Wednesday, September 14, 2022

Ag Law and Tax Developments

Overview

It’s been a while since I last did an case and ruling update. So, today’s post is one of several that I will post in the coming weeks. 

Some recent developments in the courts and IRS – it’s the topic of today’s post.

Retained Ownership of Minable Surface Negates Conservation Easement Deduction

C.C.A. 202236010 (Sept. 9, 2022)

The Chief Counsel’s office of IRS has taken the position that a conservation easement donation is invalid if the donor owns both the surface estate of the land burdened by the easement as well as a qualified mineral interest that has never been separated from the surface estate, and the deed retains any possibility of surface mining to extract subsurface minerals.  In that instance, the conservation easement doesn’t satisfy I.R.C. §170(h).  The IRS said the result would be the same even if the donee would have to approve the surface-mining method because the donated easement would not be donated exclusively for conservation purposes in accordance with I.R.C. §170(h)(5).  The IRS pointed out that Treas. Reg. §1.170A-14(g)(4) states that a donated easement does not protect conservation purposes in perpetuity if any method of mining that is inconsistent with the particular conservation purposes of the contribution is permitted at any time.  But, the IRS pointed out that a deduction is allowed if the mining method at issue has a limited, localized impact on the real estate and does not destroy significant conservation interests in a manner that can’t be remedied.  Surface mining, however, is specifically prohibited where the ownership of the surface estate and the mineral interest has never been separated.  On the specific facts involved, the IRS determined that the donated easement would not be treated at being made exclusively for conservation purposes because the donee could approve surface mining of the donor’s subsurface minerals.

Use of Pore Space Without Permission Unconstitutional

Northwest Landowners Association v. State, 2022 ND 150 (2022)

North Dakota law provides that a landowner’s subsurface pore space can be used for oil and gas waste without requiring the landowner’s permission or the payment of any compensation. The plaintiffs challenged the law as an unconstitutional taking under the Fourth and Fifth Amendments. The trial court held that the law was unconstitutional on its face and awarded attorney’s fees to the plaintiff.  On further review, the North Dakota Supreme Court determined that the plaintiffs had a property interest in subsurface pore space and that the section of the law specifying that the landowners did not have to provide consent to the trespassers to use the land unconstitutionally deprived them of their property rights as a per se taking.  However, the Supreme Court determined that the section of the law allowing oil and gas producers to inject carbon dioxide into subsurface pore space was constitutional.  The Supreme Court upheld the award of attorney fees. 

Net Operating Loss Couldn’t Be Carried Forward

Villanueva v. Comr., T.C. Memo. 2022-27

The petitioner sustained a loss from the disposition of a condominium he owned as a rental property. He reported the date of the loss as August 2013, but a mortgage lender had foreclosed on the condo in May 2009 and the taxpayer lost possession on that date. The IRS denied the deduction on the basis that the petitioner had not claimed the loss on either an original or amended return which meant that there was no loss that could be carried forward. The Tax Court agreed with the IRS, noting that the Treasury Regulations for I.R.C. §165 provide that a loss is treated as sustained during the tax year in which the loss occurs as evidenced by a closed and completed transaction and fixed by identifiable events occurring in such taxable year.  A loss resulting from a foreclosure sale is typically sustained in the year in which the property is disposed of, and the debt is discharged from the proceeds of the foreclosure sale.  Thus, the Tax Court determined that the loss had occurred in 2009 and should have been claimed at that time where it could have then been carried forward. 

Overtime Pay Rate Not Applicable to Construction Work on Farm

Vanegas v. Signet Builders, Inc., No. 21-2644, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 23206 (7th Cir. Aug. 19, 2022)

The plaintiff, the defendant’s employee, worked overtime in building a livestock fence for the defendant.  The defendant refused to pay the plaintiff time and a half for overtime. The plaintiff sued the defendant to recover the extra wages. The defendant’s refusal was based on the plaintiff being an agricultural worker not entitled to overtime.  The trial court agreed and dismissed the plaintiff’s claim.  The plaintiff appealed. The appellate court looked to the language of 29 U.S.C. § 213(b)(12) and the work of the plaintiff to determine if the plaintiff would be considered an agricultural employee. The appellate court found the plaintiff’s work was carried out as a separately organized activity outside of the defendant’s agricultural operations. The plaintiff worked for the defendant, but he built the fence on his own without any aid from any of the farm employees. The appellate court noted that another indication the work would not be considered exempt is whether farmers typically hire someone out for the work at issue. If so, it could be an indication the work is separate from agricultural work and would qualify for overtime pay. The appellate court found the defendant failed to provide much evidence to show that the plaintiff worked with agricultural employees and did not show the work was commonly done by a farmer. The appellate court also reasoned that just because the plaintiff was given a visa for agricultural work did not mean his work for the defendant was agricultural. The appellate court reversed the trial court’s decision to dismiss the complaint.

Early Distribution “Penalty” is a “Tax” and Does Not Require Supervisor Approval

Grajales v. Comr., No. 21-1420, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 23695 (4th Cir. Aug. 24, 2022), aff’g., 156 T.C. 55 (2021)     

The petitioner borrowed money from her pension account at age 42.  She received an IRS Form 1099-R reporting the gross distributions from the pension of $9,025.86 for 2015.  She didn’t report any of the amount as income in 2015.  The IRS issued her a notice of deficiency for $3,030.00 and an additional 10 percent penalty tax of $902.00.  The parties later stipulated to a taxable distribution of $908.62 and a penalty of $90.86.  The petitioner claimed that she was not liable for the additional penalty tax because the IRS failed to obtain written supervisory approval for levying it under I.R.C. §6751(b). The Tax Court determined that the additional 10 percent tax of I.R.C. §72(t) was a “tax” and not an IRS penalty that required supervisor approval before it would be levied.  The Tax Court noted that I.R.C. §72(t) specifically refers to it as a “tax” rather than a penalty and that other Code sections also refer to it as a tax.  The appellate court affirmed. 

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Can Regulate Ag Practices on Leased Land

Tulelake Irrigation Dist. v. United States Fish & Wildlife Serv., 40 F.4th 930 (9th Cir. 2022)

The plaintiffs sued the defendant, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, claiming the defendant violated environmental laws by regulating leased farmland in the Tule Lake and Klamath Refuge. The trial court granted summary judgment in favor of the defendant.  The plaintiff appealed.  The appellate court noted that the Kuchel Act and the Refuge Act allow the defendant to determine the proper land management practices to protect the waterfowl management of the area.  Under the Refuge Act, the defendant was required to issue an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The defendant did issue an EIS and CCP for the Tule Lake and Klamath Refuge area, which included modifications to the agricultural use on the leased land within the region. The EIS/CCP required the leased lands to be flooded post-harvest, restricted some harvesting methods, and prohibited post-harvest field work, which the plaintiffs claimed violated their right to use the leased land. The plaintiffs argued that the language, “consistent with proper waterfowl management,” within the Kuchel Act was “nonrestrictive” and was not essential to the meaning of the Act. The appellate court held it was improper to read just that portion of the Act without considering the rest of the Act to understand the intent. The appellate court found the Kuchel Act was unambiguous and required the defendant to regulate the leased land to ensure proper waterfowl management. The Refuge Act allows the defendant to regulate the uses of the leased land, but the plaintiffs argued the agricultural practices were a “purpose” rather than a “use” so the defendant could not regulate it under the Refuge Act. The appellate court found the agriculture on the leased land was not a “purpose” equal to waterfowl management. The appellate court also held the language of the act was unambiguous and determined that agricultural activities on the land was to be considered a use that the defendant could regulate.   The appellate court affirmed the trial court’s award of summary judgment for the defendant.

Crop Salesman Sued for Ruining Relationship with Landowner

Walt Goodman Farms, Inc. v. Hogan Farms, LLC, No. 1:22-cv-01004-JDB-jay, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 134192 (W.D. Tenn. Jul. 28, 2022)

The plaintiff, a farm tenant, sued the defendant landlord and a third-party ag salesman.  The plaintiff claimed that the salesman wrongly advised the landlord and encouraged the landlord to complain about the plaintiff’s farming practices.  Specifically, the plaintiff’s claims against the salesman were for interference with contract, interference with business relationship, and fraud.  The salesman moved to dismiss each claim, but the trial court denied the motion with respect to the contract interference and interference with business relationship claims.  The trial court, however, dismissed the fraud claim involving the efficacy of corn seed.

Standard Default Interest Rate Not Unconscionable

Savibank v. Lancaster, No. 82880-1-I, 2022 Wash. App. LEXIS 1558 (Wash. Ct. App. Aug. 1, 2022)

The defendant obtained a loan from the plaintiff to purchase his father’s farm before the virus outbreak. The loan agreement stated that the interest rate would increase to 18 percent upon default. The defendant did default when the pandemic hit, and the plaintiff filed a foreclosure and repossession action against the plaintiff. The trial court ruled in favor the plaintiff. The defendant appealed and asserted the 18 percent default interest rate was unconscionable during a pandemic. During the appeal, the defendant claimed the plaintiff should have alerted the defendant to any better loan alternatives but failed to do so. The appellate court, affirmed, finding that the plaintiff had no contractual obligation to make the defendant aware of any better financing agreement.  The appellate court also upheld the trial court’s finding that the 18 percent default interest rate was not unconscionable and was common for agricultural loans with other banks in the area.  The appellate court also noted that the defendant had the opportunity to consult with a lawyer about the loan terms before signing.  The loan terms were standard and straightforward, and the defendant failed to show any evidence as to how the virus caused his default or how it made the default interest rate unconscionable.  In addition, the court noted that the defendant had stopped making loan payments before the virus began to impact the United States. The appellate court also held that the defendant failed to provide any evidence for an unconscionability defense. 

Conclusion

I’ll post additional developments in a subsequent post.

September 14, 2022 in Civil Liabilities, Income Tax, Real Property, Regulatory Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, September 11, 2022

September 30 Ag Law Summit in Omaha (and Online)

Overview

On September 30, Washburn Law School with cooperating partner Creighton Law School will conduct the second annual Ag Law Summit.  The Summit will be held on the Creighton University campus in Omaha, Nebraska.  Last September Washburn Law School conducted it’s first “Ag Law Summit” and held it at Mahoney State Park in Nebraska. This year the Summit returns in collaboration with Creighton University School of Law.  The Summit will be held at Creighton University on September 30 and will also be broadcast live online.

The Summit will cover various topics of relevance to agricultural producers and the tax and legal counsel that represent them. 

The 2022 Ag Law Summit – it’s the topic of today’s post.

Agenda

Developments in agricultural law and taxation.  I will start off the day with a session surveying the major recent ag law and tax developments.  This one-hour session will update attendees on the big issues facing ag clients and provide insight concerning the issues that look to be on the horizon in the legal and tax world.  There have been several major developments involving agricultural that have come through the U.S Supreme Court in recent months.  I will discuss those decisions and the implications for the future.  Several of them involve administrative law and could have a substantial impact on the ability of the federal government to micro-manage agricultural activities.  I will also get into the big tax developments of the past year, including the tax provisions included in the recent legislation that declares inflation to be reduced!

Death of a farm business owner.  After my session, Prof. Ed Morse of Creighton Law School will examine the tax issues that arise when a farm business owner dies.  Income tax basis and the impact of various entity structures will be the focus of this session along with the issues that arise upon transitioning ownership to the next generation and various tax elections.  The handling of tax attributes after death will be covered as will some non-tax planning matters when an LLC owner dies.  There are also entity-specific issues that arise when a business owner dies, and Prof. Morse will address those on an entity-by-entity basis.  The transition issue for farmers and ranchers is an important one for many.  This session will be a good one in laying out the major tax and non-tax considerations that need to be laid out up front to help the family achieve its goals post-death.

Governing documents for farm and ranch business entities.  After a morning break Dan Waters with Lamson Dugan & Murray in Omaha will take us up to lunch with a technical session on the drafting of critical documents for farm and ranch entities.  What should be included in the operative agreements?  What is the proper wording?  What provisions should be included and what should be avoided?  This session picks up on Prof. Morse’s presentation and adds in the drafting elements that are key to a successful business succession plan for the farm/ranch operation.

Fence law issues.  After a provided lunch, Colten Venteicher who practices in Gothenburg, NE, will address the issues of fence line issues when ag land changes hands.  This is an issue that seems to come up over and over again in agriculture.  The problems are numerous and varied.  This session provides a survey of applicable law and rules and practical advice for helping clients resolve existing disputes and avoid future ones. 

Farm economics.  Following the afternoon break, a presentation on the current economy and economic situation facing ag producers, ag businesses and consumers will be presented by Darrell Holaday.  Darrell is an ag economist and his firm, Advanced Market Concepts, provides marketing plans for ag producers.   What are the economic projections for the balance of 2022 and into 2023 that bear on tax and estate planning for farmers and ranchers?  How will the war in Ukraine continue to impact agriculture in the U.S.?  This will be a key session, especially with the enactment of legislation that will add fuel to the current inflationary fire – unless of course, the tax increases in the legislation slow the economy enough to offset the additional spending. 

Ethics.  I return to close out the day with a session of ethics focused on asset protection planning.  There’s a right way and a wrong way to do asset protection planning.  This session guides the practitioner through the proper approach to asset protection planning, client identification, and the pitfalls if the “stop signs” are missed.

Online.  The Summit will be broadcast live online and will be interactive to allow you the ability to participate remotely. 

Reception

For those attending in person, a reception will follow in the Harper Center Ballroom on the Creighton Campus. 

Conclusion

If your tax or legal practice involves ag clients, the Ag Law Summit is for you.  As noted, you can also attend online if you can’t be there in person.  If you are a student currently in law school or thinking about it, or are a student in accounting, you will find this seminar beneficial. 

I hope to see you in Omaha on September 30 or see that you are with us online.

You can learn more about the Summit and get registered at the following link:  https://www.washburnlaw.edu/employers/cle/aglawsummit.html

September 11, 2022 in Bankruptcy, Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Cooperatives, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 5, 2022

Bibliography – January through June of 2022

Overview 

Periodically I post an article containing the links to all of my blog articles that have been recently published.  Today’s article is a bibliography of my articles from the beginning of 2022 through June.  Hopefully this will aid your research of agricultural law and tax topics.

A bibliography of articles for the first half of 2022 – it’s the content of today’s post.

Bankruptcy

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 8 and 7

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-8-and-7.html

Other Important Developments in Agricultural Law and Taxation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/other-important-developments-in-agricultural-law-and-taxation.html

Recent Court Cases of Importance to Agricultural Producers and Rural Landowners

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/recent-court-cases-of-importance-to-agricultural-producers-and-rural-landowners.html

Business Planning

Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

Should An IDGT Be Part of Your Estate Plan?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/should-an-idgt-be-part-of-your-estate-plan.html

Farm Wealth Transfer and Business Succession – The GRAT

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/farm-wealth-transfer-and-business-succession-the-grat.html

Captive Insurance – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/captive-insurance-part-one.html

Captive Insurance – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/captive-insurance-part-two.html

Captive Insurance – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/captive-insurance-part-three.html

Pork Production Regulations; Fake Meat; and Tax Proposals on the Road to Nowhere

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/pork-production-regulations-fake-meat-and-tax-proposals-on-the-road-to-nowhere.html

Farm Economic Issues and Implications

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/farm-economic-issues-and-implications.html

Intergenerational Transfer of the Farm/Ranch Business – The Buy-Sell Agreement

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/intergenerational-transfer-of-the-farmranch-business-the-buy-sell-agreement.html

IRS Audit Issue – S Corporation Reasonable Compensation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/irs-audit-issue-s-corporation-reasonable-compensation.html

Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

Wisconsin Seminar and…ERP (not Wyatt) and ELRP

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/wisconsin-seminar-anderp-not-wyatt-and-elrp.html

S Corporation Dissolution – Part 1

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/s-corporation-dissolution-part-1.html

S Corporation Dissolution – Part Two; Divisive Reorganization Alternative

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/s-corporation-dissolution-part-two-divisive-reorganization-alternative.html

Farm/Ranch Tax, Estate and Business Planning Conference August 1-2 – Durango, Colorado (and Online)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/farmranch-tax-estate-and-business-planning-conference-august-1-2-durango-colorado-and-online.html

Durango Conference and Recent Developments in the Courts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/durango-conference-and-recent-developments-in-the-courts.html

Civil Liabilities

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 8 and 7

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-8-and-7.html

Agritourism

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/agritourism.html

Animal Ag Facilities and the Constitution

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/animal-ag-facilities-and-the-constitution.html

When Is an Agricultural Activity a Nuisance?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/when-is-an-agricultural-activity-a-nuisance.html

Ag Law-Related Updates: Dog Food Scam; Oil and Gas Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/ag-law-related-updates-dog-food-scam-oil-and-gas-issues.html

Durango Conference and Recent Developments in the Courts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/durango-conference-and-recent-developments-in-the-courts.html

Dicamba Spray-Drift Issues and the Bader Farms Litigation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/dicamba-spray-drift-issues-and-the-bader-farms-litigation.html

Tax Deal Struck? – and Recent Ag-Related Cases

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/tax-deal-struck-and-recent-ag-related-cases.html

 

Contracts

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 6 and 5

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-6-and-5.html

What to Consider Before Buying Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/what-to-consider-before-buying-farmland.html

Elements of a Hunting Use Agreement

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/elements-of-a-hunting-use-agreement.html

Ag Law (and Medicaid Planning) Court Developments of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/ag-law-and-medicaid-planning-court-developments-of-interest.html

Cooperatives

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

Criminal Liabilities

Animal Ag Facilities and the Constitution

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/animal-ag-facilities-and-the-constitution.html

Is Your Farm or Ranch Protected From a Warrantless Search?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/is-your-farm-or-ranch-protected-from-a-warrantless-search.html

Durango Conference and Recent Developments in the Courts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/durango-conference-and-recent-developments-in-the-courts.html

Environmental Law

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 6 and 5

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-6-and-5.html

“Top Tan” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 2 and 1

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-2-and-1.html

The “Almost Top Ten” (Part 3) – New Regulatory Definition of “Habitat” under the ESA

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/the-almost-top-ten-new-regulatory-definition-of-habitat-under-the-esa.html

Ag Law and Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/ag-law-and-tax-potpourri.html

Farm Economic Issues and Implications

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/farm-economic-issues-and-implications.html

Constitutional Limit on Government Agency Power – The “Major Questions” Doctrine

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/constitutional-limit-on-government-agency-power-the-major-questions-doctrine.html

Estate Planning

Other Important Developments in Agricultural Law and Taxation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/other-important-developments-in-agricultural-law-and-taxation.html

Other Important Developments in Agricultural Law and Taxation (Part 2)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/other-important-developments-in-agricultural-law-and-taxation-part-2.html

The “Almost Top Ten” (Part 4) – Tax Developments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/the-almost-top-ten-part-4-tax-developments.html

The “Almost Top 10” of 2021 (Part 7) [Medicaid Recovery and Tax Deadlines]

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/the-almost-top-10-of-2021-part-7-medicaid-recovery-and-tax-deadlines.html

Nebraska Revises Inheritance Tax; and Substantiating Expenses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/recent-developments-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

Tax Consequences When Farmland is Partitioned and Sold

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/tax-consequences-when-farmland-is-partitioned-and-sold.html

Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

Should An IDGT Be Part of Your Estate Plan?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/should-an-idgt-be-part-of-your-estate-plan.html

Farm Wealth Transfer and Business Succession – The GRAT

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/farm-wealth-transfer-and-business-succession-the-grat.html

Family Settlement Agreement – Is it a Good Idea?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/family-settlement-agreement-is-it-a-good-idea.html

