, including commercial firms connected to their major investors. Wirecard Bank provided financial support to its parent company and CEO, and it also made fraudulent transfers of funds to insiders and their controlled entities. Greensill Bank made preferential and unsound loans that benefited its parent company and leading investors. Greensill Bank securitized many of its reckless loans, and Greensill Capital sold the resulting asset-backed securities as “safe” and “liquid” investments to misinformed investors.
Regulators failed to take timely enforcement actions against Wirecard and Greensill because they did not exercise consolidated supervisory authority over the complex international structures created by both firms. In addition, Wirecard and Greensill built extensive networks of influence that produced significant political favors and regulatory forbearance in Germany and the U.K. The collapse of Wirecard and Greensill embarrassed government agencies and inflicted massive losses on investors, creditors, and other stakeholders.
The failures of Wirecard and Greensill provide clear warnings about the dangers of allowing fintechs to offer banking services while evading prudential regulatory requirements and supervisory standards that apply to traditional banks and their corporate owners. Regulators and policymakers should not allow fintechs’ claims of “innovation” to serve as a rationale for regulatory arbitrage and as camouflage for fraud. Both disasters show that high-tech firms engaged in banking and commercial activities are likely to create the same unacceptable hazards as previous banking-and-commercial conglomerates, including toxic conflicts of interest, reckless lending, dangerous concentrations of economic power and political influence, supervisory blind spots, and systemic threats to economic and financial stability.
Revised as of 5/28/2021: the recorded webinar of Regulating Megabanks a Conference in Honor of Art Wilmarth is now available on Youtube.
Wednesday, May 19, 2021
Dear BLPB readers:
Here's an event you won't want to miss! Check out the phenomenal speaker lineup!
Regulating Megabanks: A Conference in Honor of Arthur Wilmarth
May 24 @ 8:50 am - 5:30 pm
The public may access the webinar at the following link: https://cu.law/lawreview
Wednesday, May 5, 2021
Last week, I blogged about my new article, The Federal Reserve As Collateral's Last Resort, in the Notre Dame Law Review. I mentioned that this shorter work is a first step in a larger normative project on central bank collateral frameworks. As I progress with this research, I'm adding new articles to my reading list for this new article. Peter Conti-Brown, Yair Listokin, & Nicholas R. Parrillo recently posted their new work, Towards An Administrative Law of Central Banking, published in the Yale Journal on Regulation. It immediately made the list! Here's the Abstract:
A world in turmoil caused by COVID-19 has revealed again what has long been true: the Federal Reserve is arguably the most powerful administrative agency in government, but neither administrative-law scholars nor the Fed itself treat it that way. In this Article, we present the first effort to map the contours of what administrative law should mean for the Fed, with particular attention to the processes the Fed should follow in determining and announcing legal interpretations and major policy changes. First, we synthesize literature from administrative law and social science to show the advantages that an agency like the Fed can glean from greater openness and transparency in its interpretations of law and in its long-term policymaking processes. These advantages fall into two categories: (1) sending more credible signals of future action and thereby shaping the behavior of regulated parties and other constituents, and (2) increasing the diversity of incoming information on which to base decisions, thereby improving their factual and predictive accuracy. Second, we apply this framework to two key areas—monetary policy and emergency lending—to show how the Fed can improve its policy signaling and input diversity in the areas of its authority that are most expansive. The result is a positive account of what the Fed already does as an administrative agency and a normative account of what it should do in order to preserve necessary policy flexibility without sacrificing the public demands for policy clarity and rigor.
Wednesday, April 28, 2021
I’m delighted to share with BLPB readers that my new Essay, The Federal Reserve As Collateral’s Last Resort, 96 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1381 (2021) is now available (here). Its focus is central bank collateral frameworks, a critical and timely topic that has thus far received scant attention from legal scholars. I recently blogged about Professor Skinner’s Central Bank Activism. Regardless of one’s perspective on this issue, it’s crucial to realize that a central bank’s collateral framework is the mechanism that promotes or limits such activism. The institutional features of these frameworks are a combination of legislation and central bank policy, with the latter arguably being the most important influence on the Fed’s framework.