Registration Open for Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/registration-open-for-summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

Captive Insurance – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/captive-insurance-part-one.html

Captive Insurance – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/captive-insurance-part-two.html

Captive Insurance Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/captive-insurance-part-three.html

Pork Production Regulations; Fake Meat; and Tax Proposals on the Road to Nowhere

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/pork-production-regulations-fake-meat-and-tax-proposals-on-the-road-to-nowhere.html

Farm Economic Issues and Implications

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/farm-economic-issues-and-implications.html

Proposed Estate Tax Rules Would Protect Against Decrease in Estate Tax Exemption

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/proposed-estate-tax-rules-would-protect-against-decrease-in-estate-tax-exemption.html

Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

Ag Law (and Medicaid Planning) Court Developments of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/ag-law-and-medicaid-planning-court-developments-of-interest.html

Joint Tenancy and Income Tax Basis At Death

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/joint-tenancy-and-income-tax-basis-at-death.html

More Ag Law Court Developments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/more-ag-law-court-developments.html

Farm/Ranch Tax, Estate and Business Planning Conference August 1-2 – Durango, Colorado (and Online)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/farmranch-tax-estate-and-business-planning-conference-august-1-2-durango-colorado-and-online.html

IRS Modifies Portability Election Rule

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/irs-modifies-portability-election-rule.html

Income Tax

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 10 and 9

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-10-and-9.html

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 8 and 7

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-8-and-7.html

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 2 and 1

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-2-and-1.html

The “Almost Top Ten” (Part 4) – Tax Developments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/the-almost-top-ten-part-4-tax-developments.html

The “Almost Top 10” of 2021 (Part 7) [Medicaid Recovery and Tax Deadlines]

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/the-almost-top-10-of-2021-part-7-medicaid-recovery-and-tax-deadlines.html

Purchase and Sale Allocations Involving CRP Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/purchase-and-sale-allocations-involving-crp-contracts.html

Ag Law and Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/ag-law-and-tax-potpourri.html

What’s the Character of the Gain From the Sale of Farm or Ranch Land?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/whats-the-character-of-the-gain-from-the-sale-of-farm-or-ranch-land.html

Proper Tax Reporting of Breeding Fees for Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/proper-tax-reporting-of-breeding-fees-for-farmers.html

Nebraska Revises Inheritance Tax; and Substantiating Expenses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/recent-developments-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

Tax Consequences When Farmland is Partitioned and Sold

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/tax-consequences-when-farmland-is-partitioned-and-sold.html

Expense Method Depreciation and Leasing- A Potential Trap

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/expense-method-depreciation-and-leasing-a-potential-trap.html

Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

income Tax Deferral of Crop Insurance Proceeds

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/income-tax-deferral-of-crop-insurance-proceeds.html

What if Tax Rates Rise?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/what-if-tax-rates-rise.html

Registration Open for Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/registration-open-for-summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

Captive Insurance – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/captive-insurance-part-one.html

Captive Insurance – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/captive-insurance-part-two.html

Captive Insurance – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/captive-insurance-part-three.html

Pork Production Regulations; Fake Meat; and Tax Proposals on the Road to Nowhere

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/pork-production-regulations-fake-meat-and-tax-proposals-on-the-road-to-nowhere.html

Farm Economic Issues and Implications

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/farm-economic-issues-and-implications.html

IRS Audit Issue – S Corporation Reasonable Compensation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/irs-audit-issue-s-corporation-reasonable-compensation.html

Missed Tax Deadline & Equitable Tolling

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/missed-tax-deadline-equitable-tolling.html

Summer 2022 Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/summer-2022-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conferences.html

Joint Tenancy and Income Tax Basis At Death

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/joint-tenancy-and-income-tax-basis-at-death.html

Tax Court Caselaw Update

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/tax-court-caselaw-update.html

Deducting Soil and Water Conservation Expenses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/deducting-soil-and-water-conservation-expenses.html

Correcting Depreciation Errors (Including Bonus Elections and Computations)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/correcting-depreciation-errors-including-bonus-elections-and-computations.html

When Can Business Deductions First Be Claimed?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/when-can-business-deductions-first-be-claimed.html

Recent Court Decisions Involving Taxes and Real Estate

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/recent-court-decisions-involving-taxes-and-real-estate.html

Wisconsin Seminar and…ERP (not Wyatt) and ELRP

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/wisconsin-seminar-anderp-not-wyatt-and-elrp.html

Tax Issues with Customer Loyalty Reward Programs

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/tax-issues-with-customer-loyalty-reward-programs.html

S Corporation Dissolution – Part 1

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/s-corporation-dissolution-part-1.html

S Corporation Dissolution – Part Two; Divisive Reorganization Alternative

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/s-corporation-dissolution-part-two-divisive-reorganization-alternative.html

Farm/Ranch Tax, Estate and Business Planning Conference August 1-2 – Durango, Colorado (and Online)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/farmranch-tax-estate-and-business-planning-conference-august-1-2-durango-colorado-and-online.html

What is the Character of Land Sale Gain?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/what-is-the-character-of-land-sale-gain.html

Deductible Start-Up Costs and Web-Based Businesses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/deductible-start-up-costs-and-web-based-businesses.html

Using Farm Income Averaging to Deal with Economic Uncertainty and Resulting Income Fluctuations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/using-farm-income-averaging-to-deal-with-economic-uncertainty-and-resulting-income-fluctuations.html

Tax Deal Struck? – and Recent Ag-Related Cases

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/tax-deal-struck-and-recent-ag-related-cases.html

Insurance

Tax Deal Struck? – and Recent Ag-Related Cases

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/tax-deal-struck-and-recent-ag-related-cases.html

Real Property

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 4 and 3

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-4-and-3.html

Ag Law and Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/ag-law-and-tax-potpourri.html

What to Consider Before Buying Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/what-to-consider-before-buying-farmland.html

Elements of a Hunting Use Agreement

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/elements-of-a-hunting-use-agreement.html

Animal Ag Facilities and the Constitution

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/animal-ag-facilities-and-the-constitution.html

Recent Court Decisions Involving Taxes and Real Estate

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/recent-court-decisions-involving-taxes-and-real-estate.html

Recent Court Cases of Importance to Agricultural Producers and Rural Landowners

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/recent-court-cases-of-importance-to-agricultural-producers-and-rural-landowners.html

More Ag Law Court Developments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/more-ag-law-court-developments.html

Ag Law-Related Updates: Dog Food Scam; Oil and Gas Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/ag-law-related-updates-dog-food-scam-oil-and-gas-issues.html

Tax Deal Struck? – and Recent Ag-Related Cases

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/tax-deal-struck-and-recent-ag-related-cases.html

Regulatory Law

The “Almost Top 10” of 2021 (Part 5)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/the-almost-top-10-of-2021-part-5.html

The “Almost Top 10” of 2021 (Part 6)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/the-almost-top-10-of-2021-part-6.html

Ag Law and Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/02/ag-law-and-tax-potpourri.html

Animal Ag Facilities and the Constitution

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/03/animal-ag-facilities-and-the-constitution.html

Pork Production Regulations; Fake Meat; and Tax Proposals on the Road to Nowhere

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/pork-production-regulations-fake-meat-and-tax-proposals-on-the-road-to-nowhere.html

Farm Economic Issues and Implications

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/04/farm-economic-issues-and-implications.html

Ag Law (and Medicaid Planning) Court Developments of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/05/ag-law-and-medicaid-planning-court-developments-of-interest.html

Wisconsin Seminar and…ERP (not Wyatt) and ELRP

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/wisconsin-seminar-anderp-not-wyatt-and-elrp.html

More Ag Law Court Developments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/more-ag-law-court-developments.html

Ag Law-Related Updates: Dog Food Scam; Oil and Gas Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/06/ag-law-related-updates-dog-food-scam-oil-and-gas-issues.html

Constitutional Limit on Government Agency Power – The “Major Questions” Doctrine

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/constitutional-limit-on-government-agency-power-the-major-questions-doctrine.html

The Complexities of Crop Insurance

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/the-complexities-of-crop-insurance.html

Secured Transactions

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 6 and 5

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-6-and-5.html

Water Law

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 4 and 3

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2021-numbers-4-and-3.html

Durango Conference and Recent Developments in the Courts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2022/07/durango-conference-and-recent-developments-in-the-courts.html

September 5, 2022 in Bankruptcy, Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Cooperatives, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Saturday, August 20, 2022

Ag Law Summit

Overview

Last September Washburn Law School conducted it’s first “Ag Law Summit” and held it at Mahoney State Park in Nebraska. This year the Summit returns in collaboration with Creighton University School of Law.  The Summit will be held at Creighton University on September 30, and will also be broadcast live online.

The Summit will cover various topics of relevance to agricultural producers and the tax and legal counsel that represent them. 

The 2022 Ag Law Summit – it’s the topic of today’s post.

Agenda

Survey of ag law and tax.  I will start off the day with a session surveying the major recent ag law and tax developments.  This one-hour session will update attendees on the big issues facing ag clients and provide insight concerning the issues that look to be on the horizon in the legal and tax world. 

Tax issues upon death of a farmer.  After my session, Prof. Ed Morse of Creighton Law School will examine the tax issues that arise when a farm business owner dies.  Income tax basis and the impact of various entity structures will be the focus of this session along with the issues that arise upon transitioning ownership to the next generation and various tax elections.

Farm succession planning drafting language.  After a morning break Dan Waters, and estate planning attorney in Omaha, NE, will take us up to lunch with a technical session on the drafting of critical documents for farm and ranch entities.  What should be included in the operative agreements?  What is the proper wording?  What provisions should be included and what should be avoided?  This session picks up on Prof. Morse’s presentation and adds in the drafting elements that are key to a successful business succession plan for the farm/ranch operation.

Fences and boundaries.  After a provided lunch, Colten Venteicher who practices in Gothenburg, NE, will address the issues of fence line issues when ag land changes hands.  This is an issue that seems to come up over and over again in agriculture.  The problems are numerous and varied.  This session provides a survey of applicable law and rules and practical advice for helping clients resolve existing disputes and avoid future ones. 

The current farm economy and future projections.  Following the afternoon break, a presentation on the current economy and economic situation facing ag producers, ag businesses and consumers will be presented by Darrell Holaday.  Darrell is an economist and his firm, Advanced Market Concepts, provides marketing plans for ag producers.   What are the economic projections for the balance of 2022 and into 2023 that bear on tax and estate planning for farmers and ranchers?  This will be a key session, especially with the enactment of legislation that will add fuel to the current inflationary fire – unless of course, the tax increases in the legislation slow the economy enough to offset the additional spending. 

Ethics.  I return to close out the day with a session of ethics focused on asset protection planning.  There’s a right way and a wrong way to do asset protection planning.  This session guides the practitioner through the proper approach to asset protection planning, client identification, and the pitfalls if the “stop signs” are missed.

Reception

For those attending in person, a reception will follow in the Harper Center Ballroom on the Creighton Campus. 

Conclusion

If your tax or legal practice involves ag clients, the Ag Law Summit is for you.  As noted, you can also attend online if you can’t be there in person.  If you are a student currently in law school or thinking about it, or are a student in accounting, you will find this seminar beneficial. 

I hope to see you in Omaha on September 30 or see that you are with us online.

You can learn more about the Summit and get registered at the following link:  https://www.washburnlaw.edu/employers/cle/aglawsummit.html

August 20, 2022 in Bankruptcy, Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Cooperatives, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, July 28, 2022

Tax Deal Struck? – and Recent Ag-Related Cases

Overview

Reports are that Senator Joe Manchin has come to an agreement with Senate leadership on tax legislation that is part of a larger package, termed the “Inflation Reduction Act of 2022.”  It’s apparently part of the 2022 budget reconciliation bill which only requires a simple majority of the Senate to pass.  What are the tax provisions that have been agreed to? 

Proposed tax provisions apparently agreed to, and some recent ag-related court decisions – it’s the topic of today’s post.

Tax Agreement

Reports are that the agreed upon tax package includes a 15 percent corporate alternative minimum tax (AMT) applied to adjusted financial statement income of corporations with profits exceeding $1 billion.  A corporation subject to the AMT would be able to claim net operating losses and tax credits against the AMT.  In addition, a corporation subject to the AMT would be able to claim tax credits against the AMT as well as regular corporate tax for AMT paid in prior years to the extent the regular tax liability in any year exceeds 15 percent of the corporation’s adjusted financial statement income.  The provision would be effective for tax years after 2022.

Also included in the agreement is a change in the tax treatment of carried interest (e.g., the share of profit that general partners receive to compensate them for managing a venture capital fund). 

Another proposal would apply the net investment income tax (NIIT) of I.R.C. §1411 to all income.  Presently this 3.8 percent tax (which was created as part of Obamacare) applies only to passive income above a threshold.  Under the proposal, the additional 3.8 percent tax would apply to adjusted gross income over $400,000 (single) and $500,000 (mfj).  This means that there is a substantial “marriage penalty.”  In addition, the qualified business income deduction (QBID) of I.R.C. §199A is not part of a taxpayer’s AGI computation.  In other words, AGI is not reduced by the 20 percent QBID – AGI is computed before accounting for the QBID. Thus, for a taxpayer that has taxable income at or below the threshold for application of the NIIT as a result of the QBID, the NIIT would be computed on AGI first. 

Note:  Applying the NIIT to adjusted gross income (including income from both passive and active sources) could result in a sizeable tax increase for many farmers – particularly dairy operations.

There are other tax provisions reported to be in the agreement, including those dealing with “renewable” energy credits.  The projected additional revenue from the tax increases is to fund certain “green energy” initiative.  The actual text of the legislation is presently slated for the Senate parliamentarian to review on August 3.  Full Senate consideration would occur after that date. 

Note:  There presently is no word on how Senator Sinema views the proposal, although she has stated in the past that she will not support legislation that increases corporate or personal tax rates.  While the proposals don’t increase actual rates, they do increase effective rates on certain corporations and individuals. 

Also, Senate Finance Committee Chairman Charles Grassley has introduced legislation that would index certain tax benefits to adjust for inflation.  The indexed provisions include certain tax credits and deductions such as the Child Tax Credit and the Non-Child Dependent Credit.  The bill, known as the “Family and Community Inflation Relief Act,” would also adjust for inflation the American Opportunity Tax Credit, Lifetime Learning Credit, and the Student Loan Interest Deduction.  The proposal would also extent the current $10,000 limitation on state and local taxes through 2026. 

 Recent Ag-Related Court Opinions

Child Support Obligation Computed Based on All Income and Loss from Farming. 

Gerving v. Gerving, 969 N.W.2d 184 (N.D. 2022) 

The issue in this case was the proper way to calculate a father’s child support obligation.  The father conducted a farming operation, and a primary issue was whether only income and gains from farming should count for purposes of child support, or whether losses should also be accounted for. Under child support guidelines, the court must determine the payor’s net income and use that amount to calculate the child support obligation.  The trial court calculated the father’s income based only on gains and did not include any related losses incurred from equipment trades and other farm-related transactions.  The appellate court held that the trial court erred by not including the farm losses to calculate the father’s self-employment income because those losses must be considered to show actual profit from the farming operation.  The appellate court also determined that the father had no income from subleases of farmland.  

Deduction for Full Amount of C Corporate Shareholder Compensation Not Deductible 

Clary Hood, Inc. v. Comr., T.C. Memo. 2022-15

A big audit issue for farming (and other) corporations is reasonable compensation.  This case illustrates that point in a non-farm context.  Here, a married couple were the sole shareholders of the petitioner, a corporation engaged in the construction business that graded and prepared land.  The petitioner’s growth was irregular from 2000 on. The principal took a relatively modest salary between 2000 and 2012 but took a big increase in the years 2013 to 2016, ostensibly to compensate for earlier years. The company had an outside consulting firm perform an analysis to determine what the principal's compensation should be. The IRS challenged the amount in 2015 and 2016.

The Tax Court examined the usual factors considered in such a case including the employee's qualifications; the nature, extent, and scope of the employee's work; the size and complexities of the business; a comparison of salaries paid with gross income and net income; the prevailing general economic conditions; comparison of salaries with distributions to stockholders; the prevailing rates of compensation for comparable positions in comparable concerns; and the salary policy of the taxpayer as to all employees. The Tax Court denied a deduction for the full amount of the compensation. In addition, the IRS assessed an accuracy-related penalty for both years. The taxpayer was able to show that he relied in good faith on the advice of the accounting firm and the Tax Court did not sustain the penalty. However, for the second year the taxpayer could not substantiate its reliance on the outside adviser. 

Homeowner’s Policy Doesn’t Cover Farming Injury

Mills v. CSAA General Insurance. Co., No. 21-CV-0479-CVE-JFJ, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 114741 (N.D. Okla. Jun. 29, 2022)

It’s always good to make sure you understand the extent of coverage you have under an insurance policy, and what is excluded from coverage.  This case illustrates that point.  Here, the plaintiff became pinned between a trailer and barn while loading cattle, and was hospitalized for several days as a result of his resulting injuries.  The plaintiff had a homeowner’s insurance policy with the defendant and filed a claim for coverage under the policy for his injuries.  The defendant denied coverage on the basis that the policy only covered claims for bodily or personal injury brought by third parties against the plaintiff, and that the farming endorsement did not extend coverage for the plaintiff’s own bodily injury and incorporated the policy’s exclusion for bodily injury into the farming endorsement. 

The plaintiff sued, claiming that he intended to purchase coverage for personal injuries he might suffer while operating his farm and that he had a reasonable expectation of coverage under the policy.  He also claimed that the exclusions were “buried in the more than 100 pages of the policy.”  The trial court disagreed, determining that the policy’s liability provisions applied only to claims for bodily or personal injury brought by third parties against the plaintiff.   The trial court also determined that the policy language was not ambiguous and was not “buried deep” into the policy documents. 

Gross Acres, not Tillable Acres, Used for Partition-in-Kind

Mueggenberg v. Mueggenberg, No. 21-0887, 2022 Iowa App. LEXIS 510 (Iowa Ct. App. Jun. 29, 2022)

The two parties were comprised of five siblings, who each had an undivided one-fifth interest in 179.61 acres of farmland. The plaintiffs, three of the siblings, filed for a partition in kind. The court appointed an appraiser to analyze and equally divide the farmland between the three parties. The appraiser determined that partitioning the land into five equal sections would be unworkable because the land’s topography varied greatly. The appraiser recommended the defendants should receive an approximate share of 40 percent comprised of 62 gross acres and all the future easement payments from the energy company that operated a windmill on the land. The appraiser allocated 117.61 gross acres to the plaintiffs. The defendants claimed that they were entitled to 68.64 tillable acres. The appraiser explained that while the acre division was not necessarily 40/60, the land awarded to the defendants was overall more desirable and expensive as it had a higher CSR2 rating.

The trial court agreed with the appraiser and assessed fees and costs to the defendants.  On appeal, the appellate court found the defendants’ calculations for a different split were inaccurate as the defendants used tillable acres when they should have used gross acres in the calculation. The defendants also failed to account for the difficulty of dividing the land caused by a non-uniform property line and the existence of terraces. The appellate court affirmed the trial court’s decision to adopt the appraiser’s division but reversed the trial court’s award of attorney’s fees and costs. Accordingly, the appellate court vacated the trial court’s assessment of costs and remanded the case with instructions that only costs arising from the contested matter be assessed to the defendants.  The parties were to share all remaining costs proportionately. 

Conclusion

Keep your eyes on what, if any, tax proposals come out of the Senate.  Increasing taxes on individuals whether via the NIIT or the corporate tax in a recessionary economy (despite the changed definition from the White House) is not a good idea.  It’s particularly a bad idea when any additional revenue is to be used to fund inefficient and costly energy proposals to further energy policies that are the driver to the current inflationary problems in the economy. 

On the ag law front, make sure to understand how child support is computed in the context of a farmer’s divorce; pay reasonable compensation to shareholder/offices for services rendered; know what is and what is not covered under an insurance policy; and avoid partition actions – they rarely end up in family harmony. 

July 28, 2022 in Civil Liabilities, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property | Permalink | Comments (0)

Saturday, July 23, 2022

Dicamba Spray-Drift Issues and the Bader Farms Litigation

Overview

Dicamba is a broad-spectrum herbicide that was first registered in 1967.  But, over the past several years, spray-drift issues associated with Dicamba have been happening.  Around 2016, Dicamba's use came under significant scrutiny due to its tendency to vaporize from treated fields and spread to neighboring crops.  Incidents in which dicamba affected neighboring fields led to complaints from farmers and fines in some states. A lower volatility formulation, M1768, was approved by the EPA in November 2016.  Dicamba formulations, including those registered in the late 2010s, can be especially prone to volatility, temperature inversions and drift.

Much of the problem has been with the use of XtendiMax with VaporGrip (Monsanto (now Bayer)) and Engenia (BASF) herbicides for use with Xtend soybeans and cotton as Dicamba usage increased in an attempt to control weeds in fields planted with crops that are engineered to withstand it.  Monsanto began offering crops resistant to Dicamba before a reformulated and drift resistant herbicide had gained Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval.  The drift issues became bad enough that some states (e.g., Missouri and Arkansas) banned Dicamba because of drift-related damage issues.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency imposed restrictions on the use of dicamba in November 2018.

What factors help determine the proper application of Dicamba?  If drift occurs and damages crops in an adjacent field, how should the problem be addressed?  Can the matter be settled privately by the parties involved?  If not, what legal standard applies in resolving the matter – negligence or strict liability?  Will punitive damages be awarded?  If so, will a large jury verdict awarding punitive damages be upheld?

Issues associated with Dicamba drift – that’s the focus of today’s post.

Uniqueness of Dicamba

In many instances, spray drift is a straightforward matter.  The typical scenario involves either applying chemicals in conditions that are unfavorable (such as high wind), or a misapplication (such as not following recommended application instructions).  But, Dicamba is a unique product with its own unique application protocol. 

Consider the following observations: 

  • Dicamba is a very volatile chemical and is rarely sprayed in the summer months. This is because when the temperature reaches approximately 90 degrees Fahrenheit, dicamba will vaporize such that it can be carried by wind for several miles.  This can occur even days after application.
  • The typical causes of spray drift are application when winds are too strong or a misapplication of the chemical.
  • For the newer Dicamba soybeans, chemical manufacturers reformulated the active ingredient to minimize the chance that it would move off-target due to it volatility.
  • Studies have concluded that the new formulations are safe when applied properly, but if a user mixes-in unapproved chemicals, additives or fertilizer, the safe formulations revert to the base dicamba formulation with the attendant higher likelihood of off-target drift.
  • Soybeans have an inherit low tolerance to dicamba. As low as 1/20,000 of an application rate can cause a reaction.  A 1/1000 of rate can cause yield loss.
  • The majority of damaged crops are may not actually result in yield loss. That’s particularly the case if drift damage occurs before flowering.  However, if the drift damage occurs post-flowering the likelihood of yield loss increases. 

Damage Claims – Building a Case

Negligence.  For a person to be deemed legally negligent, certain elements must exist. These elements can be thought of as links in a chain. Each element must be present before a finding of negligence can be obtained.  The first element is that of a legal duty giving rise to a standard of care.  To be liable for a negligent tort, the defendant's conduct must have fallen below that of a “reasonable and prudent person” under the circumstances.  A reasonable and prudent person is what a jury has in mind when they measure an individual's conduct in retrospect - after the fact, when the case is in court. The conduct of a particular tortfeasor (the one causing the tort) who is not held out as a professional is compared with the mythical standard of conduct of the reasonable and prudent person in terms of judgment, knowledge, perception, experience, skill, physical, mental and emotional characteristics as well as age and sanity. For those held out as having the knowledge, skill, experience or education of a professional, the standard of care reflects those factors. For example, the standard applicable to a farmer applying chemicals to crops is what a reasonably prudent farmer would have done under the circumstances, not what a reasonably prudent person would do.

If a legal duty exists, it is necessary to determine whether the defendant's conduct fell short of the conduct of a “reasonable and prudent person (or professional) under the circumstances.”  This is called a breach, and is the second element of a negligent tort case.

Once a legal duty and breach of that duty are shown to exist, a causal connection (the third element) must be established between the defendant's act and (the fourth element) the plaintiff's injuries (whether to person or property).  In other words, the resulting harm to the plaintiff must have been a reasonably foreseeable result of the defendant's conduct at the time the conduct occurred. Reasonable foreseeability is the essence of causality (also known as proximate cause).

For a plaintiff to prevail in a negligence-type tort case, the plaintiff bears the burden of proof to all four elements by a preponderance of the evidence (just over 50 percent).

Typical drift case.  In a straightforward drift case, the four elements are typically satisfied – the defendant misapplied the chemical or did so in high winds (breach of duty to apply chemicals in a reasonable manner in accordance with industry standards/requirements) resulting in damages to another party’s crops.  In addition, the plaintiff is able to pin-down where the drift came from by weather reports for the day of application combined with talking with neighbors to determine the source of the drift (causation).  In many of these situations, a solution is worked out privately between the parties.  In other situations, the disaffected farmer could file a complaint with the state and the state would begin an investigation which could result in a damage award or litigation.

Generally, what are contributing factors to ag chemical drift?  For starters, the liquid spray solution of all herbicides can physically drift off-target.   This often occurs due to misapplication including such things as applying when wind speed exceeds the recommended velocity, improper spray pressure, and not setting the nozzle height at the proper level above the canopy of the intended plant target.  Clearly, not shielding sprayers and aerial application can result in an increased chance of off-site drift.  Also, the possibility of drift to an unintended field can be influenced by droplet size if the appropriate nozzle is not utilized. 

Dicamba drift cases.  As noted above, dicamba is a different product that is more volatile than other crop chemicals.  That volatility and the increased likelihood of drift over a broader geographic area makes it more difficult for a plaintiff to determine the source of the drift.  Thus, the causation element of the plaintiff’s tort claim is more difficult to establish.  In addition, soybeans are inherently sensitive to extremely low dicamba concentrations, thus elevating the potential for damages. 

Dicamba manufacturers have protocols in place to aid in the safe application of the products.  Thus, in quantifiable damage cases, it is likely that an application protocol was not followed.  But, establishing that breach to the satisfaction of a jury could be steep uphill climb for a plaintiff.  That’s particularly the case with dicamba given its heightened volatility.  Damages could be caused by physical drift, temperature, volatility or temperature inversions.  Is a particular cause tied to the defendant’s breach of a duty owed to the plaintiff? 

Clear patterns of injury indicate physical drift which could make the causation element easier to satisfy.  Wind speed at time of application, sprayer speed, sprayer boom height above the plant canopy and nozzle height are also factors that are within the applicator’s control.  Failure to meet common industry standards or manufacturer guidance on any of those points could point toward the breach of a duty and could also weigh on the causation element of a tort claim.

Relatedly, another factor with dicamba, as noted above, is whether it was applied on a hot day.  The chemistry of dicamba has a “vapor curve” that rises with the temperature.  While I have not seen that vapor curve, it would be interesting to see whether that curve has a discernibly steeper slope at a particular temperature.  If so, that would indicate the point at which dicamba becomes very volatile and should not be applied.  To the extent any particular defendant can establish would be able to establish application beyond that temperature, the duty and breach elements of the plaintiff’s tort claim would be easier to satisfy.

Strict liability.  Most pesticide drift cases not involving aerially-applied chemicals are handled under the negligence standard.  However, a strict liability approach is sometimes utilized for aerially applied chemicals.  See, e.g., Langan v. Valicopters, Inc., 567 P.2d 218 (Wash. 1977); but see Mangrum v. Pique, et al., 359 Ark. 373, 198 S.W.3d 496 (2006)(the aerial application of chemicals commonly used in farming communities that are available for sale to the general public is not an ultrahazardous activity triggering application of strict liability).  In such a situation, liability results from damages to others as a result of the chemicals.  It makes no difference whether the applicator followed all applicable rules for applying the chemicals and did so without negligence.  The strict liability rule is harsh, and is normally reserved for ultra-hazardous activities.

The Bader Farms Litigation

The lawsuit – claims and motions.  In Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto Co., et al., No. MDL No. 1:18md2820-SNLJ, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 114302 (E.D. Mo. July 10, 2019), the plaintiff is Missouri’s largest peach farming operation and is located in the southeast part of the state.  claimed that his peach orchard was destroyed after the defendants (Monsanto and BASF) allegedly conspired to develop and market Dicamba-tolerant seeds and Dicamba-based herbicides. The suit alleged that the two companies collaborated on Xtend (herbicide resistant cotton seed) that was intended for use with a less volatile form of Dicamba with less drift potential.  But, as of 2015 neither Monsanto nor BASF had produced the new, less volatile, form of Dicamba.  That fact led the plaintiff to claim that the defendants released the Dicamba-tolerant seed with no corresponding Dicamba herbicide that could be safely applied.  As a result, the plaintiff claimed, farmers illegally sprayed an old formulation of Dicamba that was unapproved for in-crop, over-the-top, use and was highly volatile and prone to drift.    The plaintiff claimed its annual peach crop revenue exceeded $2 million before the drift damage, and an expert at trial asserted that the drift caused the plaintiff to lose over $20 million in profits.  While many cases had previously been filed on the dicamba drift issue, the plaintiff did not join the other litigation because it focused on damages to soybean crops.  The plaintiff’s suit also involved claims for failure to warn; negligent training; violation of the Missouri Crop Protection Act (MCPA); civil conspiracy; and joint liability for punitive damages. 

Monsanto moved to dismiss the claims for failure to warn; negligent training; violation of the MCPA; civil conspiracy; and joint liability for punitive damages.  BASF moved to dismiss those same counts except the claims for failure to warn. The trial court granted the motion to dismiss in part.  Monsanto argued that the failure to warn claims were preempted by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), but the plaintiff claimed that no warning would have prevented the damage to the peaches. The trial court determined that the plaintiff had adequately plead the claim and denied the motion to dismiss this claim.  Both Monsanto and BASF moved to dismiss the negligent training claim, but the trial court refused to do so. However, the trial court did dismiss the MCPA claims.  The trial court noted that civil actions under the MCPA are limited to “field crops” which did not include peaches.   The trial court, however, did not dismiss the civil conspiracy claim based on concerted action by agreement, but did dismiss the aiding and abetting portion of the claim because that cause of action is not recognized under Missouri tort law.  The parties agreed to a separate jury determination of punitive damages for each defendant

Note:  The case went to trial in early 2020 and was one of more than 100 similar Dicamba lawsuits.  Bayer, which acquired Monsanto in 2018 for $63 billion, announced in June of 2020 that it would settle dicamba lawsuits for up to $400 million.

The jury trial.  At trial, the jury found that Monsanto had negligently designed or failed to warn for 2015 and 2016 and that both defendants had done so for 2017 to the time of trial.  The jury awarded the plaintiff $15 million in compensatory damages and $250 million in punitive damages against Monsanto for 2015 and 2016.  The jury also found that the defendants were acting in a joint venture and in a conspiracy.  The plaintiff submitted a proposed judgment that both defendants were responsible for the $250 million punitive damages award.  BASF objected, but the trial court found the defendants jointly liable for the full verdict considering the jury’s finding that the defendants were in a joint venture.  Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto Co., et al., MDL No. 1:18-md-02820-SNJL, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 34340 (E.D. Mo. Feb. 28, 2020). 

BASF then moved for a judgment as a matter of law on punitive damages or motion for a new trial or remittitur (e.g., asking the court to reduce the damage award), and Monsanto moved for a judgment as a matter of law or a new trial.  The trial court, however, found both defendants jointly liable, although the court lowered the punitive damages to $60 million (from $250 million) after determining a lack of actual malice.  The trial court did uphold the $15 million compensatory damage award upon finding that the correct standard under Missouri law was applied to the farm’s damages.  Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto Co, et al., MDL No. 1:18md2820-SNLJ, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 221420 (E.D. Mo. Nov. 25, 2020).  The defendants filed a notice of appeal on December 22, 2020.     

Appellate decision.  In Hahn v. Monsanto Corp., No. 20-3663, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 18621 (8th Cir. Jul. 7, 2022), the appellate court partially affirmed the trial court, partially reversed, and remanded the case.  The appellate court determined that the trial court incorrectly instructed the jury to assess punitive damages for Bayer (i.e., Monsanto) and BASF together, rather than separately, and that a new trial was needed to determine punitive damages for each company.  Indeed, the appellate court vacated the punitive damages award and remanded the case to the trial court with instructions to hold a new trial only on the issue of punitive damages. 

However, the appellate court did not disturb the trial court’s jury verdict of $15 million in compensatory damages.  On the compensatory damages issue, the appellate court held that the trial court properly refused to find intervening cause as a matter of law for the damage to the plaintiff’s peaches.  On that point, the appellate court determined that the spraying of Dicamba on a nearby farm did not interrupt the chain of events which meant that the question of proximate cause of the damage was proper for the jury to determine.  The appellate court also held that the was an adequate basis for the plaintiff’s lost profits because the award was not based on speculation.  The appellate court noted that the peach orchard had been productive for decades, and financial statements along with expert witness testimony calculated approximately $20.9 million in actual damages.  The appellate court also determined that the facts supported the jury’s determination that the defendants engaged in a conspiracy via unlawful means – knowingly enabling the widespread use of Dicamba during growing season to increase seed sales.

Conclusion

The Dicamba drift issue has been an important one in agriculture for a few years, particularly with respect to soybean and cotton crops.  But, as the Bader Farms litigation shows, Dicamba drift can also impact other crops.  While the new Dicamba formulations will not eliminate the problem of physical drift, proper application procedures can go a long way to minimizing it.  Likewise, drift issues can also be minimized by communication among farmers to help determine the planting location of particular crops, their relative sensitivities to Dicamba and the necessary setbacks.

July 23, 2022 in Civil Liabilities | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, July 13, 2022

Durango Conference and Recent Developments in the Courts

Overview

On August 1 and 2, Washburn Law School will be hosting a two-day conference on income tax as well as estate and business planning.  Of course, the event emphasizes the application of tax and legal principles to ag producers and rural landowners, but many of the concepts are of general application.  One of the featured sessions at the Durango conference will focus on water rights and how those impact income tax and estate planning for farmers, ranchers and rural landowners.  Of course, throughout the two days we will be covering many issues that apply to clients in a host of possible situations. 

In today’s post, I focus on the Durango water rights session and a few court developments.

Appropriation Water Rights - Tax and Estate Planning Issues (Durango Conference)

This panel session begins with Andy Morehead, an accountant from Eaton, CO, explaining why we are talking about appropriation water rights in tax and estate planning.  The importance of the topic relates to the value of water rights.  Andy will talk about his experience concerning sales and other projects where water rights significantly increased the wealth of individuals, families or entities. 

In Colorado, almost 4,000 wells have been shut in by the State Engineer in the past two decades to maintain streamflow and satisfy downstream priority claims.  A similar number have had their pumping rights limited in some way. Given the rapid development occurring in northeast Colorado and the need for water for the new subdivisions along the front range, there will be major political ramifications if any further reductions are made.  The economic impact is already being felt. A unit (one acre foot) of Colorado Big Thompson storage water now sells for about $65,000.  Approximately 15 years ago, the same volume of water sold for $6,000.  This enhanced value has a significant impact on estates, as does any land with associated water rights.

Following Andy’s opening discussion, John Howe, an attorney in Grand Junction, CO, will follow.  His practice focuses on real estate matters including the leasing of water rights.  John will explain the nature of an appropriation water right, and will also discuss surface rights, tributary and non-tributary groundwater.  John will also address nuances in the adjudication system and the chief engineer’s agency.  Of particular interest to tax practitioners is whether a right to use water is an ownership interest in real property or a right to use water that is personal property.  John will discuss the real/personal property determination. Of course, the focus will be on Colorado, but John may also comment on the real/personal property distinction in adjoining states.  He will also share his experiences with business and succession planning title issues involving water rights and focus on a few of the most common title mistakes made with water right dispositions related to estate planning, divorce, financing and foreclosure, and entity dissolution or division.

Mike Ramsey, a long-time water law practitioner in Garden City, Kansas, will follow John’s discussion by addressing approaches to the valuation of water rights and depletion issues.  Mike will also discuss I.R.C. §1031 exchanges involving disposition of water rights that are interests on real property and other estate tax planning issues associated with water right ownership. 

The Durango conference is going to be a good one that you will want to be a part of, either in-person or online.  For further details about the two-day event click here:  https://www.washburnlaw.edu/employers/cle/farmandranchtaxaugust.html

Recent Court Developments

Defendant Properly Sentenced for Falsely Obtaining PPP and EIDL Loans

United States v. Stout, No. 21-1938, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 16627 (8th Cir. Jun. 16, 2022)

The defendant was sentenced to 12 months and 1 day in prison followed by 3 years of supervised release and $74,600 in restitution for misrepresenting (along with his wife and his sister) that they owned multiple businesses in order to obtain forgivable Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans as well as non-forgivable loans under the Economic Injury Disaster Loan program.  The defendant admitted being the ringleader of the scheme.  The court determined the “intended-loss,” the monetary harm the defendant purposely sought to inflict, was $116,525.56. The amount was calculated using pre-sentence investigation reports. The defendant claimed that his sentence should be reduced on the basis that the trial court should have limited the loss only to the PPP loans. 

The defendant claimed there was no evidence he did not intend to repay the non-forgivable loans, and relied on a 1999 case involving a rancher that misrepresented the number of cattle he owned in order to obtain a loan.  But the rancher in that case took multiple remedial actions to repay the falsely obtained loans such as selling his ranch and equipment, starting a new business, and financing his debt. The appellate court determined that the previous case was not like the defendant’s situation. The defendant provided no evidence that he would do anything to repay the loans and had no businesses that would allow him to repay the loans. The appellate court also concluded that the trial court did not err in considering the defendant’s past fraudulent actions of pawning stolen work computers as a reflection of the defendant’s character.  As a result, the appellate court upheld the trial court’s sentencing determination.

Shareholders Liable for Corporate Tax under “Midco” Transaction. 

Sloan v. Comr., T.C. Memo. 2022-6, on rem. from, 896 F.3d 1083 (9th Cir. 2018), rev’g., T.C. Memo. 2016-115, cert. den., 139 S. Ct. 1348 (2019)

A “Midco” transaction designed to avoid the tax on built-in-gain (BIG) inherent in the appreciation of assets held in a C corporation.  Under a “Midco” transaction the seller engages in a stock sale while the buyer engages in an asset purchase through use of an intermediary company. The sale of stock avoids triggering the BIG tax and the purchaser gets a purchase price income tax basis in the assets.  The IRS, however, often takes the position that the parties engaged in a Midco transaction have tax liability exposure under I.R.C. §6901as a transferee for unpaid taxes and interest on the basis that the selling shareholder.  The IRS could also impose penalties on the transferee parties.  The basic issue is whether the selling shareholder knew or should have known that the intermediary company would incur a tax liability that it had no ability to pay. 