As the first paragraph of my Essay explains “Central bank money or liquidity is at the heart of modern economies. It is issued against collateral designated as eligible by, and on terms defined by, central bank collateral frameworks…what is often underappreciated is that the ultimate practical difference between an illiquid and insolvent firm is whether a firm has assets a central bank, such as the Federal Reserve, will accept as collateral for lending or for purchase, and at what valuation. What ultimately constitutes “good” or central bank “eligible” collateral, how best to assess its value, and whose perspective on these questions matters most are critical issues at the heart of central bank collateral frameworks.” (footnotes in Essay omitted throughout this post).
In the financial crisis of 2007-09, the Fed rescued both Bear Stearns and American International Group, but not Lehman Brothers. Fed officials explained that Lehman did not have collateral sufficient to secure its lending assistance. Some economists have disagreed with this assessment. Yet regardless of who is right about this issue, “the respective histories of these firms attest to the centrality of collateral and central bank collateral frameworks in modern credit markets.”
Central bank collateral frameworks also impact “the production, liquidity and pricing of assets that markets use as collateral…[and] market discipline and enable indirect bailouts of firms and governments.” In other words, central bank collateral frameworks can potentially incentivize the production of junk assets.
Much of my research has focused on clearinghouses. If the Fed were to provide funding assistance under Dodd-Frank’s Title VIII to a distressed, designated clearinghouse, an important consideration would be the collateral securing such funding. The loan might be “fully collateralized,” but the type of collateral actually securing the loan and its valuation would bear upon whether the assistance amounted to emergency liquidity provision or a bailout. As I note in The Federal Reserve As Last Resort, it's curious that while Dodd-Frank added collateral related provisions to the Fed's longstanding Section 13(3) emergency authority, it included no such provisions with the Fed's new liquidity authority in Title VIII for designated financial market utilities such as clearinghouses.
As the importance of the shadow banking system has increased, so too has the role of collateral in financial markets. The Fed provided extensive assistance to the shadow banking system in the financial crisis of 2007-09 and in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Although economists and legal scholars have written about the shadow banking system and the Fed’s emergency liquidity facilities, there has been little focus on central bank collateral frameworks. More work is needed in this area. Manmohan Singh’s Collateral Markets and Financial Plumbing and Kjell G. Nyborg’s Collateral Frameworks: The Open Secret of Central Banks are important (and some of the only) contributions in this general area.
In sum, my Essay is meant to be a “first step in a broader normative project analyzing the proper balance between legislation and central bank policy—between architecture and implementation—in shaping the Federal Reserve’s collateral framework to best promote market discipline and to minimize credit allocation. Its modest aim is twofold. First, it provides the first analysis of central bank collateral frameworks in the legal scholarship. Second, it analyzes the equilibrium between legislation and central bank policy in the Federal Reserve’s collateral framework in the context of its section 13(3) emergency liquidity authority, lending authority for designated financial market utilities, and swap lines with foreign central banks, and general implications of these arrangements.”
My article, The Federal Reserve’s Use of International Swap Lines, was the first law review piece to analyze the Fed’s central bank swap lines. It started with the following quote from an article by John Dizard in the Financial Times: “Always define every issue as just a technical problem.” Central bank swap lines are anything but a mere technical issue. Similarly, BLPB readers should understand that the collateral framework of the Fed and other central banks is much more than just a technical central banking problem. It is a topic that should be of interest to all.
Finally, I’d like to thank NYU School of Law's Classical Liberal Institute and the Notre Dame Law Review for the opportunity to participate in their workshop on The Public Valuation of Private Assets (additional articles here). And I’d also like to thank Zachary Pohlman, Editor-in-Chief, Lauren Hanna, Symposium Editor, and all of the other members of the Notre Dame Law Review who edited my Essay for their superb work!
Wednesday, March 24, 2021
I always learn a ton in reading Professor Julie Andersen Hill's banking articles. A TON! Hence, I'm excited to see that she recently posted her new piece, Cannabis Banking: What Marijuana Can Learn from Hemp (forthcoming 2021, Boston University Law Review). This is her second article on cannabis banking, the first being an excellent symposium piece, Banks, Marijuana, and Federalism. As both houses of Congress have recently reintroduced the SAFE Banking Act, these articles couldn't be more timely. Here's the abstract for Cannabis Banking:
Marijuana-related businesses have banking problems. Many banks explain that because marijuana is illegal under federal law, they will not serve the industry. Even when marijuana-related businesses can open bank accounts, they still have trouble accepting credit cards and getting loans. Some hope to fix marijuana’s banking problems with changes to federal law. Proposals range from broad reforms removing marijuana from the list of controlled substances to narrower legislation prohibiting banking regulators from punishing banks that serve the marijuana industry. But would these proposals solve marijuana’s banking problems?
In 2018, Congress legalized another variant of the Cannabis plant species—hemp. Prior to legalization, hemp-related businesses, like marijuana-related businesses, struggled with banking. Some hoped legalization would solve hemp’s banking problems. It did not. By analyzing the hemp banking experience, this Article provides three insights. First, legalization does not necessarily lead to inexpensive, widespread banking services. Second, regulatory uncertainty hampers access to banking services. When banks were unsure what state and federal law required of hemp businesses and were unclear about bank regulators’ compliance expectations for hemp-related accounts, they were less likely to serve the hemp industry. Regulatory structures that allow banks to easily identify who can operate cannabis businesses and verify whether the business is compliant with the law are more conducive to banking. Finally, even with clear law and favorable regulatory structures, the emerging cannabis industry still presents credit, market, and other risks that make some banks hesitant to lend.
Wednesday, March 3, 2021
I recently had the good fortune to hear Professor Jonathan R. Macey speak about his insightful and timely new article, Fair Credit Markets: Using Household Balance Sheets to Promote Consumer Welfare (forthcoming, Texas Law Review). I wanted to highlight it to readers and share the Abstract:
Access to credit can provide a path out of poverty. Improvidently granted, however, credit also can lead to financial ruin for the borrower. Strangely, the various regulatory approaches to consumer lending do not effectively distinguish between these two effects of the lending process. This Article develops a framework, based on the household balance sheet, that distinguishes between lending that is welfare enhancing for the borrower and lending that is potentially (indeed likely) ruinous, and argues that the two types of lending should be regulated in vastly different ways.
From a balance sheet perspective, various kinds of personal loans impact borrowers in vastly different ways. Specifically, there is a difference among loans based on whether the loan proceeds are being used: (a) to make an investment (where the borrower hopes to earn a spread between the cost of the borrowing and the returns on the investment); (b) to fund capital expenditures (homes, cars, etc.); or (c) to fund current consumption (medical care, food, etc.). From a balance sheet perspective, this third type of lending is distinct. Such loans reduce wealth and are correlated with significant physical and mental health problems. In contrast, loans used to acquire capital assets (i.e. houses) are positively correlated with such socioeconomic indicators.
Payday loans are the paradigmatic example of the use of credit to fund current consumption. Loans to fund current consumption reduce the wealth of the borrower because they create a liability on the “personal balance sheet” of the borrower, without creating any corresponding asset. The general category of loans to fund current consumption includes both loans used to fund unforeseen contingencies like emergency medical care or emergency car repairs, and those used to make routine purchases. Consistent with the stated justification for creating these lending facilities, which is to serve households and communities, the emergency lending facilities of the U.S. Federal Reserve should be made accessible to individuals facing emergency liquidity needs.
Loans that are taken out for current consumption but are not used for emergencies also should be afforded special regulatory treatment. Lenders who make non-emergency loans for current consumption should owe fiduciary duties to their borrowers. Compliance with such duties would require not only much greater disclosure than is currently required. It also would impose a duty of suitability on lenders, which would require lenders to provide borrowers with the loan most appropriate for their needs, among other protections discussed here. These heightened duties also should be extended to borrowers when they take out a loan that increases the debt on a borrower’s balance sheet by more than 25 percent.