In this case, the petitioners were transferees of C corporate assets via a typical “Midco” transaction where an intermediary company was affiliated with a promoter.  The intermediary company was merely a “shell” company organized offshore that buy the shares of the target company.  The cash of the petitioner’s C corporation (target corporation) flowed through the intermediary to the selling shareholders.  After acquiring the target’s embedded tax liability, the shell company engaged in a transaction purporting to offset the target's realized gains and eliminate the corporate-level tax. The promoter and the target's shareholders then agreed to split the dollar value of the corporate tax that had purportedly been avoided with the promoter keeping as its fee a negotiated percentage of the avoided tax amount. The target's shareholders kept the balance of the avoided corporate tax as a premium above the target's true net asset value (i.e., assets net of accrued tax liability). 

After the transaction there were no assets left in the target corporation and the IRS issued notices of liability to the petitioners as transferees.   In the original Tax Court case, the Tax Court ruled that the petitioners were not liable as transferees on the theory that they and their advisers did not have actual or constructive knowledge of the results of the transaction. On appeal, the appellate court reversed, concluding that the petitioners were at the very least on constructive notice that the entire scheme had no purpose other than tax avoidance. The appellate court also concluded the transfer was a constructively fraudulent transfer under Arizona law.  The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the case.  On remand, the Tax Court entered a decision consistent with the IRS’ computations.  Those computations included accuracy-related penalties and IRS recovery of pre-notice interest. 

Iowa Law Providing Limited Nuisance Immunity to CAFOs Upheld

Garrison v. New Fashion Pork LLP, No. 21-0652, 2022 Iowa Sup. LEXIS 86 (Iowa Sup. Ct. Jun. 30, 2022)

The plaintiff claimed that the defendant’s neighboring confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) violated both the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation Recovery Act due to manure runoff that caused excessive nitrate levels in the plaintiff’s water sources.  The federal court dismissed the suit on summary judgment for lack of expert testimony to establish the plaintiff’s claim, finding that the alleged violations where wholly past violations, and that water test results showed no ongoing violation of either statute, but rather a slight decrease in nitrate levels since the start of the defendant’s confined animal feeding operation (CAFO).  The federal court also declined supplemental jurisdiction over the plaintiff’s state law claims.  The plaintiff then sued the defendant in state court for nuisance, trespass and violation of state drainage law.  The defendant moved for summary judgment based on statutory immunity of Iowa Code § 657.11 and the plaintiff’s lack of evidence or expert testimony. 

Iowa Code §657.11 provides limited nuisance immunity to a CAFO.  Immunity is granted if the CAFO is following all applicable regulations and is using accepted management practices. The plaintiff, relying on Gacke v. Pork XTRA, L.L.C., 684 N.W. 2d 168 (Iowa 2004) claimed that Iowa Code §657.11 as applied to him was unconstitutional under Iowa’s inalienable rights clause. Under Gacke, for a court to determine whether Iowa Code §657.11(2) is unconstitutional a plaintiff must show they (1) “receive[d] no particular benefit from the nuisance immunity granted to their neighbors other than that inuring to the public in general[,]”; (2) “sustain[ed] significant hardship[,]”; and (3) “resided on their property long before any animal operation was commenced” on neighboring land and “had spent considerable sums of money in improvements to their property prior to construction of the defendant’s facilities.”  All three elements must be established.

The trial court, noting that the plaintiff’s own CAFO (raising of 500 ewes, and at times over 1,000 ewes and lambs, on his property for over 40 years, along with a six-foot tall manure pile) had benefited from immunity, rejected the plaintiff’s constitutional challenge for failure to satisfy Gacke’s three-part test in Gacke.  The trial court then granted the defendant’s summary judgment motion based on the plaintiff’s failure to provide any expert testimony or other evidence to support any exception to the statutory immunity defense or to prove causation or damages. 

On further review, the Iowa Supreme Court affirmed, overruled the three-part test of Gacke and applied rational basis review to reject the plaintiff’s constitutional challenge to Iowa Code §657.11.  The court noted that Iowa Code §657.11A did not eliminate nuisance claims against CAFOs, but rather established reasonable limitations on recovery rights.  The Iowa Supreme Court concluded that the plaintiff failed to preserve error on his takings claim under article I, section 18 of the Iowa Constitution and failed to generate a question of fact precluding summary judgment on statutory nuisance immunity or causation for his trespass and drainage claims. Specifically, the Iowa Supreme Court noted that without accompanying expert testimony, the plaintiff water tests showed neither an increase in nitrate levels nor a spike in nitrate levels that would correlate with manure spreading. The Supreme Court further noted that even assuming an increase in nitrate levels, the plaintiff lacked expert testimony to attribute or correlate any increase in nitrate levels in the stream to the defendants’ actions. Thus, without expert witness testimony that tied the defendant’s alleged misapplication or over-application of manure to the nitrate levels in the plaintiff’s stream, the plaintiff could not, as a matter of law, satisfy his burden of proving that any trespass or drainage violation proximately caused his damages.   The Iowa Supreme Court did not address the plaintiff’s constitutional challenge to the damages limitations in Iowa Code §657.11A(3).

Note:   The Iowa Supreme Court’s opinion didn’t explain how the attorneys for the plaintiff failed to preserve error on the plaintiff’s takings claim and failed to provide expert witness testimony on the tort claims for trespass and drainage issues.  However, the Iowa Supreme Court clearly focused on those deficiencies in its opinion. 

Conclusion

Agricultural law and taxation is a dynamic area of the law focusing on the legal rules surrounding food production, water rights and allocation, and the production and usage of energy.  Of course, taxation is wrapped around all of those issues, as are estate, business and succession planning.  All of these issues will be addressed at the upcoming conference in Durango, CO on Aug. 1 and 2.  While it’s not the same as being there in person the online attendance platform allows you to participate from your own location. 

I am looking forward to seeing you there, or online.

July 13, 2022 in Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Criminal Liabilities, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, June 16, 2022

Ag Law-Related Updates: Dog Food Scam; Oil and Gas Issues

Overview

Agricultural law touches many aspects of the daily life of a farmer, rancher, or anyone using an ag-related product or service.  In today’s post, I provide a small sample illustrating that very point.

Some additional ag law-related developments – it’s the topic of today’s post.

Claims Against Dog Food Producer Wrongfully Dismissed

Kucharski-Berger v. Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc., 60 Kan. App. 2d 510, 494 P.3d 283 (Kan, Ct. App. 2021)

A veterinarian prescribed Hill’s Pet Nutrition dog food for the plaintiff’s dog.  The plaintiff sued Hill’s Pet Nutrition upon discovering that the dog food did not contain medicine or drugs, had not been tested and approved for medicinal purposes by the FDA, but was priced higher than “normal” dog food.  The plaintiff claimed the defendant and other pet food manufacturers had conspired to monopolize the prescription pet food market and they had artificially inflated the prices by claiming the food required a prescription.  No federal or state law required pet food to be sold with a prescription from a vet. The plaintiff claimed the defendant had violated the Kansas Restraint of Trade Act (KRTA) and the Kansas Consumers Protection Act (KCPA) and also brought an unjust enrichment claim. The trial court dismissed the case for failure to state a claim under KCPA, the plaintiff had to allege that the defendant was engaged in a deceptive act or practice involving the plaintiff that caused the plaintiff damages.  The plaintiff claimed that the defendant had misrepresented that the dog food required a prescription so as to sell at a premium price.  The appellate court determined that the plaintiff had clearly alleged sufficient facts to put the defendant on notice of the allegations under the KCPA. The defendant claimed that the plaintiff failed to show a causal connection between the prescription practices and the injury, but the appellate court noted that the plaintiff did not need to show she was misled, only that the defendant’s actions were deceptive.  On that point, the appellate court noted that the plaintiff had provided enough detail in the complaint to show that the prescription requirement could be deceptive and was the cause of her spending more money (the injury).  As such, the plaintiff’s KCPA claims should not have been dismissed. With respect to the KRTA claim, the court noted that the plaintiff was required to allege that the defendant was creating a restriction in trade, increasing or reducing the price of merchandise to prevent competition, and had entered into an agreement establishing a set price for a good in the market. The plaintiff alleged the defendant had entered into a contract with other dog food producers to set prices higher for prescription dog food, which violated KRTA. The plaintiff also claimed that the defendant had entered into a conspiracy to monopolize the prescription dog food market.  As such, the appellate court held that the plaintiff had properly presented the KRTA claims.  The appellate court reversed the trial court’s dismissal and remanded the case for furthering proceedings.

Oil and Gas Developments

Fracking Water Not Taxable 

CDOR PLR 22-001 (Apr. 8, 2022)

A Colorado company sold non-potable river water to oil and gas producers for use in hydraulic fracturing and sought guidance from the Colorado Department of Revenue (CDOR) as to its taxability.  The company delivers water by withdrawing it from ditch and reservoir systems, securing rights-of-way, and laying temporary surface lines to the customers’ locations.  The CDOR concluded that the company did not owe sales tax because water in conduits, pipes, ditches and reservoirs is not subject to sales tax. 

Colorado Changes Oil and Gas Severance Tax Credit 

H.B. 1391, signed into law on June 7, 2022. 

Colorado H.B. 1391 was signed into law on June 7, 2022 and changes the calculation of the oil and gas severance tax credit.  Beginning January 1, 2025, the credit will be calculated as 76.56 percent of the gross income attributable to the well in the current tax year, multiplied by the local mill rate of the prior year.  Under prior law, the credit was 87.5 percent of the prior year’s local taxes, which are assessed at 87.5 percent of the gross income of the prior year and are subject to the prior year’s local mill levies.  The change is intended to simplify the credit’s calculation and eliminate the one-year lag in its administration.  Well operators, rather than royalty interest owners will be responsible for the tax. 

Low-Producing Oil and Gas Tax Exemption Tied to Actual Projection. 

Farmer v. Board of Ellis County Commissioners, Nos. 123,488 & 123,489, 2022 Kan. App. LEXIS 19 (Kan. Ct. App. May 6, 2022)

The taxpayer sought a refund for property tax exemptions under state law (K.S.A. 79-201t) for tax year 2018 for several oil and gas leases on his property for low-producing oil and gas wells (less than five barrels per day. The Board of Tax Appeals (BOTA) denied the refund on the basis that it would be retrospective and concluded that the taxpayer should pay the amount of tax based on the predicted production for 2018 rather than actual production. At the trial court, BOTA argued the leases should not be exempt because the 2017 production that was used to find the fair market value for taxes for 2018 was not at the exempt level. BOTA claimed the first time the taxpayers would qualify for the exemption would be in 2019 as the 2018 oil production would be used at that time to predict the value that would meet the exemption level. The trial court held the taxpayers should be granted the exemption as the daily average in 2018 fell below the level required for the exemption.  On appeal, the appellate court concluded that the statute was unclear on when the exemption could take effect and if a refund could be awarded. The appellate court looked at how BOTA honored tax refunds in the past for taxpayers who filed for an exemption retrospectively.  Based on legislative intent, the appellate court held the intent was clearly to allow tax exemptions on the first day an oil well would qualify. The appellate court held that the taxpayer should be refunded property tax if the well actually produced at exempt levels instead of the projected production levels.

Conclusion

There’s never a dull moment in the ag law and tax world. 

June 16, 2022 in Civil Liabilities, Real Property, Regulatory Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, May 22, 2022

2021 Bibliography

Overview

In the past, I have posted bibliographies of my articles by year to help readers researching the various ag tax and ag law topics that I write about.  The blog articles are piling up, with more 750 available for you to read and use for your research for clients (and yourself).  The citations contained in the articles are linked so that you can go directly to the source.  I trust that you find that feature helpful to save you time (and money) in representing clients.

Today, I provide you with the bibliography of my 2021 articles (by topic) as well as the links to the prior blogs containing past years.  Many thanks to my research assistant, Kennedy Mayo, for pulling this together for me.

Prior Years

Here are the links to the bibliographies from prior years:

Ag Law and Taxation 2020 Bibliography

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/ag-law-and-taxation-2020-bibliography.html

Ag Law and Taxation – 2019 Bibliography

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/ag-law-and-taxation-2019-bibliography.html

Ag Law and Taxation – 2018 Bibliography

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/ag-law-and-taxation-2018-bibliography.html

Ag Law and Taxation – 2017 Bibliography

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/ag-law-and-taxation-2017-bibliography.html

Ag Law and Taxation – 2016 Bibliography

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/ag-law-and-taxation-2016-bibliography.html

 

2021 Bibliography

Below are the links to my 2021 articles, by category:

BANKRUPTCY

The “Almost Tope Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

What’s an “Asset” For Purposes of a Debtor’s Insolvency Computation?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/whats-an-asset-for-purposes-of-a-debtors-insolvency-computation.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

Is a Tax Refund Exempt in Bankruptcy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/is-a-tax-refund-exempt-in-bankruptcy.html

Ag Law and Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/ag-law-and-tax-potpourri.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

Farm Bankruptcy – “Stripping,” “Claw-Back” and the Tax Collecting Authorities (Update)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/farm-bankruptcy-stripping-claw-back-and-the-tax-collecting-authorities-update.html

BUSINESS PLANNING

For Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Recent Happenings in Ag Law and Ag Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/recent-happenings-in-ag-law-and-ag-tax.html

C Corporate Tax Planning; Management Fees and Reasonable Compensation – A Roadmap of What Not to Do

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/c-corporate-tax-planning-management-fees-and-reasonable-compensation-a-roadmap-of-what-not-to-do.html

Will the Estate Tax Valuation Regulations Return?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/will-the-estate-tax-valuation-regulations-return.html

June National Farm Tax and Estate/Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/june-national-farm-tax-and-estatebusiness-planning-conference.html

August National Farm Tax and Estate/Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/august-national-farm-tax-and-estatebusiness-planning-conference.html

C Corporation Compensation Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/c-corporation-compensation-issues.html

Planning for Changes to the Federal Estate and Gift Tax System

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/planning-for-changes-to-the-federal-estate-and-gift-tax-system.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

The “Mis” STEP Act – What it Means To Your Estate and Income Tax Plan

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-mis-step-act-what-it-means-to-your-estate-and-income-tax-plan.html

Intergenerational Transfer of Family Businesses with Split-Dollar Life Insurance

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/intergenerational-transfer-of-family-businesses-with-split-dollar-life-insurance.html

Ohio Conference -June 7-8 (Ag Economics) What’s Going On in the Ag Economy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/ohio-conference-june-7-8-ag-economics-whats-going-on-in-the-ag-economy.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

Farm Valuation Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/farm-valuation-issues.html

Ag Law Summit

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/ag-law-summit.html

The Illiquidity Problem of Farm and Ranch Estates

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/the-illiquidity-problem-of-farm-and-ranch-estates.html

When Does a Partnership Exist?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/when-does-a-partnership-exist.html

Gifting Assets Pre-Death – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/gifting-assets-pre-death-part-one.html

Gifting Assets Pre-Death (Entity Interests) – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/gifting-assets-pre-death-entity-interests-part-two.html

Gifting Pre-Death (Partnership Interests) – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/gifting-pre-death-partnership-interests-part-three.html

The Future of Ag Tax Policy – Where Is It Headed?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/the-future-of-ag-tax-policy-where-is-it-headed.html

Estate Planning to Protect Assets From Creditors – Dancing On the Line Between Legitimacy and Fraud

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/estate-planning-to-protect-assets-from-creditors-dancing-on-the-line-between-legitimacy-and-fraud.html

Fall 2021 Seminars

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/fall-2021-seminars.html

Corporate-Owned Life Insurance – Impact on Corporate Value and Shareholder’s Estate

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/corporate-owned-life-insurance-impact-on-corporate-value-and-shareholders-estate-.html

Caselaw Update

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/caselaw-update.html

S Corporations – Reasonable Compensation; Non-Wage Distributions and a Legislative Proposal

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/s-corporations-reasonable-compensation-non-wage-distributions-and-a-legislative-proposal.html

2022 Summer Conferences – Save the Date

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/2022-summer-conferences-save-the-date.html

CIVIL LIABILITIES

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-three.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

The “Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2020-part-three.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Prescribed Burning Legal Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/prescribed-burning-legal-issues.html

Damaged and/or Destroyed Trees and Crops – How is the Loss Measured?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/damaged-andor-destroyed-trees-and-crops-how-is-the-loss-measured.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

Mailboxes and Farm Equipment

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/mailboxes-and-farm-equipment.html

Statutory Immunity From Liability Associated With Horse-Related Activities

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/statutory-immunity-from-liability-associated-with-horse-related-activities.html

CONTRACTS

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-three.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Deed Reformation – Correcting Mistakes After the Fact

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/deed-reformation-correcting-mistakes-after-the-fact.html

Considerations When Buying Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/considerations-when-buying-farmland.html

Recent Court Decisions of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/recent-court-decisions-of-interest.html

The Potential Peril Associated With Deferred Payment Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/the-potential-peril-associated-with-deferred-payment-contracts.html

COOPERATIVES

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Final Ag/Horticultural Cooperative QBI Regulations Issued

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

CRIMINAL LIABILITIES

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

Estate Planning to Protect Assets From Creditors – Dancing On the Line Between Legitimacy and Fraud

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/estate-planning-to-protect-assets-from-creditors-dancing-on-the-line-between-legitimacy-and-fraud.html

Recent Court Decisions of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/recent-court-decisions-of-interest.html

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Recent Happenings in Ag Law and Ag Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/recent-happenings-in-ag-law-and-ag-tax.html

Court and IRS Happenings in Ag Law and Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/court-happenings-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

Valuing Ag Real Estate With Environmental Concerns

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/federal-estate-tax-value-of-ag-real-estate-with-environmental-concerns.html

Ag Law and Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/ag-law-and-tax-potpourri.html

No Expansion of Public Trust Doctrine in Iowa – Big Implications for Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/no-expansion-of-public-trust-doctrine-in-iowa-big-implications-for-agriculture.html

Key “Takings” Decision from SCOTUS Involving Ag Businesses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/key-takings-decision-from-scotus-involving-ag-businesses.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

Navigable Waters Protection Rule – What’s Going on with WOTUS?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/navigable-waters-protection-rule-whats-going-on-with-wotus.html

ESTATE PLANNING

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-two.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

What Now? – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/what-now-part-two.html

Will the Estate Tax Valuation Regulations Return?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/will-the-estate-tax-valuation-regulations-return.html

June National Farm and Tax and Estate/Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/june-national-farm-tax-and-estatebusiness-planning-conference.html

August National Farm Tax and Estate/Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/august-national-farm-tax-and-estatebusiness-planning-conference.html

Farmland in an Estate – Special Use Valuation and the 25 Percent Test

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/farmland-in-an-estate-special-use-valuation-and-the-25-percent-test.html

The Revocable Living Trust – Is it For You?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/the-revocable-living-trust-is-it-for-you.html

Summer Conferences – NASBA Certification! (and Some Really Big Estate Planning Issues – Including Basis)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/summer-conferences-nasba-certification-and-some-really-big-estate-planning-issues-including-basis.html

Court Developments of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/court-developments-of-interest.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

Planning for Changes to the Federal Estate and Gift Tax System

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/planning-for-changes-to-the-federal-estate-and-gift-tax-system.html

The “Mis” STEP Act – What it Means To Your Estate and Income Tax Plan

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-mis-step-act-what-it-means-to-your-estate-and-income-tax-plan.html

The Revocable Trust – What Happens When the Grantor Dies?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-revocable-trust-what-happens-when-the-grantor-dies.html

Intergenerational Transfer of Family Businesses with Split-Dollar Life Insurance

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/intergenerational-transfer-of-family-businesses-with-split-dollar-life-insurance.html