Wednesday, February 24, 2021
Truth be told, I don't know a whole lot about SPACs. HOWEVER, I've been encountering this topic frequently these days, whether I'm following clearing and settlement news such as Ex-Cosmo editor teams up with ice hockey owner in Spac deal or doing my daily glance at the FT and reading about Why London should resist the Spac craze. Wanting to be more in the know, I've just added Michael Klausner, Michael Ohlrogge & Emily Ruan's "A Sober Look at SPACs" to my reading list. Here's the abstract:
A Special Purpose Acquisition Company (“SPAC”) is a publicly listed firm with a two-year lifespan during which it is expected to find a private company with which to merge and thereby bring public. SPACs have been touted as a cheaper way to go public than an IPO. This paper analyzes the structure of SPACs and the costs built into their structure. We find that costs built into the SPAC structure are subtle, opaque, and far higher than has been previously recognized. Although SPACs raise $10 per share from investors in their IPOs, by the time the median SPAC merges with a target, it holds just $6.67 in cash for each outstanding share. We find, first, that for a large majority of SPACs, post-merger share prices fall, and second, that these price drops are highly correlated with the extent of dilution, or cash shortfall, in a SPAC. This implies that SPAC investors are bearing the cost of the dilution built into the SPAC structure, and in effect subsidizing the companies they bring public. We question whether this is a sustainable situation. We nonetheless propose regulatory measures that would eliminate preferences SPACs enjoy and make them more transparent, and we suggest alternative means by which companies can go public that retain the benefits of SPACs without the costs.
Wednesday, February 17, 2021
In August 2020, Citibank, as administrative agent for a syndicated loan to Revlon, Inc., accidently wired nearly $900 million to lenders. It had intended to send a $7.8 million interest payment. Some of the lenders refused to return the money. Not surprisingly, Citibank was not happy about this. Yesterday, U.S. District Judge Jesse M. Furman issued a ruling denying Citibank's attempt to recoup the funds. As it turns out, under NY law, keeping money wired by mistake generally amounts to conversion or unjust enrichment. However, under the discharge-for-value defense, “The recipient is allowed to keep the funds if they discharge a valid debt, the recipient made no misrepresentations to induce the payment, and the recipient did not have notice of the mistake.”
Wednesday, February 10, 2021
Co-blogger Joan Heminway predicted that GameStop Will Be 2021's Great Gift To Business Law Professors. Totally agree. I think it’s also a great gift to those of us who research financial market infrastructure, particularly clearing and settlement. This episode has highlighted the importance of clearinghouses. In the past, I’ve written several posts on clearinghouses (for example, here, here, here). In preparing to speak on this topic during the UT Law roundtable last week, I came across several great articles about the role of clearinghouses and margin calls in the Robinhood/GameStop story. I share a few of these below with readers.
Keep in mind that the DTCC’s clearinghouse, the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), was designated in 2012 by the Financial Oversight Stability Council (FSOC) as one of eight designated financial market utilities under Dodd-Frank's Title VIII. These designated FMUs are single points of failure in financial markets. I've written extensively about Title VIII, beginning with The Federal Reserve as Last Resort.
Jeff John Robert’s Fortune article: The real story behind Robinhood’s decision to restrict GameStop trading – and that 4 a.m. call to put up $3 billion.
Telis Demos’ WSJ article: Why Did Robinhood Ground GameStop? Look at Clearing
Stephen G. Cecchetti & Kim Schoenholtz’s blog post, GameStop: Some Preliminary Lessons
Robinhood’s post on “What Happened this Week”
Friday, January 22, 2021
New Corporate and Financial Law Scholars at the Southeastern Association of Law Schools (SEALS) Annual Conference
The Southeastern Association of Law Schools (SEALS) is scheduled to hold its annual conference in person, July 26-August 1, at The Omni Amelia Island Resort, Amelia Island, Florida. SEALS has always been one of my favorite law conferences. It combines the opportunity to attend fascinating panels and discussion groups (showcasing our colleagues’ latest research) with plenty of networking opportunities and some fun in the sun! And one of the highlights of the conference is always the New Scholars Workshop, which provides opportunities for new legal scholars to interact with their peers and experts in their respective fields. Here’s an excerpt from the SEALS New Scholars Committee website:
For over a decade, the New Scholars Workshop has provided new scholars with the opportunity to present their work in a supportive and welcoming environment. The New Scholars Committee accepts and reviews nominations to the program, organizes new scholars into colloquia based on subject matter, and coordinates with the Mentors Committee to match each new scholar with a mentor in his or her field. We also hold a New Scholars Luncheon at the Annual Meeting at which New Scholars and their mentors can get to know one another and the members of the New Scholars Committee. To ensure that the annual program runs smoothly, members of the New Scholars Committee attend the colloquia and, following the conference, survey the New Scholars to solicit their feedback and comments on the program’s success. Additionally, the Committee traditionally has organized at least one substantive panel or discussion group on a topic of particular relevance to new law teachers, including navigating the tenure track; balancing the demands of service, scholarship, and teaching; and effective self-promotion. In recent years, the Committee has organized a social function at which New Scholars could meet and interact with one another at the Annual Meeting. We also draft an annual report on our activities.
On Wednesday, July 28, there will be a New Scholars Workshop focusing on Labor, Tax, Corporate, and Financial Law. This program will feature the scholarship of Nicole Iannarone (Drexel University School of Law), Young Ran (Christine) Kim (The University of Utah College of Law), Jennifer B. Levine (Quinnipiac University School of Law), and Daniel Schaffa (University of Richmond School of Law). I look forward to attending this event, and I encourage all new business-law scholars (as well as new scholars in other disciplines) to participate in future New Scholars Workshops at SEALS. See you there!
Wednesday, December 30, 2020
BLPB readers, I hope that everyone is enjoying the holiday season and the semester break! I also want to get an early start on wishing everyone a HAPPY NEW YEAR!!!
Before we leave 2020, I wanted to share that if you missed Bank Supervision: Past, Present, and Future, a stellar virtual conference hosted by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Harvard Law School, and the Wharton School on December 11, you can still access the conference materials here. There's lots of great stuff, including four literature reviews (below) that banking law profs researching in this area are certain to find helpful. Enjoy! And a big shout-out to the hosts for such a successful event!
Literature Review on Economics: Beverly Hirtle, Banking Supervision: The Perspective from Economics
Literature Review on Law: Julie Andersen Hill, Bank Supervision: A Legal Scholarship Review
Literature Review on History: Sean H. Vanatta, Histories of Bank Supervision
Sunday, December 27, 2020
In my previous post on the "Study on Directors' Duties and Sustainable Corporate Governance" ("Study on Directors' Duties") that Ernst & Young prepared for the European Commission (Commission), I focused on the transformative power of corporate governance. I said that stakeholder capitalism would have a practical value if supported by corporate governance rules based on appropriate standards such as the ones provided by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Some of my pointers for the Commission were the creation of a regulatory framework that enables the representation and protection of stakeholders, the representation of “stakewatchers,” that is, non-governmental organizations and other pressure groups through the attribution of voting and veto rights and their members’ nomination to the management board (similar to German co-determination). I also suggested expanding directors' fiduciary duties to include the protection of stakeholders’ interests, accountability of corporate managers, consultation rights, and additional disclosure requirements.
In my last guest post in this series dedicated to the Study on Directors’ Duties, I ask the following questions. Do investors have a moral duty to internalize externalities such as climate change and income inequality, for example? Do firm ownership and investor commitment matter? Should investors’ money be “moral” money?
In their study Corporate Purpose in Public and Private Firms, Claudine Gartenberg and George Serafeim utilize Rebecca Henderson’s and Eric Van den Steen’s definition of corporate purpose, that is, “a concrete goal or objective for the firm that reaches beyond profit maximization.” In their paper, Gartenberg and Serafeim analyzed data from approximately 1.5 million employees across 1,108 established public and private companies in the US. In their words:
[W]e find that employee beliefs about their firm’s purpose is weaker in public companies. This difference is most pronounced within the salaried middle and hourly ranks, rather than senior executives. Among private firms, purpose is lower in private equity owned firms. Among public companies, purpose is lower for firms with high hedge fund ownership and higher for firms with long-term investors. We interpret our findings as evidence that higher owner commitment is associated with a stronger sense of purpose among employees within the firm.