Ohio Conference –June 7-8 (Ag Economics) What’s Going On in the Ag Economy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/ohio-conference-june-7-8-ag-economics-whats-going-on-in-the-ag-economy.html

Reimbursement Claims in Estates; Drainage District Assessments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/reimbursement-claims-in-estates-drainage-district-assessments.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

Farm Valuation Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/farm-valuation-issues.html

Ag Law Summit

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/ag-law-summit.html

The Illiquidity Problem of Farm and Ranch Estates

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/the-illiquidity-problem-of-farm-and-ranch-estates.html

Planning to Avoid Elder Abuse

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/planning-to-avoid-elder-abuse.html

Gifting Assets Pre-Death – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/gifting-assets-pre-death-part-one.html

Gifting Assets Pre-Death (Entity Interests) – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/gifting-assets-pre-death-entity-interests-part-two.html

The Future of Ag Tax Policy – Where Is It Headed?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/the-future-of-ag-tax-policy-where-is-it-headed.html

Estate Planning to Protect Assets From Creditors – Dancing On the Line Between Legitimacy and Fraud

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/estate-planning-to-protect-assets-from-creditors-dancing-on-the-line-between-legitimacy-and-fraud.html

Tax Happenings – Present Status of Proposed Legislation (and What You Might Do About It)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/tax-happenings-present-status-of-proposed-legislation-and-what-you-might-do-about-it.html

Corporate-Owned Life Insurance – Impact on Corporate Value and Shareholder’s Estate

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/corporate-owned-life-insurance-impact-on-corporate-value-and-shareholders-estate-.html

Tax (and Estate Planning) Happenings

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/tax-and-estate-planning-happenings.html

Selected Tax Provisions of House Bill No. 5376 – and Economic Implications

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/selected-tax-provisions-of-house-bill-no-5376-and-economic-implications.html

2022 Summer Conferences – Save the Date

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/2022-summer-conferences-save-the-date.html

INCOME TAX

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-two.html

The “Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-one.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

The “Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Four

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2020-part-four.html

Final Ag/Horticultural Cooperative QBI Regulations Issued

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/final-aghorticultural-cooperative-qbi-regulations-issued.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Recent Happenings in Ag Law and Ag Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/recent-happenings-in-ag-law-and-ag-tax.html

Deducting Start-Up Costs – When Does the Business Activity Begin?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/deducting-start-up-costs-when-does-the-business-activity-begin.html

What Now? – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/what-now-part-one.html

C Corporate Tax Planning; Management Fees and Reasonable Compensation – A Roadmap of What Not to Do

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/c-corporate-tax-planning-management-fees-and-reasonable-compensation-a-roadmap-of-what-not-to-do.html

Where’s the Line Between Start-Up Expenses, the Conduct of a Trade or Business and Profit Motive?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/wheres-the-line-between-start-up-expenses-the-conduct-of-a-trade-or-business-and-profit-motive.html

June National Farm Tax and Estate/Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/june-national-farm-tax-and-estatebusiness-planning-conference.html

Selling Farm Business Assets – Special Tax Treatment (Part One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/selling-farm-business-assets-special-tax-treatment-part-one.html

Tax Update Webinar

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/tax-update-webinar.html

Selling Farm Business Assets – Special Tax Treatment (Part Two)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/selling-farm-business-assets-special-tax-treatment-part-two.html

Selling Farm Business Assets – Special Tax Treatment (Part Three)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/selling-farm-business-assets-special-tax-treatment-part-three.html

August National Farm Tax and Estate/Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/august-national-farm-tax-and-estatebusiness-planning-conference.html

Court and IRS Happenings in Ag Law and Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/court-happenings-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

C Corporation Compensation Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/c-corporation-compensation-issues.html

Tax Considerations When Leasing Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/tax-considerations-when-leasing-farmland.html

Federal Farm Programs and the AGI Computation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/federal-farm-programs-and-the-agi-computation.html

Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/tax-potpourri.html

What’s an “Asset” For Purposes of a Debtor’s Insolvency Computation?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/whats-an-asset-for-purposes-of-a-debtors-insolvency-computation.html

Summer Conferences – NASBA Certification! (and Some Really Big Estate Planning Issues – Including Basis)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/summer-conferences-nasba-certification-and-some-really-big-estate-planning-issues-including-basis.html

Court Developments of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/court-developments-of-interest.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

The “Mis” STEP Act – What it Means To Your Estate and Income Tax Plan

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-mis-step-act-what-it-means-to-your-estate-and-income-tax-plan.html

The Revocable Trust – What Happens When the Grantor Dies?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-revocable-trust-what-happens-when-the-grantor-dies.html

Ohio Conference -June 7-8 (Ag Economics) What’s Going On in the Ag Economy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/ohio-conference-june-7-8-ag-economics-whats-going-on-in-the-ag-economy.html

What’s the “Beef” With Conservation Easements?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/whats-the-beef-with-conservation-easements.html

Is a Tax Refund Exempt in Bankruptcy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/is-a-tax-refund-exempt-in-bankruptcy.html

Tax Court Happenings

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/tax-court-happenings.html

IRS Guidance On Farms NOLs

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/irs-guidance-on-farm-nols.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

Tax Developments in the Courts – The “Tax Home”; Sale of the Home; and Gambling Deductions

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/tax-developments-in-the-courts-the-tax-home-sale-of-the-home-and-gambling-deductions.html

Recovering Costs in Tax Litigation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/recovering-costs-in-tax-litigation.html

Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/tax-potpourri.html

Weather-Related Sales of Livestock

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/weather-related-sales-of-livestock.html

Ag Law Summit

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/ag-law-summit.html

Livestock Confinement Buildings and S.E. Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/livestock-confinement-buildings-and-se-tax.html

When Does a Partnership Exist?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/when-does-a-partnership-exist.html

Recent Tax Developments in the Courts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/recent-tax-developments-in-the-courts.html

Gifting Assets Pre-Death – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/gifting-assets-pre-death-part-one.html

Gifting Pre-Death (Partnership Interests) – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/gifting-pre-death-partnership-interests-part-three.html

The Future of Ag Tax Policy – Where Is It Headed?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/the-future-of-ag-tax-policy-where-is-it-headed.html

Tax Happenings – Present Statute of Proposed Legislation (and What You Might Do About It)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/tax-happenings-present-status-of-proposed-legislation-and-what-you-might-do-about-it.html

Fall 2021 Seminars

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/fall-2021-seminars.html

Extended Livestock Replacement Period Applies in Areas of Extended Drought – IRS Updated Drought Areas

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/09/extended-livestock-replacement-period-applies-in-areas-of-extended-drought-irs-updated-drought-areas.html

Farm Bankruptcy – “Stripping,” “Claw-Back” and the Tax Collecting Authorities (Update)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/farm-bankruptcy-stripping-claw-back-and-the-tax-collecting-authorities-update.html

Caselaw Update

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/caselaw-update.html

Tax Issues Associated With Easements

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/tax-issues-associated-with-easements.html

S Corporations – Reasonable Compensation; Non-Wage Distributions and a Legislative Proposal

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/s-corporations-reasonable-compensation-non-wage-distributions-and-a-legislative-proposal.html

Tax Reporting of Sale Transactions By Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/tax-reporting-of-sale-transactions-by-farmers.html

The Tax Rules Involving Prepaid Farm Expenses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/the-tax-rules-involving-prepaid-farm-expenses.html

Self Employment Taxation of CRP Rents – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/self-employment-taxation-of-crp-rents-part-one.html

Self-Employment Taxation of CRP Rents – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/self-employment-taxation-of-crp-rents-part-two.html

Self-Employment Taxation of CRP Rents – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/self-employment-taxation-of-crp-rents-part-three.html

Recent IRS Guidance, Tax Legislation and Tax Ethics Seminar/Webinar

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/recent-irs-guidance-tax-legislation-and-tax-ethics-seminarwebinar.html

Tax (and Estate Planning) Happenings

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/tax-and-estate-planning-happenings.html

Selected Tax Provisions of House Bill No. 5376 – and Economic Implications

 https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/selected-tax-provisions-of-house-bill-no-5376-and-economic-implications.html

Recent Court Decisions of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/recent-court-decisions-of-interest.html

The Potential Peril Associated With Deferred Payment Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/the-potential-peril-associated-with-deferred-payment-contracts.html

Inland Hurricane – 2021 Version; Is There Any Tax Benefit to Demolishing Farm Buildings and Structures?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/inland-hurricane-2021-version-is-there-any-tax-benefit-to-demolishing-farm-buildings-and-structures.html

2022 Summer Conferences – Save the Date

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/2022-summer-conferences-save-the-date.html

The Home Sale Exclusion Rule – How Does it Work When Land is Also Sold?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/the-home-sale-exclusion-rule-how-does-it-work-when-land-is-also-sold.html

Gifting Ag Commodities To Children

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/gifting-ag-commodities-to-children.html

Livestock Indemnity Payments – What Are They? What Are the Tax Reporting Options?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/livestock-indemnity-payments-what-are-they-what-are-the-tax-reporting-options.html

Commodity Credit Corporation Loans and Elections

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/commodity-credit-corporation-loans-and-elections.html

INSURANCE

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

REAL PROPERTY

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-three.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Prescribed Burning Legal Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/prescribed-burning-legal-issues.html

Ag Zoning Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/ag-zoning-potpourri.html

Court and IRS Happenings in Ag Law and Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/court-happenings-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

Is That Old Fence Really the Boundary

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/is-that-old-fence-really-the-boundary.html

Court Developments of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/court-developments-of-interest.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

Deed Reformation – Correcting Mistakes After the Fact

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/deed-reformation-correcting-mistakes-after-the-fact.html

Valuing Ag Real Estate With Environmental Concerns

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/federal-estate-tax-value-of-ag-real-estate-with-environmental-concerns.html

Ag Law and Tax Potpourri

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/ag-law-and-tax-potpourri.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

Farm Valuation Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/farm-valuation-issues.html

Considerations When Buying Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/11/considerations-when-buying-farmland.html

The Home Sale Exclusion Rule – How Does it Work When Land is Also Sold?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/the-home-sale-exclusion-rule-how-does-it-work-when-land-is-also-sold.html

REGULATORY LAW

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-two.html

 The “Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Ag Tax Developments of 2020 – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-ag-tax-developments-of-2020-part-one.html

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

The “Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2020-part-two.html

The “Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Four

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2020-part-four.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Recent Happenings in Ag Law and Ag Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/recent-happenings-in-ag-law-and-ag-tax.html

Prescribed Burning Legal Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/prescribed-burning-legal-issues.html

Packers and Stockyards Act Amended – Additional Protection for Unpaid Cash Sellers of Livestock

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/02/packers-and-stockyards-act-amended-additional-protection-for-unpaid-cash-sellers-of-livestock.html

Federal Farm Programs and the AGI Computation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/federal-farm-programs-and-the-agi-computation.html

Regulation of Agriculture – Food Products, Slaughterhouse Line Speeds and CAFOS

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/04/regulation-of-agriculture-food-products-slaughterhouse-line-speeds-and-cafos.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

The FLSA and Ag’s Exemption From Paying Overtime Wages

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/the-flsa-and-ags-exemption-from-paying-overtime-wages.html

The “Dormant” Commerce Clause and Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/the-dormant-commerce-clause-and-agriculture.html

Trouble with ARPA

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/trouble-with-arpa.html

No Expansion of Public Trust Doctrine in Iowa – Big Implications for Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/no-expansion-of-public-trust-doctrine-in-iowa-big-implications-for-agriculture.html

Key “Takings Decision from SCOTUS Involving Ag Businesses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/06/key-takings-decision-from-scotus-involving-ag-businesses.html

Reimbursement Claims in Estates; Drainage District Assessments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/reimbursement-claims-in-estates-drainage-district-assessments.html

Mailboxes and Farm Equipment

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/mailboxes-and-farm-equipment.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

California’s Regulation of U.S. Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/californias-regulation-of-us-agriculture.html

Checkoffs and Government Speech – The Merry-Go-Round Revolves Again

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/checkoffs-and-government-speech-the-merry-go-round-revolves-again.html

Is There a Constitutional Way To Protect Animal Ag Facilities

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/08/is-there-a-constitutional-way-to-protect-animal-ag-facilities.html

Caselaw Update

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/10/caselaw-update.html

Recent Court Decisions of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/recent-court-decisions-of-interest.html

Livestock Indemnity Payments – What Are They? What Are the Tax Reporting Options?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/livestock-indemnity-payments-what-are-they-what-are-the-tax-reporting-options.html

SECURED TRANSACTIONS

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

Cross-Collateralization Clauses – Tough Lessons For Lenders

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/03/cross-collateralization-clauses-tough-lessons-for-lenders.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

The “EIDL Trap” For Farm Borrowers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/the-eidl-trap-for-farm-borrowers.html

The Potential Peril Associated With Deferred Payment Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/12/the-potential-peril-associated-with-deferred-payment-contracts.html

WATER LAW

Continuing Education Events and Summer Conferences

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/continuing-education-events-and-summer-conferences.html

The “Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2020 – Part Three

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/the-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2020-part-three.html

Agricultural Law Online!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/01/agricultural-law-online.html

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/05/the-agricultural-law-and-tax-report.html

Montana Conference and Ag Law Summit (Nebraska)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2021/07/montana-conference-and-ag-law-summit-nebraska.html

May 22, 2022 in Bankruptcy, Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Cooperatives, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, April 14, 2022

When Is an Agricultural Activity a Nuisance?

Overview

Land use conflicts are often present in urban, residential and commercial areas.  However, they also occur in rural areas.  Large-scale livestock agricultural operations, wind “farms” and similar rural land uses present many of the same issues.

How does the law handle rural land-use conflicts?  How can these conflict situations with adjoining landowners best be minimized or avoided? 

Land use conflicts in rural areas, ag nuisances and pointers for minimizes conflict among landowners – this is the discussion of today’s post.

What’s An Ag Nuisance?

A nuisance is an invasion of an individual's interest in the use and enjoyment of land rather than an interference with the exclusive possession or ownership of the land.  See, e.g., Peters, et al. v. Contigroup, et al., 292 S.W.3d 380 (Mo. Ct. App. 2009); Jones v. Hart, 2021 Vt. 61, 261 A.3d 1126 (2021).  Nuisance law prohibits land uses that unreasonably and substantially interfere with another individual's quiet use and enjoyment.  The doctrine is based on two interrelated concepts: (1) landowners have the right to use and enjoy property free of unreasonable interferences by others; and (2) landowners must use property so as not to injure adjacent owners. In a nuisance action, proof of general damages (diminished quality of life) may be sufficient evidence to support a monetary award.  See, e.g., Stephens, et al. v. Pillen, 681 N.W.2d 59, 12 Neb. App. 600 (2004).

The two primary issues at stake in any agricultural nuisance dispute are whether the use alleged to be a nuisance is reasonable for the area and whether the use alleged to be a nuisance substantially interferes with the use and enjoyment of neighboring land.  See, e.g., Bower v. Hog Builders, Inc., 461 S.W.2d 784 (Mo. 1970). 

Are Nuisance and Negligence the Same?

“Nuisance” and “negligence” are not the same thing.  Operating a farming or ranching activity properly and having all requisite permits may still constitute a nuisance if a court or jury determines the activity is “unreasonable” and causes a “substantial interference” with another person's use and enjoyment of property.  Whether a complained of activity, such as spreading manure, results in a “substantial” and “unreasonable” interference with another's property will depend on the facts of each case and the legal rules used in the particular jurisdiction.  See, e.g., Penland v. Redwood Sanitary Sewer Service District, 156 Or. App. 311, 965 P.2d 433 (1998).

Because each claim of nuisance depends on the fact of the case, there are no easy rules to determine when an activity will be considered a nuisance.  In general, a court faced with a particular nuisance claim will consider several factors.  See, e.g., Hernandez v. Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office, No. 3:19-cv-1404-JR, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 109784 (D. Or. Jun. 23, 2020).  Primary among these factors is whether the use complained of is a reasonable use that is common to the area or whether it is not suitable. See, e.g., May v. Brueshaber, 265 Ga. 889, 466 S.E.2d 196 (1995).  Also important is whether the use complained of is a minor inconvenience which happens very infrequently or whether it is a regular and continuous activity.  The nature of the property use being disturbed is also an important consideration.  If the interference has a significant impact on the complaining party's use of their own property, such as the prevention of living in the complaining party's home, a nuisance will likely be found.  Similarly, if the complained of use is preventing another landowner's use of their property that is a vital part of the local economy, the court will balance the economics of the situation and most likely conclude that the complained of use constituted a nuisance.  An additional important factor, but not conclusive in and of itself of the issue is whether the complained of use was in existence prior to the complaining party's use of their property which is now claimed to be interfered with.  A related concern, if the activity generating the alleged nuisance was in existence prior to the complaining party moving into the vicinity, is whether the nuisance activity was obvious at the time the complaining party moved in. 

Note:   Many courts also attempt to balance the economic value to society of the uses in question.  If the complained of use adds jobs and income to the local economy, the value to society of continuing the alleged nuisance may outweigh the negative impact it causes.

If A Nuisance Exists, What Then?

If a court determines that a nuisance (just one that is anticipated to occur in the future) exists, it has much discretion in establishing an appropriate remedy for a nuisance.  The most common remedy is for the court to stop (enjoin) the nuisance activity. See, e.g., Moody, et al. v. Wiza, 2007 Ohio 5356 (Ohio Ct. App. 2007); Simpson, et.al. v. Kollasch, et. al., 749 N.W.2d 671 (Iowa 2008); Walker, et al. v. Kingfisher Wind, LLC, No. CIV-14-D, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 141710 (W.D. Okla. Oct. 13, 2016).  However, most courts try to fashion a remedy to fit the particular situation. See, e.g., Valasek v. Baer, 401 N.W.2d 33 (Iowa 1987); Spur Industries, Inc. v. Del E. Webb Development Co., 108 Ariz. 178, 494 P.2d 700 (1972). 

Aesthetic Injury Only?

What if the only complained-of problem is aesthetic?  Is that enough to make out a claim for nuisance?  The issue has come up in a court case from Vermont involving solar panels.  In Myrick v. Peck Electric Co., 204 Vt. 128, 164 A.3d 658 (2017), the plaintiff was a landowner that sued the defendant, two solar energy companies, when the plaintiff’s neighbors leased property to the defendants for the purpose of constructing commercial solar arrays (panels). The plaintiff claimed that the solar arrays constituted a private nuisance by negatively affecting the surrounding area’s rural aesthetic which also caused local property values to decline. The trial court granted summary judgment to the defendants. On appeal, the Vermont Supreme Court affirmed. The Court noted that Vermont law has held, dating back to the late 1800s, that private nuisance actions based on aesthetic disapproval alone are barred. The Court rejected the plaintiff’s argument that the historic Vermont position should change based on changed society. The Court also rejected the notion that Vermont private nuisance law was broad enough to apply to aesthetic harm, stating that, “An unattractive sight, without more, is not a substantial interference as a matter of law because the mere appearance of the property of another does not affect a citizen’s ability to use and enjoy his or her neighboring land.” Emotional distress is not an interference with the use or enjoyment of land, the court stated. But, if the solar panels casted reflections, for example, that could be an interference with the use and enjoyment of one’s property. Aesthetic values, the court noted, are inherently subjective and the court wasn’t going to set an aesthetic standard. The Court also noted that the plaintiffs had conceded at oral argument that they were not pursuing a claim that diminution in value, by itself, was sufficient to constitute a nuisance. However, the Court went on to state that a nuisance claim based solely on loss in value invites speculation that the Court would not engage in. 

The Vermont court’s decision follows the majority rule among jurisdictions in the United States. There are some exceptions.  For example, a few courts have held that proof of general damages (diminished quality of life) may be sufficient evidence to support a monetary award.  See, e.g., Stephens, et al. v. Pillen, 12 Neb. App. 600 (2004).  But, in general, aesthetic injury, by itself, is not enough to make a claim for nuisance.  However, if it is coupled with claims of substantial interference with use and enjoyment of property, a nuisance claim might successfully be made.  Renewable energy generation (solar and wind) tends to require a large amount of land for its operation, but unsightliness, by itself, is likely not enough to constitute a nuisance. 

Landlord Liability for Tenant’s Nuisance

Generally, a landlord is not responsible for the acts of a tenant.  But there are exceptions to that general rule.  One of those exceptions applies when the landlord knows that the tenant is harming the property rights of adjacent landowners and does nothing to modify the tenant’s conduct or terminate the lease.  In that situation, the landlord can be held liable along with the tenant.  A good example of this can be found in Tetzlaff v. Camp, et al., 715 N.W.2d 256 (Iowa 2006).  In the case, a farm tenant operated a hog facility for the landlord.  The plaintiff lived adjacent to land on which the tenant surface spread hog manure within 90-feet of the plaintiff’s home.  The plaintiff complained to the landlord over approximately a four-year period.  The complaints fell on deaf ears.  The plaintiff sued and the Iowa Supreme Court held that the landlord was responsible for the tenant’s creation of a nuisance because the landlord knew of the tenant’s conduct, its impact on the plaintiff and did nothing about it. 

Potential Defenses

Priority of location.  If a farmer gets sued for the alleged creation of a nuisance, how does the farmer mount a defense?  While there are no common law defenses that an agricultural operation may use to shield itself from liability arising from a nuisance action, as noted above, the courts do consider a variety of factors to determine if the conduct of a particular farm or ranch operation is a nuisance.  Of primary importance are priority of location and reasonableness of the operation.  Together, these two factors have led courts to develop a “coming to the nuisance” defense.  This means that if people move to an area they know is not suited for their intended use, they should be prohibited from claiming that the existing uses are nuisances.

Right-to-farm laws.  Every state has enacted a right-to-farm law that is designed to protect existing agricultural operations by giving farmers and ranchers who meet the legal requirements a defense in nuisance suits.  The basic thrust of a particular state's right-to-farm law is that it is unfair for a person to move to an agricultural area knowing the conditions which might be present and then ask a court to declare a neighboring farm a nuisance.  Thus, the basic purpose of a right-to-farm law is to create a legal and economic climate in which farm operations can be continued.  Right-to-farm laws can be an important protection for agricultural operations, but, to be protected, an agricultural operation must satisfy the law's requirements.  See, e.g., Alpental Community Club, Inc., v. Seattle Gymnastics Society, 86 P.3d 784 (Wash. Ct. App. 2004); Hood River County v. Mazzara, 89 P.3d 1195 (Or. Ct. App. 2004). 

The most common type of right-to-farm law is nuisance related.  This type of statute requires that an agricultural operation will be protected only if it has been in existence for a specified period of time (usually at least one year) before the change in the surrounding area that gives rise to a nuisance claim. See, e.g., Vicwood Meridian Partnership, et al. v. Skagit Sand and Gravel, 98 P. 3d 1277 (Wash. Ct. App. 2004).  These types of statute essentially codify the “coming to the nuisance defense,” but do not protect agricultural operations which were a nuisance from the beginning or which are negligently or improperly run.  For example, if any state or federal permits are required to properly conduct the agricultural operation, they must be acquired as a prerequisite for protection under the statute. 

Another type of right-to-farm statute may be structured to bar local and county governments from enacting regulations or ordinances that impose restrictions on normal agricultural practices.  Still another type exempts (at least in part) agricultural uses from county zoning ordinances.  The major legal issue involving this type of statute is whether a particular activity is an agricultural use or a commercial activity.  In general, “agricultural use” is defined broadly.  See, e.g., Knox County v. The Highlands, L.L.C., 302 Ill. App. 3d 342, 705 N.E.2d 128 (1998), aff’d, 723 N.E.2d 256 (Ill. 1999).

Note:   Sometimes noise may not appear to be connected with the production of agricultural products, but it actually might be.  For instance, a howling dog in the night might normally be considered to be a nuisance because it interferes with a neighbor’s right to use and enjoy their property.  But the noise of the barking dog might be because the dog is guarding livestock and, thus, the dog is engaged in an agricultural activity that is protected by a right-to-farm statute.  See, e.g., Hood River City v. Mazzara, 193 Ore. App. 272, 89 P.3d 1195 (Or. Ct. App. 2004). 

An important point is that while right-to-farm laws try to assure the continuation of farming operations, they do not protect subsequent changes in a farming operation that constitute a nuisance after local development occurs nearby.  See, e.g., Davis, et al. v. Taylor, et al., 132 P.3d 783 (Wash. Ct. App. 2006); Flansburgh v. Coffey, 370 N.W.2d 127 (Neb. 1985).  While a right-to-farm law may not bar an action for a change in operations when a nuisance is present, if a nuisance cannot be established a right-to-farm law can operate to bar an action when the agricultural activity on land changes in nature. See, e.g., Dalzell, et al. v. Country View Family Farms, LLC, No. 1:09-cv-1567-WTL-MJD, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 130773 (S.D. Ind. Sept. 13, 2012), aff’d., 517 Fed. Appx. 578 (7th Cir. 2013). See also Parker v. Obert’s Legacy Dairy, 988 N.E.2d 319 (Ind. Ct. App. 2013).

Conclusion

Land use conflicts in rural areas are not uncommon and have become more prevalent in recent decades as the structure of agriculture had changed and new types of rural land uses have appeared.  To minimize conflict with neighbors and stay out of court defending a nuisance case, attention should be paid to certain key points.  Location of any facility that could give rise to a nuisance claim is key.  Related to location, particularly with respect to odor-related issues is wind direction.  For confinement livestock facilities, proper ventilation is key as is manure storage and field injection practices.  Of course, the overall appearance of farm structures is important - perhaps almost as important as are manure disposal practices. 

Keeping these points in mind just might keep the farming operation out of court.

April 14, 2022 in Civil Liabilities | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, March 21, 2022

Animal Ag Facilities and the Constitution

Overview

In response to attempts to shut down animal confinement operations by activist groups, legislatures in several states have enacted laws designed to protect these businesses by limiting access. A common approach is for the law to criminalize the use of deception to access a confined livestock facility or meatpacking plant with the intent to cause physical harm, economic harm or some other type of injury to the business. But the laws have generally been struck down on free speech and equal protection grounds.  Is there a way for states to provide legal protection to confinement livestock facilities?  What can these facilities do to protect themselves? 

Laws designed to protect confined animal livestock facilities from those intended to do them harm – it’s the topic of today’s post.

General Statutory Construct

The basic idea of state legislatures that have attempted to provide a level of protection to livestock facilities is to bar access to an animal production facility under false pretenses.  At their core, the laws attempt to prohibit a person having the intent to harm a livestock production facility from gaining access to the facility (such as via employment) to then commit illegal acts on the premises.  See, e.g., Iowa Code §717A.3A.  Laws that bar lying and trespass coupled with the intent to do physical harm to an animal production facility should not be constitutionally deficient.  Laws that go beyond those confines may be. 

The Iowa provisions.  Iowa legislation is a common example of how states have attempted to address the issue.  The Iowa legislature has made two attempts at crafting a state law that would withstand a constitutional challenge.  The initial version criminalized “agricultural production facility fraud” if a person willfully obtained access to such a facility by false pretenses (the “access” provision) or made a false statement or representation as part of an application or agreement to be employed at the facility (the “employment” provision).  The law also required the person to know that the statement was false when made and that it was made with an intent to commit a knowingly unauthorized act.  Iowa Code §717A.3A.  This initial statutory version was challenged and, as discussed below, the employment provision was deemed unconstitutional.

The Iowa legislature then modified the law with a second version that described an agricultural production facility trespass as occurring when a person uses deception “on a matter that would reasonably result in a denial of access to an agricultural production facility that is not open to the public, and, through such deception, gains access to [the facility], with the intent to cause physical or economic harm or other injury to the [facility’s] operations, agricultural animals, crop, owner, personnel, equipment, building, premises, business interest, or customer [the “access” provision].  The revised law also criminalizes the use of deception “on a matter that would reasonably result in a denial of an opportunity to be employed  at [a facility] that is not open to the public, and, through such deception, is so employed, with the intent to cause physical or economic harm or other injury to the [facility’s] operations, agricultural animals, crop, owner, personnel, equipment, building, premises, business interest, or customer [the “employment” provision].

In other words, the Iowa provisions criminalizes the use of lies to either gain access or employment at an ag production facility where the use is coupled with the intent to do harm.  Sounds quite reasonable, doesn’t it?  But the courts (a place where the telling of a lie can come with severe penalties) have generally come to a different conclusion.

Recent Court Opinions

North Carolina.  In 2017, a challenge to the North Carolina statutory provision was dismissed for lack of standing. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals v. Stein, 259 F. Supp. 3d 369 (M.D. N.C. 2017). The plaintiffs, numerous animal rights activist groups, brought a pre-enforcement challenge to the North Carolina Property Protection Act.  They claimed that the law unconstitutionally stifled their ability to investigate North Carolina employers for illegal or unethical conduct and restricted the flow of information those investigations provide.  As noted, the court dismissed the case for lack of standing. On appeal, however, the appellate court reversed.  PETA, Inc. v. Stein, 737 Fed. Appx. 122 (4th Cir. 2018).  The appellate court determined that the plaintiffs had standing to challenge the law through its “chilling effect” on their First Amendment rights to investigate and publicize actions on private property.  They also alleged a reasonable fear that the law would be enforced against them. 

On the merits, the trial court then held that the challenged provisions of the law were unconstitutional under the First Amendment as a violation of the plaintiffs’ free speech rights.  People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Inc. v. Stein, 466 F. Supp. 3d 547 (M.D.  N.C. 2020).

Utah.  The Utah law was also deemed unconstitutional. Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Herbert, 263 F. Supp. 3d 1193 (D. Utah 2017). At issue was Utah Code §76-6-112 which criminalizes the entering of a private agricultural livestock facility under false pretenses or via trespass to photograph, audiotape or videotape practices inside the facility.  While the state claimed that lying, which the statute regulates, is not protected free speech, the court determined that only lying that causes “legally cognizable harm” falls outside First Amendment protection. The state also argued that the act of recording is not speech that is protected by the First Amendment. However, the court determined that the act of recording is protectable First Amendment speech. The court also concluded that the fact that the speech occurred on a private agricultural facility did not render it outside First Amendment protection. The court determined that both the lying and the recording provisions of the Act were content-based provisions subject to strict scrutiny. To survive strict scrutiny the state had to demonstrate that the restriction furthered a compelling state interest. The court determined that “the state has provided no evidence that animal and employee safety were the actual reasons for enacting the Act, nor that animal and employee safety are endangered by those targeted by the Act, nor that the Act would actually do anything to remedy those dangers to the extent that they exist.”  For those reasons, the court determined that the Act was unconstitutional. 

A Wyoming law experienced a similar fate. Western Watersheds Project v. Michael, 869 F.3d 1189 (10th Cir. 2017), rev’g., 196 F. Supp. 3d 1231 (D. Wyo. 2016).  In 2015, two new Wyoming laws went into effect that imposed civil and criminal liability upon any person who "[c]rosses private land to access adjacent or proximate land where he collects resource data." Wyo. Stat. §§6-3-414(c); 40-27-101(c). The appellate court, reversing the trial court, determined that because of the broad definitions provided in the statutes, the phrase "collects resource data" included numerous activities on public lands (such as writing notes on habitat conditions, photographing wildlife, or taking water samples), so long as an individual also records the location from which the data was collected. Accordingly, the court held that the statutes regulated protected speech in spite of the fact that they also governed access to private property. While trespassing is not protected by the First Amendment, the court determined that the statutes targeted the “creation” of speech by penalizing the collection of resource data. 

Note:  The appellate court remanded the case to the trial court for a determination of the appropriate level of scrutiny and whether the statutes survived review.   Ultimately, the trial court granted the plaintiffs’ motion for summary judgment, finding that the statutes were content based and, as such failed to withstand constitutional strict scrutiny review on the basis that the laws were not narrowly tailored.  Western Watersheds Project v. Michael, 353 F. Supp. 3d 1176 (D. Wyo. 2018). 

Ninth Circuit.  In early 2018, the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit issued a detailed opinion involving the Idaho statutory provision.  Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Wasden, 878 F.3d 1184 (9th Cir. 2018).  The Ninth Circuit’s opinion provides a roadmap for state lawmakers to follow to provide at least a minimal level of protection to animal production facilities from those that would intend to do them economic harm.  According to the Ninth Circuit, state legislation can bar entry to a facility by force, threat or trespass.  Likewise, the acquisition of economic data by misrepresentation can be prohibited.  Similarly, criminalizing the obtaining of employment by false pretenses coupled with the intent to cause harm to the animal production facility is not constitutionally deficient.  However, provisions that criminalize audiovisual recordings are suspect. 

Eighth Circuit.  In 2021, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit construed the initial version of the Iowa law and upheld the portion of it providing for criminal penalties for gaining access to a covered facility by false pretenses.  Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Reynolds, 8 F.4th 781 (8th Cir. 2021).  This is the first time that any federal circuit court of appeals has upheld a provision that makes illegal the gaining of access to a covered facility by lying.   

Conversely, the court held that the employment provision of the law (knowingly making a false statement to obtain employment) violated the First Amendment because the law was not limited to false claims that were made to gain an offer of employment.  Instead, the provision provided for prosecution of persons who made false statements that were incapable of influencing an offer of employment.  A prohibition on immaterial falsehoods was not necessary to protect the State’s interest – such as false exaggerations made to impress the job interviewer.  The court determined that barring only false statements that were material to a hiring decision was a less restrictive means to achieve the State’s interest. 

Note.  The day before the Eighth Circuit issued its opinion concerning the Iowa law, it determined that plaintiffs challenging a comparable Arkansas law had standing the bring the case.  Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Vaught, 8 F.4th 714 (8th Cir. 2021).  The court later denied a petition for rehearing.   Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Vaught, No. 20-1538, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 27712 (8th Cir. Sept. 15, 2021). 

In late 2019, the plaintiffs in the Iowa case file suit to enjoin the second version of the Iowa law – Iowa Code §717A.3B.  The trial court agreed and preliminary enjoined the revised law.  The plaintiffs then filed a motion for summary judgment in early 2020 and the state filed a cross motion for summary judgment, and the case was continued while the appellate court was considering the case involving the initial version of the Iowa law.  As noted above, the appellate court ultimately upheld the access provision but not the employment provision.  The trial court, in the current case upheld the plaintiffs’ motion for summary judgment, finding that the revised statutory language had been slightly modified, but was substantially similar to the initial version.  As such, the trial court determined that the revised statute discriminated based on content and viewpoint and was unconstitutional under a strict scrutiny analysis.  Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Reynolds, No. 4:19-cv-00124-SMR-HCA, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 48142 (S.D. Iowa Mar. 14, 2022). 

Tenth Circuit.  In Animal Legal Defense Fund, et al. v. Kelly, 9 F.4th 1219 (10th Cir. 2021), pet. for cert. filed, (U.S. Sup. Ct. Nov. 17, 2021), the court construed the Kansas provision that makes it a crime to take pictures or record videos at a covered facility “without the effective consent of the owner and with the intent to damage the enterprise.”  The plaintiffs claimed that the law violated their First Amendment free speech rights.  The State claimed that what was being barred was conduct rather than speech and that, therefore, the First Amendment didn’t apply.  But, the court tied conduct together with speech to find a constitutional violation – it was necessary to lie to gain access to a covered facility and consent to film activities.  As such, the law regulated protected speech (lying with intent to cause harm to a business) and was unconstitutional.  The court determined that the State failed to prove that the law narrowly tailored to a compelling state interest in suppressing the “speech” involved.  The dissent pointed out (correctly and consistently with the Eighth Circuit) that “lies uttered to obtain consent to enter the premises of an agricultural facility are not protected speech.” The First Amendment does not protect a fraudulently obtained consent to enter someone else’s property. 

A Different Approach?

The appellate courts generally holding that the right to free speech protects false factual statements that inflict real harm and serve no legitimate interest runs contrary to an established line of U.S. Supreme Court precedent, at least until the Court’s decision in United States v. Alvarez, 567 U.S. 709 (2012).  See, e.g., Bill Johnson’s Restaurants, Inc. v. NLRB, 461 U.S. 731 (1983); Brown v. Hartlage, 456 U.S. 45 (1982); Herbert v. Lando, 441 U.S. 153 (1979); Garrison v. Louisiana, 379 U.S. 64 (1964).  The current split between the Eighth, Ninth and Tenth Circuits on the constitutionality of the Iowa Idaho and Kansas laws with respect to the issue of gaining access to a covered facility by lying could warrant a Supreme Court review. 

Indiana trespass law.  Short of a Supreme Court review of a state statute such as that of Iowa, Idaho or Kansas, is there another approach that a state might take to provide protection for agricultural livestock facilities?  The state of Indiana’s approach might be the answer.  In 2014, the Indiana legislature passed, and the Governor signed into law the “Indiana Trespass Law.”  Ind. Code 35-43-2-2.  Under the statute, “trespass” is defined as being on a property after being denied entry by the property owner, court order or by a posted sign (or purple paint).  If the trespass involves a dwelling (including an ag operation), the landowner need not deny entry for a trespass to be established.  The law also sets various thresholds for criminal violations. 

The Indiana law appears to base property entry on the legal property interest of that of a license.  A license is a term that covers a wide range of permissive land uses which, unless permitted, would be trespasses.  For example, a hunter who is on the premises with permission is a licensee.  The hunter has a license for the limited purpose of hunting only.  If the hunter were to videotape any activity on the premises, that would constitute a trespass as exceeding the scope of the license.  An unlawful entry.  This would be the same result for a farm employee.  Video recording would be outside the scope of employment. By focusing on the property interest of a license and that of a trespass for unauthorized entry, a claim of a possible free speech violation is eliminated.

Hiring Practices

In light of activists that wish to harm animal agriculture, ag animal facilities should utilize common sense steps to minimize potential problems.  Of course, not mistreating animals should always be the standard.  Proper hiring practices are also very important.  A well drafted employment agreement should be used for workers hired to work in an ag animal facility to  help screen potential hires.  The agreement should specify in detail the job requirements and what is not permitted to occur on the premises and inside buildings.  The agreement should give the employer the right to search every employee for devices that could be used to record activities on the farm and in farm buildings.  Also, employee training should be provided and documented.  Also, it’s critical that employee conduct be closely monitored to ensure that employees are acting within the scope of their employment and that animals are being treated appropriately. 

Conclusion

It’s unfortunate that groups exist dedicated to damage and/or eliminate certain aspects of animal agriculture, and that they will use lies and deception to become employed and gain access.  But, until state law is drafted in a way that will be found constitutional, livestock operations must adopt hiring and business practices that will minimize potential harm.

March 21, 2022 in Civil Liabilities, Criminal Liabilities, Real Property, Regulatory Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, March 18, 2022

Agritourism

Overview

Agritourism activities have expanded in recent years as an additional income stream for some farming and ranching operations and rural landowners in general, generating about $1 billion dollars nationwide.  But, engaging in an agritourism activity (or activities) on the premises means that members of the public will be invited to be present upon paying a fee.  That raises the prospect of injury and potential liability. 