With institutional investors on the rise, these findings are important because they redirect our attention from the board of directors’ short-termism discussion to shareholders' nature, composition, ownership, and long-term commitment. When it comes to owner commitment, Gartenberg and Serafeim say:
Owner commitment could lead to a stronger sense of purpose for multiple reasons. First, to the extent that commitment translates to an ability to think about the long-term and avoid short-term pressures, this would enable a firm to focus on its purpose rather than on solely short-term performance metrics. Second, committed owners may invest to gain and evaluate more soft information about firms, which in turn may allow managers to invest in productive but hard to verify projects that otherwise would not be approved by less committed owners (e.g., Grossman and Hart, 1986). Third, committed owners might mitigate free rider problems inside the firm, allowing employees to make firm-specific investments with greater confidence that they will not be subject to holdup by firm principals (Alchian and Demsetz 1972; Williamson 1985), which in turn could enhance the sense of purpose inside the organization. A similar argument could hold for customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders, who could see a strong sense of corporate purpose from owner commitment as a credible signal that enables the development of trust or ‘relational contracts’ (Gibbons and Henderson 2012; Gartenberg et al. 2019).
Gertenberg’s and Serafeim’s paper also discloses other findings. They found that firms are more likely to hire outside CEOs when less committed investors control the firms. Additionally, those firms are more likely to pay higher executive compensation levels, particularly relative to what they pay employees. Those firms also engage more frequently in mergers and acquisitions and other corporate restructuring processes. A simple explanation for this would be that such firms have higher agency costs since their ownership is more dispersed.
If we understand the company’s ownership structure, we know the purpose of the company. Therefore, there must be an underlying mechanism to better understand the company’s ownership structure because it will help us understand the company's purpose better.
Besides, Gertenberg’s and Serafeim’s findings spell out that financial performance and corporate ownership positively impact corporate culture, employees' satisfaction, and employee work meaningfulness. Putting it differently, the corporate culture, employees' satisfaction, and employee work meaningfulness can be standards for evaluating the impact of corporate ownership, governance, and leadership.
Now that the focus is on investors, what can they do to change corporate behavior and consequently impact stakeholders like employees? They can be actively engaged through proxy voting. In their paper Shareholder Value(s): Index Fund ESG Activism and the New Millennial Corporate Governance, Barzuza, Curtis, and Webber explain that index funds often are considered ineffective stewards. The authors also explain how index funds have claimed an active role by challenging management and voting against directors to promote board diversity and sustainability.
Still, institutional investors manage their companies’ portfolios depending on the market, which is heavily impacted by systemic shocks we know will eventually occur. The Covid-19 pandemic has shown us how volatile markets are and our current economic model is.
Corporate laws of most European Union (EU) countries determine that the board of directors must act in the company's interest (e.g., Unternehmensinteresse in Germany, l'intérêt social in France, interesse sociale in Italy, etc.). Defining what the interest of the company is has shown to be a rather tricky endeavor. Gelter explains that, in all cases, one side of the debate claims that the company's interest is different from the interest of shareholders. In the US, the purpose of the company is commingled with the idea of shareholder wealth maximization.
To overcome the tension between prioritizing shareholders' wealth maximization and corporate purpose that considers shareholders' and stakeholders' interests, the Commission should take into account the following dimensions in developing policies in corporate law and corporate governance.
- Investors’ ownership and their impact on intangibles like employees’ satisfaction and employee work meaningfulness.
- Governance structure and how it relates to the company’s ownership structure.
- Governance structure and how it integrates stakeholders’ interests in the decision-making process.
- Board diversity and recruitment.
- Institutional investors’ financial resilience.
Finally, investors should demand CEOs and boards of directors show how they are changing the game and moving the needle toward a more sustainable and resilient conception of the corporation. Why? Because ownership matters and commitment too.
December 27, 2020 in Agency, Business Associations, Comparative Law, Corporate Governance, Corporations, CSR, Financial Markets, Law and Economics, M&A, Private Equity, Shareholders | Permalink | Comments (0)
Sunday, December 20, 2020
In my first post on the "Study on Directors' Duties and Sustainable Corporate Governance" ("Study on Directors' Duties") prepared by Ernst & Young for the European Commission, I said that corporate boards are free to apply a purposive approach to profit generation. I added that:
[a]pplying such a purposive approach will depend on moral leadership, CEOs' and corporate boards' long-term vision, clear measurement of the companies' interests and communication of those interests to shareholders, and rethinking executive compensation to encourage board members to take on other priorities than shareholder value maximization. Corporate governance has a significant transformative role to play in this context.
This week, I focus on corporate governance’s enabling power. Therefore, “T” is for transformative corporate governance. Market-led developments can and do precede and inspire legal rules. Corporate governance rules are not an exception in this regard. To illustrate these rules’ transformative potential, I dwell on the ongoing debate around stakeholder capitalism.
First question. What is stakeholder capitalism? In a recent debate with Lucian Bebchuk about the topic, Alex Edmans explained that “stakeholder capitalism seeks to create shareholder welfare only through creating stakeholder welfare.” The definition suggests that the way to create value for both shareholders and stakeholders alike is by increasing the size of the pie.
In his book, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach, R. Edward Freeman defines “stakeholder” as “any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organisation’s objectives.” (1984: p. 46). The Study on Directors’ Duties is concerned with the negative impact of corporate short-termism on stakeholders such as the environment, the society, the economy, and the extent to which corporate short-termism may impair the protection of human rights and the attainment of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). I am not going to discuss whether there is a causal link between short-termism and sustainability. In my previous post, I say that we need to take a step back to determine short-termism and whether it is as harmful as it sounds. Instead, I am interested in finding an answer to the following question. Has stakeholder capitalism practical value?
Edmans points out that “in a world of uncertainty, stakeholder capitalism is practically more useful.” It is more challenging to put a tag on various things in a world of uncertainty, and the market misvalues intangibles. Therefore, in this context, stakeholder capitalism would be a better decisional tool that improves shareholder value and profitability and shareholders' welfare.
Still, how do we measure CEO’s and directors’ accountability toward shareholders and the corporation for the choices they make? Can CEOs and directors be blamed for not caring about social causes? Is stakeholder capitalism, or as Lucian Bebchuk calls it “stakeholderism,” the right way to force managers to make the right decisions for the shareholders and the corporation?
While Edmans stays firmly behind stakeholder capitalism because he considers it has practical value in increasing shareholder wealth while increasing shareholders’ welfare, Bebchuk maintains that “stakeholderism” is “illusory” and costly both for shareholders and stakeholders. Clearly, they disagree.
However, both Edmans and Bebchuk agree on this – we need a normative framework that goes beyond private ordering and prevents companies from subjecting stakeholders to externalities such as climate change, inequality, poverty, and other adverse economic effects.
Corporate managers respond to incentives such as executive compensation, financial reporting, and shareholders' ownership. The challenge is to understand what type of corporate governance rules are more likely to nudge CEOs and managers to value other interests than shareholder wealth maximization. Would a set of principles suffice, or do we need a regulatory framework?
Freeman's definition of a stakeholder is telling because it allows us to think of corporations and governments as stakeholders for sustainable development. I am also inspired by the distinction that Yves Fassin makes in his article The Stakeholder Model Refined, between stakeholders (e.g., consumers), stakewatchers (e.g., non-governmental organizations) and stakekeepers (e.g., regulators). I suggest that the way to ensure stakeholder capitalism’s practical value is to create corporate governance rules based on appropriate standards. The SDGs afford the propriety of those standards.
Within this regulatory setting, corporate governance will fulfill its transformative potential by enabling, for example, the representation and protection of stakeholders, the representation of “stakewatchers” through the attribution of voting and veto rights and nomination to the management board (similar to German co-determination by which stakeholders like employees are appointed to the supervisory board). Corporate governance will show its transformative potential by enabling the expansion of directors' fiduciary duties to include the protection of stakeholders’ interests, accountability of corporate managers, consultation rights, and additional disclosure requirements.
The authors Onyeka K. Osuji and Ugochi C. Amajuoyi contributed an interesting piece, titled Sustainable Consumption, Consumer Protection and Sustainable Development: Unbundling Institutional Septet for Developing Economies to the book Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing and Emerging Markets: Institutions, Actors and Sustainable Development. The book was edited by Onyeka K. Osuji, Franklin N. Ngwu, and Dima Jamali. The piece addresses the stakeholder model from the emerging economies perspective. It goes to show how interconnected we are.