The liability issue is a major concern for landowners.  In the U.S., about 80 percent of respondents to a survey listed concerns about liability as a limiting factor of engaging in agritourism activities.  Chase, et al., Agritourism and On-Farm Direct Sales Survey:  Results for Vermont, University of Vermont extension (2021).   Also, about that same percentage were worried about the cost and availability of insurance.  Id.  To address landowner liability and other concerns, and incentivize agritourism activities, many states have enacted agritourism statutes.  What does such legislation do?  What liability protection is provided?

Agritourism laws – it’s the topic of today’s post.

In General

Agritourism generally includes numerous activities on a rural property associated with either entertainment, recreational, educational and even commercial activities.  The USDA defines agritourism (and recreational) activities generally as “hunting, fishing, farm or wine tours, hayrides, etc.” USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), 2017 Census of Agriculture, Explanation and Census of Agricultural Report Form, B-24 Appendix B (2019)).  Also commonly treated as agritourism are famers markets, roadside farm stands and “U-Pick” operations, but a permit may be required.  See e.g., Utah Code Ann. §26-15B-105.  It is also possible that the definition of “agritourism” could be statutorily defined to include certain types of overnight accommodations, hayrides, corn mazes, riding on tractors and other farm equipment, riding on horses, playing around or climbing on hay bales, and weddings.  See, e.g., Va. Code Ann. §3-2-6400.  The definition may also include camping and tours of the property.  But some states exclude some of these activities from the definition of agritourism.  The key is to always check the specifics of state law.

Federal Law

In early 2022, H.R. 6408 was introduced into the U.S. House of Representatives.  The bill would create a Department of Agritourism.  The bill defines “agritourism” to include education, outdoor recreation, entertainment, direct sales. the provision of certain types of accommodations, and dining on a farm.  The bill was introduced into the House Agriculture Committee on January 13, 2022, where it presently remains. 

State Laws 

Liability.  In recent years, numerous states have enacted agritourism legislation designed to limit landowner liability to those persons engaging in an “agritourism activity.”  A majority of states now have enacted such laws. Typically, the legislation protects the landowner (commonly defined as a “person who is engaged in the business of farming or ranching and [who] provides one or more agritourism activities, whether or not for compensation”) from liability for injuries to participants or spectators associated with the inherent risks of a covered activity.  See, e.g., Tenn. Code Ann. §43-39-103 (requiring posting of warning signs informing of no liability for injury or death arising from inherent risks).  Without such liability protection a landowner is generally held liable for an injury to an invited guest under a high standard of care that requires the landowner to make sure the premises is safe, exercise reasonable care under the circumstances, and warn of hidden dangers. 

The statutes tend to be written very broadly and have various standards of care that might apply to a landowner.  For instance, legislation introduced into the Illinois legislature in early 2022 would grant liability protection to landowners for claims arising from participation in broadly defined agritourism activities.  IL H.B. 5487.  If the “agritourism operator” posts the statutorily required warning notice, the operator is not liable for the injury or death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of participating in an agritourism activity.  The operator is not protected, however, if the operator acts with willful or wanton disregard for the participant’s safety and the operator’s conduct is causally related to the participant’s injury or death.  The same is true if the operator fails to disclose known inherent risks. 

Note:  Many states have statutory provisions similar to what Illinois is considering.  For instance, with many state statutes, the landowner must post warning signs to receive the protection of the statute, and in some states the landowner must register their property with the state. See, e.g., 3 Pa. Stat. §2604.

This modification in the standard of care under an agritourism statute is common among the states with an agritourism statute. See, e.g., N.C. Gen. Stat. §99E-1(a); 4 Tex. Admin. Code §75A.002(a)(1)-(2).  Under these state statutes, liability is limited in situations where the landowner acted wantonly or with willful negligence, and liability is excluded for injury arising from the inherent risks associated with an active farming operation.  In many of the states that have agritourism statutes, the posting of specific signage is required to get the liability protection and, of course, the person claiming the protection of the statute must meet the definition of a covered person and the activity that gave rise to the liability claim must be a statutorily covered activity.  Further, in some states (such as Iowa), liability release forms, at least with respect to minors, may be deemed to violate “public policy” (as decided by judges rather than the public). 

Exclusions.  Some activities may be excluded from the definition of “agritourism” under a state’s statute. Common activities that might be excluded are roadside fruit and vegetable stands; operations that are solely for the purpose of selling or merchandising food; marijuana-related activities (even if permissible under state law); rodeos; sky and water diving; paintball; various types of bicycling; activities in structures primarily intended for use by the general public; and various types of animal therapy activities.  Again, the point is that each state statute is unique to that particular state and before starting an agritourism activity, the landowner/operator must be familiar with the applicable rules.

Compensation.  There are also differences among state agritourism statutes as to whether charging participants a fee changes the landowner/operator’s duty of care.  In most of the states with an agritourism statute, the liability protection of the statute applies if the landowner charges a fee.  That is the case in AR, CO, DE, FL, KS, KY, ME, MN, MO, NC, ND, OK, OR, SD, TN, TX, VA and WI.  But, in Alaska, no heightened liability protection is provided by the agritourism statute if a fee must be paid to access the land at issue to engage in an agritourism activity.  Alaska Stat. §09.65.202(c)(1). 

Other states with an agritourism statute do not mention the issue of compensation and whether charging a fee changes the liability protection of the statute. 

Financial incentives.  Some state laws related to agritourism relate to financial incentives via tax credits or cost-sharing, promotion, exemption from permits, protecting the ag real property tax classification of the property involved or providing special classification for structures used for agritourism activities. See, e.g., Md. Code Pub. Safety §12-508 (exempting buildings used for agritourism from performance standards and building permit requirements); Neb. Rev. Stat. §75-303(3)(exempting motor carriers from certain requirements if engaged in transportation related to agritourism); S.C. Code Ann. §6-9-67 (classifying certain structures without a commercial kitchen used in agritourism activity as ag and removes sprinkler system requirement). 

Some states address agritourism activities either via laws governing agriculture in general or via land-use/zoning laws.  This is particular true for activities that are “events.”  For example, Pennsylvania law doesn’t provide any liability protection for injuries occurring during weddings or concerts on the premises.  3 Pa. Stat. §§2603(c)(2)-(3) et seq. 

On the tax classification issue, Ohio law includes agritourism in the definition of “land exclusively used devoted to agriculture” for tax assessment purposes.  Ohio Rev. Code. §5713.30(A)(4).  Thus, the definition of “agritourism” is critical in receiving ag classification.  On that issue, the Ohio Supreme Court, in Columbia Township Board of Zoning v. Otis, 663 N.E.2d 377, 104 Ohio App. 3d 756 (Ohio 1995), held that haunted hay rides on farm property did not constitute the use of land for agricultural purposes because the addition of a Halloween theme with shrieks and flashing lights was completely inconsistent with traditional agricultural activity.  Similarly, in Shore v. Maple Lane Farms, LLC, 411 S.W.3d 405 (Tenn. Sup. Ct. 2013), the Tennessee Supreme Court reversed a determination by the court of appeals that music concerts on a farm were within the definition of farm activities within the scope of the agritourism statute and were exempt from a county zoning provision.  The Tennessee Supreme Court said the activity was not “agriculture” as defined by the statute.  Likewise, in Forster v. Town of Henniker, 167 N.H. 745 (2015)the court held that the use of a Christmas tree farm for weddings did not meet the definition of agritourism and, as a result, was not “agriculture” for zoning purposes. 

Note:  On the tax classification/zoning issue, a state agritourism statute may define an agritourism activity involving an event (such as a wedding, concert or festival, etc.) by reference to local zoning rules and ordinances.  Such local rules and ordinances may set size limitations, require certain permits, set operational standards and address issues involving sound and light, and restrict the number of guests/participants based on local conditions. 

Insurance.  Any landowner conducting an agritourism activity on their property should make sure insurance coverage is adequate.  It is not likely that a comprehensive farm/ranch liability policy will cover any claims arising from the activity.  That’s because an agritourism activity will likely be classified as a non-farm business pursuit of the insured that is excluded from policy coverage.  Thus, a separate rider (or policy) may be necessary to provide adequate insurance coverage.

Conclusion

Agritourism activities on a farm or ranch or other rural land can provide an additional income stream for the landowner.  For farmers and ranchers, that may be particularly important if current ag markets in Russia, China or Ukraine become lost in the long-term. 

March 18, 2022 in Civil Liabilities | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, January 4, 2022

“Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2021 – Numbers 8 and 7

Overview

As I pointed out in Sunday’s article, agricultural law and agricultural tax law intersect with everyday life of farmers and ranchers in many ways.  Some of those areas of intersection are good, but some are quite troubling.  In any event, it points to the need for being educated and having good legal and tax counsel that is well-trained in the special rules that apply to agriculture.

This is the second installment in my list of the “Top Ten” agricultural law and tax developments of 2021.  The list is comprised of what are, in my view, the most important developments in agricultural law (which includes taxation that impacts farmers and ranchers) to the sector as a whole.  The developments primarily are focused on the impact to production agriculture, but the issues involved will also have effects that spillover to rural landowners and agribusinesses as well as consumers of agricultural products.

The Eighth and Seventh most important agricultural law and tax developments of 2021 – it’s the topic of today’s post.

8.  Ag Nuisance Litigation in North Carolina.  In recent years, North Carolina has been the focus of much ag nuisance litigation, particularly targeted at large-scale hog confinement operations.  Legal developments flowing from the various cases has influenced the North Carolina legislature as well as legislatures in other states (such as Florida and Indiana) to modify their Right-To-Farm (RTF) laws in an attempt to provide greater legal protection to agricultural operations.  In 2021, there were further developments in North Carolina involving nuisance and that state’s RTF law.

The North Carolina RTF law was originally enacted in 1979 with the state policy goal to: "[R]educe the loss to the State of its agricultural and forestry resources by limiting the circumstances under which an agricultural or forestry operation may be deemed a nuisance." After many nuisance suits were filed against confinement hog operations, the legislature amended the RTF in 2013. The amendment specified that an ag operation that has been in business for at least a year and has not fundamentally changed is protected from a nuisance action as a result of changed conditions surrounding it if the ag operation was not a nuisance at the time it began. The plaintiffs refiled their suits in 2014 in federal district court based on the amended law. The federal court held that the RTF law did not apply to shield hog producers and five juries rendered verdicts for the plaintiffs. The legislature again amended the RTF law in 2017 and 2018 to expand its protection for agricultural operations.

There were two additional court opinions in 2021 involving the North Carolina RTF law.  In Barden v. Murphy-Brown, LLC, No. 7:20-CV-85-BR, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 47809 (E.D. N.C. Mar. 15, 2021), the plaintiff sued the defendant in 2020 for trespass, negligence, civil conspiracy and unjust enrichment arising from odor, dust, feces, urine and flies from a neighboring hog facility that housed 20,000-head of the defendant’s hogs. The plaintiff sought compensatory and punitive damages. The defendant sought to dismiss the complaint for failure to join to the lawsuit the farmer that operated the hog facility via a contact with the defendant as an indispensable party. The court disagreed, as the farmer’s conduct was likely irrelevant to the outcome of the litigation and any impact that an adverse judgment against the defendant might have on the farmer’s interests at the farm was speculative. The defendant also sought dismissal on the basis that the plaintiff’s complaint failed to state a claim for relief that was other than speculative. The defendant cited the North Carolina RTF law as barring all of the plaintiff’s claims.

The federal trial court disagreed with the defendant, noting that conditions constituting a nuisance can also constitute a trespass (and other causes of action). Thus, the plaintiff’s complaint was not restricted to allegations of a nuisance cause of action which the RTF law would bar. The court noted that the RTF law was different from other state RTF laws that covered non-nuisance tort claims related to farming operations along with nuisance claims. The RTF law only covered nuisance-related claims and had no application to non-nuisance claims. As to whether the plaintiff adequately alleged the non-nuisance claims, the court concluded that the plaintiff sufficiently alleged, at a minimum, a claim for unintentional trespass by not consenting to dust, urine and fecal matter from entering its property. On the plaintiff’s negligence claim, the court determined that it was reasonably foreseeable that if the defendant did not act reasonably in managing the facility that dust and animal waste would be present on the plaintiff’s property. As such, the defendant owed the plaintiff a duty and there was a causal link with any potential breach of that duty. Thus, the plaintiff properly stated a claim for negligence. The plaintiff also alleged that the defendant conspired with its corporate parent to mislead the public about the science of hog manure removal and various constitutional violations. The court rejected this claim because any conspiracy was between the defendant and its corporate parent and not with any independent party. The plaintiff also claimed that the defendant unjustly enriched itself by using the plaintiff’s property for a de facto easement without paying for it. The court rejected the claim because the plaintiff had conferred no benefit on the plaintiff which gave rise to any legal or equitable obligation on the defendant’s part to account for the benefit received. However, the court refused to strike the plaintiff’s allegations relating to the defendant’s Chinese ownership, influence and exploitation as well as the defendant’s financial resources. The court determined that such allegations had a bearing on the defendant’s motivation, extent of harm and ability to implement alternative technology. 

A second court opinion involving the North Carolina RTF law was issued in late 2021.  In Rural Empowerment Association for Community Help v. State, No. COA21-175, 2021 N.C. App. LEXIS 733 (N.C. Ct. App. Dec. 21, 2021), the plaintiffs filed suit in 2019 challenging the constitutionality of the RTF law. The plaintiffs sued in 2019 challenging the constitutionality of the RTF law on its face because they claimed the law exceeded the scope of the state’s police power. The defendants moved to dismiss the case and the trial court granted the defendant's motion to dismiss and denied the plaintiffs’ motion for summary judgment. On appeal, the appellate court affirmed. The state appellate court agreed with the trial court that limiting the potential nuisance liability from ag, forestry, and related operations furthered the state’s goal of protecting ag activities and encouraging the availability and continued production of agricultural products. The appellate court also determined that the RTF law amendments were a valid exercise of legislative and state police powers and did not violate the state Constitution’s Law of the Land Clause or the Due Process Clause. The appellate court also determined that the amendments were not a special or private law, and didn’t deprive any prospective plaintiff of the right to a jury trial. 

Note:   It is anticipated that the state appellate court opinion, if upheld on any appeal, will provide further guidance to other states and RTF laws. 

7.  Federal Court Determines Whether Withheld Taxes and Other Pre-Paid Taxes Can Be Deprioritized in Chapter 12 Bankruptcy. As originally enacted, Chapter 12 did not create a separate tax entity for Chapter 12 bankruptcy estates for purposes of federal income taxation.  That shortcoming precludes debtor avoidance of potential income tax liability on disposition of assets as may be possible for individuals who file Chapter 7 or 11 bankruptcy.  But, an amendment to Chapter 12 in 2005 made an important change.  As modified, tax debt associated with the sale of an asset used in farming can be treated as unsecured debt that is not entitled to priority and ultimately discharged.  Without this modification, a farmer faced with selling assets to satisfy creditors could trigger substantial tax liability that would impair the chance to reorganize the farming business under Chapter 12.  Such a farmer could be forced into liquidation.

A question that was addressed by a federal trial court in Indiana in 2021 was how taxes that the debtor had already paid are to be treated.  Can previously paid or withheld taxes be pulled back into the bankruptcy estate where they are “stripped” of their priority (i.e., deprioritized)?  That is a very significant question for a Chapter 12 farm debtor that also has off-farm income of a spouse that helps support the farming operation.

In United States v. Richards, No. 1:20-cv-02703-SEB-MG, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS (S.D. Ind. Sept. 30, 2021), the debtors, a married farm couple, filed Chapter 12 bankruptcy in 2018 after suffering losses from negative weather events and commodity market price declines during 2013 through 2015. The primary lender refused to renew the loan which forced liquidation of the farm’s assets in the spring of 2016. During 2016, the debtors sold substantially all of the farm equipment, vehicles and other personal property assets as well as grain inventory. The proceeds were paid to the primary lender as well as other lenders with purchase money security interests in relevant assets. After filing Chapter 12, the debtors sold additional farmland. The asset sales triggered substantial income tax obligations for 2016, 2017 and 2018 tax years. The debtors Chapter 12 plan made no mention concerning whether off-farm earnings, tax withholdings or payments the debtors voluntarily made to the IRS, or a claim or refund would remain property of the bankruptcy estate after Plan confirmation. The plan did, however, divide the debtors federal tax obligations into 1) tax liabilities for income arising from the sale, transfer, exchange or other disposition of any property used in the debtors’ farming operation “Section 1232 Income”; and 2) tax liabilities arising from other income sources – “Traditional income.” Tax liabilities associated with Traditional Income would retain priority status, but taxes associated with Section 1232 Income would be de-prioritized (regardless of when the liability was incurred) and treated as general unsecured claims that would be discharged upon Plan completion if not paid in full. Under the reorganization Plan, the debtors would pay directly the tax liability associated with Traditional Income incurred after the Chapter 12 filing date. Under the Plan, unsecured claims would be paid on a “pro rata” basis using the “marginal method” along with other general unsecured claims. The Section 1232 taxes would be computed by excluding the taxable income from the disposition of assets used in farming from the tax return utilizing a pro forma tax return. The Plan was silent concerning how the Debtors’ withholding payments and credits for each tax year were to be applied or allocated between any particular tax year’s income tax return and the corresponding pro forma return.

The IRS filed a proof of claim for the 2016 and 2017 tax years in the amount of $288,675.43. The debtors objected to the IRS’s claim, but did seek to reclassify $5,681 of the IRS claim as general unsecured priority status. The IRS failed to respond, and the bankruptcy court granted the debtors approximately $280,000 in tax relief for 2016 and 2017. The debtors then submitted their 2018 federal and state returns showing a tax liability of $58,380 and their pro forma return for 2018 excluding the income from the sale of farm assets which showed a tax liability of $3,399. The debtors, due to withholding and estimated tax, inadvertently paid $9,813 to the IRS during 2018. They claimed $6,414 was an overpayment and listed that amount on the Pro Forma return as a refund. The IRS amended its proof of claim and asserted a general unsecured claim of $42,200 for the 2018 tax year (excluding penalties and interest). The IRS claimed that none of the debtors’ tax liability qualified for non-priority treatment under 11 U.S.C. §1232, and that it had a general unsecured claim for $42, 220 for the 2018 tax year. To reach that amount, the IRS allocated tax withholdings and credits of $9,813 to the assessed tax due on the debtors’ pro forma return which reduced that amount to zero, and then allocated the remaining $6,414 of withholdings, payments and credits to the outstanding tax liability of $48,634. IRS later added $6,347 of net investment income tax that the debtors had reported on their return but IRS had excluded due to a processing error. The debtors objected to the IRS’s claim and asserted it should not be increased by either the $6,414 overpayment or the $6,347 of net investment income tax. The debtors sought to adjust the IRS claim to $54,981 and have the court issue a refund to them of $6,414 or reduce distributions to the IRS until the refund obligation had been satisfied. The IRS objected on the basis that the court lacked jurisdiction to compel the issuance of a refund or credit of an overpayment, and that the debtors were not entitled to the refund or credit of the overpayment shown on the pro forma return as a matter of law.