Friday, December 18, 2020
If you read the title, you’ll see that I’m only going to ask questions. I have no answers, insights, or predictions until the President-elect announces more cabinet picks. After President Trump won the election in 2016, I posed eleven questions and then gave some preliminary commentary based on his cabinet picks two months later. Here are my initial questions based on what I’m interested in -- compliance, corporate governance, human rights, and ESG. I recognize that everyone will have their own list:
- How will the Administration view disclosures? Will Dodd-Frank conflict minerals disclosures stay in place, regardless of the effectiveness on reducing violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo? Will the US add mandatory human rights due diligence and disclosures like the EU??
- Building on Question 1, will we see more stringent requirements for ESG disclosures? Will the US follow the EU model for financial services firms, which goes into effect in March 2021? With ESG accounting for 1 in 3 dollars of assets under management, will the Biden Administration look at ESG investing more favorably than the Trump DOL? How robust will climate and ESG disclosure get? We already know that disclosure of climate risks and greenhouse gases will be a priority. For more on some of the SEC commissioners’ views, see here.
- President-elect Biden has named what is shaping up to be the most diverse cabinet in history. What will this mean for the Trump administration’s Executive Order on diversity training and federal contractors? How will a Biden EEOC function and what will the priorities be?
- Building on Question 3, now that California and the NASDAQ have implemented rules and proposals on board diversity, will there be diversity mandates in other sectors of the federal government, perhaps for federal contractors? Is this the year that the Improving Corporate Governance Through Diversity Act passes? Will this embolden more states to put forth similar requirements?
- What will a Biden SEC look like? Will the SEC human capital disclosure requirements become more precise? Will we see more aggressive enforcement of large institutions and insider trading? Will there be more controls placed on proxy advisory firms? Is SEC Chair too small of a job for Preet Bharara?
- We had some of the highest Foreign Corrupt Practices Act fines on record under Trump’s Department of Justice. Will that ramp up under a new DOJ, especially as there may have been compliance failures and more bribery because of a world-wide recession and COVID? It’s more likely that sophisticated companies will be prepared because of the revamp of compliance programs based on the June 2020 DOJ Guidance on Evaluation of Corporate Compliance Programs and the second edition of the joint SEC/DOJ Resource Guide to the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. (ok- that was an insight).
- How will the Biden Administration promote human rights, particularly as it relates to business? Congress has already taken some action related to exports tied to the use of Uighur forced labor in China. Will the incoming government be even more aggressive? I discussed some potential opportunities for legislation related to human rights abuses abroad in my last post about the Nestle v Doe case in front of the Supreme Court. One area that could use some help is the pretty anemic Obama-era US National Action Plan on Responsible Business Conduct.
- What will a Biden Department of Labor prioritize? Will consumer protection advocates convince Biden to delay or dismantle the ERISA fiduciary rule? Will the 2020 joint employer rule stay in place? Will OSHA get the funding it needs to go after employers who aren’t safeguarding employees with COVID? Will unions have more power? Will we enter a more worker-friendly era?
- What will happen to whistleblowers? I served as a member of the Department of Labor’s Whistleblower Protection Advisory Committee for a few years under the Obama administration. Our committee had management, labor, academic, and other ad hoc members and we were tasked at looking at 22 laws enforced by OSHA, including Sarbanes-Oxley retaliation rules. We received notice that our services were no longer needed after the President’s inauguration in 2017. Hopefully, the Biden Administration will reconstitute it. In the meantime, the SEC awarded record amounts under the Dodd-Frank whistleblower program in 2020 and has just reformed the program to streamline it and get money to whistleblowers more quickly.
- What will President-elect Biden accomplish if the Democrats do not control the Congress?
There you have it. What questions would you have added? Comment below or email me at email@example.com.
December 18, 2020 in Compliance, Corporate Governance, Corporate Personality, Corporations, CSR, Current Affairs, Financial Markets, Human Rights, International Business, Legislation, Marcia Narine Weldon, Securities Regulation, Shareholders, White Collar Crime | Permalink | Comments (2)