The bankruptcy court sustained the debtors’ objection to the extent the 2018 refund was applied to the IRS’s claim in a manner other than provided for under the confirmed plan. Specifically, the bankruptcy court held that the IRS had exercised a setoff that was not permitted under 11 U.S.C. §553 which violated the plan’s bar against any creditor taking any action “to collect on any claim, whether by offset or otherwise, unless specifically authorized by this Plan.” But, the bankruptcy court held that it lacked jurisdiction to compel the issuance of a refund or credit of an overpayment and that the debtors were not entitled to the refund or credit of overpayment as a matter of law. This was because, the court determined, the refund was not “property of the estate” under 11 U.S.C. § §542 and 541(a). Later, the bankruptcy court held that the overpayment reflected on the pro forma return was “property of the estate” and withdrew its prior analysis of 11 U.S.C. §§542 and 505(a)(2)(B). Thus, the bankruptcy court allowed the IRS’s 2018 general unsecured tax claim in the amount of $54,981 and ordered the Trustee to pay distributions to the debtors until the overpayments had been paid to the debtors.

The IRS appealed, claiming that the bankruptcy court erred in allowing the IRS’s proof of claim in the amount of $54,981 rather than $48,567, and ordering the IRS to issue the debtors a refund or credit of any overpayment in the amount of $6,414. Specifically, the IRS asserted that 11 U.S.C. §1232 did not provide the debtors any right to an “overpayment” or “refund” because it only applies to “claims” - tax liability after crediting payments and withholdings. The IRS based its position on Iowa Department of Revenue v. DeVries, 621 B.R. 445 (8th Cir. B.A.P. 2020). However, the trial court noted distinctions with the facts of DeVries. Here, the sale of property at issue occurred post-petition and involved a claim objection after the Plan had already been confirmed. The appellate court noted that the IRS did not object to the terms of the Plan, and under 11. U.S.C. §1232 the debtors can deprioritize all post-petition Sec. 1232 liabilities, not just a portion. The application of the marginal method resulted in a tax liability of $54,981 to be paid in accordance with 11 U.S.C. §1232. The non-§1232 tax liability was $3,399. The debtors inadvertently paid $9,813 to the IRS and were entitled to a refund of $6,414, and the IRS could not apply that amount against the Sec. 1232 liabilities in calculating its proof of claim. The refund amount was “property of the estate” under 11 U.S.C. §1207(a)(2).

Note:   On November 30, 2021, an appeal was docketed with the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.

Devries and Richards are important cases for practitioners helping farmers in financial distress.  11 U.S.C. §1232 is a powerful tool that can assist making a farm reorganization more feasible.  The Indiana case is a bit strange.  In that case, the debtors were also due a refund for 2016.  A pro-forma return for that year showed a refund of $1,300.  Thus, the issue of a refund being due for pre-petition taxes could have been asserted just as it was in the Iowa case.  Another oddity about the Indiana case is that the 2018 pro-forma (and regular) return was submitted to the IRS in March of 2019.  Under 11 U.S.C. §1232, the “governmental body” has 180 days to file its proof of claim after the pro forma tax return was filed.  The IRS timely filed its proof of claim and later filed an amended proof of claim which was identical to the original proof of claim.  The IRS filed an untimely proof of claim in one of the other jointly administered cases.

Procedurally, in the Indiana case, a Notice regarding the use of 11 U.S.C. §1232 should have been filed with the court to clarify the dates of Notice to the IRS (and other governmental bodies) of the amount of the priority non-dischargeable taxes and 11 U.S.C. §1232 taxes to be discharged under the plan.  That is when the issue of the refund would have been raised with the IRS.  However, there was no Notice of the filing of the pro-forma return with the court.  It will be interesting to see how the U.S. Court of Appeals handles the Indiana case on appeal.

Note:   Going forward, Chapter 12 reorganization plans should provide that if a pro-forma return shows that the debtor is owed a refund the governmental bodies will pay it.  

Conclusion

The next article will detail the Sixth and Fifth most important ag law and tax developments of 2021.  Stay tuned. 

January 4, 2022 in Bankruptcy, Civil Liabilities, Income Tax | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, December 12, 2021

Statutory Immunity From Liability Associated With Horse-Related Activities

Overview

In recent years, almost every state has enacted an Equine Activity Liability Act or a comparable provision designed to encourage the continued existence of equine-related activities, facilities and programs, and provide the equine industry limited protection against lawsuits. The laws generally require special language in written contracts and liability releases or waivers, require the posting of warning signs and attempt to educate the public about inherent risks in horse-related activities and immunities designed to limit liability. 

State laws providing potential legal protection from injuries associated with horse-related activities – it’s the topic of today’s post.

Statutory Components

Under the typical statute, an “equine activity sponsor,” “equine professional,” or other person can only be sued in tort for damages related to the provision of faulty tack, failure to determine the plaintiff’s ability to safely manage a horse, or failure to post warning signs concerning dangerous latent conditions.  Recovery for damages resulting from inherent risks associated with horses is barred, and some state statutes require the plaintiff to establish that the defendant’s conduct constituted “gross negligence,” “willful and wanton misconduct,” or “intentional wrongdoing.”

Kansas Provision

Kansas law provides liability protection for equine professionals and equine activity sponsors under the state’s “domesticated animal activity” act.  K.S.A. §§60-4001 – 60-4003.  Under the law, such professionals and sponsors are not liable for injuries incurred by a participant in a domesticated animal activity resulting from inherent risks unless the participant was provided with faulty equipment or tack, and the equipment or tack was what caused the participant’s injury.  Also, liability can apply if a horse was provided without reasonable efforts made to determine the participant’s ability to manage the horse based on what the participant disclosed concerning the ability to engage in the equine activity at issue.  K.S.A. §§60-4003(a)(1)(A)-(B).  The equine professional or equine activity sponsor can also lose liability protection by not disclosing dangers a participant is not likely to discover; fails to act reasonably; or willfully, wantonly or intentionally disregards the participant’s safety.  K.S.A. §§60-4003(2)-(4). 

Kansas law also requires the posting of warning signs in conspicuous places where equine activities are conducted.  The sign lettering is to be in black with each letter having a minimum of one inch in height.  State law prescribes the language for the signage that warns the participant in a domestic animal activity that the participant is assuming the inherent risks of the activity. 

Illustrative Cases

Iowa.  The various state statutes are all unique and fact issues abound.  That means that cases involving a state’s law often end up before juries to decide those fact issues.  One interpretation of the Iowa statute resulted in the term “person” in the Iowa Domesticated Animal Activities Act being construed to include an employer in an agricultural employment setting involving livestock.  Baker v. Shields, 767 N.W.2d 404 (Iowa 2009). 

Wyoming and Texas.  Another common issue involves determining what an inherent risk of horseback riding amounts to.  In Wyoming, that is a fact issue because the statute doesn’t provide any precise definition as examples of inherent risks from riding horses.  Under the Texas statute, the phrase “inherent risk of equine activity” refers to risks associated with the activity rather than simply those risks associated with innate animal behavior.  Loftin v. Lee, 341 S.W.3d 352 (Tex. 2011).  

Ohio.  The Ohio equine activities immunity statute has been held to bar recovery for an injury incurred by an employee of a stable when the employee assisted a customer in the unloading of a horse from a trailer during a day off, because the person deliberately exposed themselves to an inherent risk associated with horses and viewed the activity as a spectator.  But this trial court decision was reversed on appeal with the court determining that the assisting of the customer did not amount to engaging in an equine activity as a participant.  That meant that the customer was not entitled to immunity.   On further review, the State Supreme Court reversed, concluding that the employee was an equine activity participant.  Smith v. Landfair, 135 Ohio St. 3d 89 (Ohio 2012). However, the State Supreme Court remanded the case for clarification of the application of the statute given the State Supreme Court’s ruling.  On remand, the appellate court held that the customer was an equine activity participant that was entitled to immunity because the legislature didn’t intend for an equine activity participant to suddenly become liable when a horse acts in an unpredictable manner during a brief instance of loss of control.  Smith v. Landfair, 2014 Ohio 3314 (Ohio Ct. App. 2014). 

Florida.  In Germer v. Churchill Downs Management, 201 So. 3d 721 (Fla. Ct. App. 2016), the plaintiff, a former jockey, visited a horse racecourse that the defendant managed. The decision was a spur-of-the-moment decision made along with the plaintiff’s roommate who was a current jockey and had a horse stabled there. As a former jockey, the plaintiff was required to get a guest pass to enter the stables. While walking through the barn to see the roommate’s horse, another horse jumped out of its stall and bit the plaintiff’s chest. The plaintiff sued the defendant for negligence. The defendant asserted immunity based on the state (FL) Equine Activities Liability Act (EALA) on the basis that the plaintiff was a “participant engaged in an equine activity” that was precluded from recovering damages. The EALA immunizes an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person or entity from liability to a “participant” from the inherent risks of equine activities. A “participant” need not pay a fee, and engaging in an equine activity includes “visiting or touring…an equine facility as part of an organized event or activity.” The plaintiff claimed that the decision to visit the stables was simply a spur-of-the-moment decision that did not constitute an organized event or activity.  The court disagreed. The court focused on the requirement that the plaintiff obtain a guest pass before entering the horse barn. That was sufficient enough of a protocol to amount to “organization” which made the plaintiff’s visit to the stables “an organized activity” under the EALA.

Missouri.  In Rosales v. Benjamin Equestrian Center, LLC, 597 S.W.3d 669 (Mo. Ct. App. 2019), the plaintiff attended a horse racing event at the defendant’s racetrack.  She had never been to a horserace before and wasn’t experienced with horses.  Upon arriving at the track, she entered the area where the horses were being unloaded.  The gate she entered was an unmonitored open gate, and the track was in a large field or open area.  The plaintiff was seated a short distance from where the horses were unloaded, and a horse handler asked her to move while a horse was being unloaded.  The horse was unloaded and was being brushed when it reared up and fell on the plaintiff, fracturing her pelvis.  She sued on a negligence theory and the trial court jury found in her favor for $350,000.  That award was reduced by the comparative fault of the parties to $280,000.  On appeal, the appellate court held that the Missouri Equine Activities Liability Act (Mo. Rev. Stat. §537.325.4) did not immunize the defendant because it negligently permitted people to access and remain in the horse unloading area, near an inherent risk that, as a result, enhanced that inherent risk.  While the defendant complied with the statutory signage requirement, the appellate court held that was not required as a condition of asserting immunity. 

Conclusion

If you have horses, engage is horse-related activities, or attend horse events for pleasure, you might want to become familiar with the governing state statute that provides potential immunity for such activities. 

December 12, 2021 in Civil Liabilities | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, July 11, 2021

Mailboxes and Farm Equipment

Overview

Farmers use the public roadways to move farm machinery and equipment.  Sometimes, mailboxes present issues.  What are the rules for placement of mailboxes along rural roads?  What if a mailbox is hit?  The resolution of the matter will be fact based.  Was the mailbox intentionally damaged or destroyed?  Was the mailbox located in the proper place?  Was the mailbox at the proper height and of the correct size?  Was the farm machinery and equipment operating on the public roadway within applicable size and weight limitations?  These are all relevant questions.

Moving farm machinery and equipment along a public roadway and the potential hazard presented by mailboxes- it’s the topic of today’s post.

Postal Service Rules

If a mailbox is struck with farm equipment, one issue to check is whether the mailbox was in the proper location and was of the proper height and size.  The United States Postal Service (USPS) has rules for the placement of mailboxes.  But, the matter is also a mixture of state law.  Generally, a mailbox must be 41-45 inches above the road surface and 6-8 inches from the edge of the road. See, e.g., Mailbox Installation, USPS.COM; Section 632, USPS Postal Operations Manual.  The meaning of “edge of the road” depends on state law – “shoulder” is defined differently from state-to-state.  For rural postal routes, all mailboxes are to be on the right side of the road in the carrier’s direction of travel and be placed in conformity with state laws and highway regulations.  If state law is more restrictive than the USPS Operations Manual, state law controls.    

The posts for a mailbox are to be made from wood no larger than 4” x 4,” but can also be made out of steel or aluminum no larger than 2” in diameter.  However, the posts should be designed to easily bend or fall away in the event of a collision.  USPS Operations Manual.  The mailbox cannot be constructed in a manner that it is a fixed object that won’t break away when it is struck. 

The USPS also has specific mailbox size limitations.  All dimensions and designs must be in accordance with USPS rules before a mailbox can be sold to the public at retail.  For those that wish to build their own, the mailbox must be approved by the local postmaster.  This can be a key point when it comes to large farm equipment utilizing rural roads. 

A mailbox that is not in compliance with USPS rules could be creating a “traffic” hazard.  The hazard issue not only involves size and height restrictions but can also instruct the issue of where a mailbox is placed.  Each state has its own set of regulations on this issue.  In some states, a mailbox cannot be placed within a certain distance of an intersection.  The distance requirement might expand if the daily traffic is of a particular volume.

If farm equipment accidentally strikes a mailbox that is out of compliance with either federal or state requirements, that fact could absolve the farmer from responsibility for replacing the mailbox.

Roadway Size and Weight Limitations

On the other side of the coin, each state also has regulations governing the weight and size of farm equipment that can travel public roads. A farmer utilizing the public roadways with equipment and machinery exceeding applicable size and/or weight limitations that strikes a mailbox has little defense.  The size and weight limitations have come into greater relevance in recent years as farm machinery and equipment have enlarged (in size and weight) along with the size of farming operations.  Public roads have not correspondingly widened.  Weight limitations are often tied to the number of axles and the distance between the axles.  See, e.g., Kan. Stat. Ann. §8-1908.  Vehicles exceeding the limitations are not to be driven on public roads.  But, in states where the agricultural industry predominates, agricultural equipment and machinery is often exempted.  See., e.g., Kan. Stat. Ann. §8-1908.  Civil damages to the road are possible for violations.  See, e.g., Kan. Stat. Ann. §8-1913.      

As for size limitations, the maximum width permitted is generally eight and one-half feet under federal law.  But, that limit is inapplicable to “special mobile equipment” including farm equipment or instruments of husbandry.  See Federal Size Regulations for Commercial Motor Vehicles, U.S. Department of Transportation:  Federal Highway Administration (Oct. 9, 2019); Kan. Stat. Ann. §8-1902(b).  However, a state may require a permit for “over-width” farm equipment to be operated on a public roadway in the state, and may adopt additional requirements for width and height than the federal rules.  Common rules apply to the transporting of hay loads and combine headers.  See, e.g., Kan. Stat. Ann. §§8-1902(d)(2)-(3); 8-1902(e).

Sometimes, existing size and weight limitations are lifted for farm equipment (including farm trucks) during planting and harvesting seasons, and other unique exemptions might apply in certain situations.  It’s important to pay attention to a particular state’s rules as well as administrative notices concerning any modification (whether permanent or temporary) to existing rules.

If the operator of farm equipment on a public road is not in compliance with those regulations and strikes a non-compliant mailbox, sorting out the legal liability gets murkier.    

Colliding With A Mailbox

A mailbox is federal property.  Under federal law, it is unlawful to intentionally destroy a mailbox.  Doing so could result in a substantial fine and/or imprisonment of up to three years.  18 U.S.C. §1705.  Unintentional damage or destruction to a mailbox will typically require the notification of the property owner and the local police.  In addition, local regulations may impose other requirements. 

But, for those operating farm equipment and machinery on public roads within the applicable rules that happen to strike a mailbox, being required to pay for the damage caused is probably the worst that will happen.

Conclusion

Farmers often must use the public roads to move farm equipment from field-to-field, to get harvested crops to a local elevator, or for other reasons.  The increased size of farm equipment and natural limitations to the width of roads (particularly in the eastern third of the U.S.) present challenges to avoiding mailboxes.  It’s good to know the rules that can apply in such situations. 

July 11, 2021 in Civil Liabilities, Regulatory Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Saturday, May 1, 2021

The Agricultural Law and Tax Report

Overview
 
Starting Monday May 3, I am hosting a daily 2-minute program, The Agricultural Law and Tax Report on farm radio stations nationwide and on SiriusXM 147.  The purpose of each report is to educate farmers and ranchers and rural landowners on the unique legal and tax issues that they are often faced with.  Each program explains what the law is on a particular topic, and how actual court cases and IRS rulings have been decided based on that law, and what the application is to a farming or ranching operation.
 
Topical Coverage
 
Some of the topics that I will address include:
 
Contract Issues - (auction sales; farm leases; hunting leases; grain and livestock sale contracts; types of clauses to protect the farmer-seller; remedies if there is a breach).
 
Ag Financing Issues - (collateral issues; rules governing lenders and farm borrowers; foreclosure issues and Farmers’ Home (FSA); redemption rights for farmland; agricultural liens).
 
Agricultural Bankruptcy - (Chapter 12 farm bankruptcy issues).
 
Farm Income Tax - (handling USDA/CCC loans; government payments; crop insurance proceeds; pre-paying expenses; deferred payment contracts; commodity trading income; easement payments; crop and livestock share rental income).
 
Real Property Issues - (fences and boundaries; buying and selling farmland; recoveries from settlements and court judgments (such as the Roundup litigation, etc.)).
 
Farm Estate Planning - (types of title ownership; disruption of family farm if there is no will or trust; planning approaches to facilitate keeping the farm in the family; federal estate tax planning; gifting of farm assets; treating off-farm and on-farm heirs fairly).
 
Liability Issues - (food product liability issues (labeling and disparagement laws); liability for trespassers and others on the property; trespassing dog laws; nuisance law; employer's responsibility for farm employees; animal diseases; fence laws).
 
Criminal Law Issues - (what can the government search without a warrant; cruelty to animal laws; government programs and criminal liability; environmental liability for farmers and ranchers).
 
Water Law Issues - (types of water law systems; use of surface water for crops and livestock; use of subsurface water; boundary disputes).
 
The initial sponsor is First State Bank headquartered in Lincoln, NE.  If you are interested in also becoming a sponsor, please let me know.
 
Many thanks to John Mellencamp and Sony Music Publishing Co. for the "bumper" music that accompanies each show. And...special thanks to Donn Teske.
 
Check with your local farm radio station to see if they are carrying The Agricultural Law and Tax Report. If not, please call your local station and request it, and let me know
 
My hope is that you find the show profitable for your farming business, rural practice, and your local rural community.

May 1, 2021 in Bankruptcy, Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Cooperatives, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, April 19, 2021

Ag Law and Taxation - 2016 Bibliography

Overview

Today's post is a bibliography of my ag law and tax blog articles of 2016.  Earlier this year I have provided bibliographies for you of my blog articles for 2020, 2019, 2018 and 2017.  This now completes the bibliographies since I began the blog in July of 2016.  At the end of 2021, I will post a lengthy blog article of all of the articles published through that timeframe. 

The 2016 bibliography of articles – it’s the subject matter of today’s post.

BUSINESS PLANNING

Treasury Attacks Estate and Entity Planning Techniques With Proposed Valuation Regulations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/treasury-attacks-estate-and-entity-planning-techniques-with-proposed-valuation-regulations.html

Using an LLC to Reduce S.E Tax and the NIIT

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/using-an-llc-to-reduce-se-tax-and-the-niit.html

IRS Audit Issue – S Corporation Reasonable Compensation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/irs-audit-issue-s-corporation-reasonable-compensation.html

Rents Are Passive, But They Can Be Recharacterized - And Grouped (Sometimes)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/rents-are-passive-but-they-can-be-recharacterized-and-grouped-sometimes.html

Tribute To Orville Bloethe

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/tribute-to-orville-bloethe.html

CIVIL LIABILITIES

Registration of a Pesticide Doesn't Mean It Might Not Be Misbranded

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/07/registration-of-a-pesticide-doesnt-mean-it-might-not-be-misbranded-.html

Death of Livestock In Blizzard Was a Covered Loss by “Drowning”

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/death-of-livestock-in-blizzard-was-a-covered-loss-by-drowning.html

FIFRA Pre-Emption of Pesticide Damage Claims

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/fifra-pre-emption-of-pesticide-damage-claims.html

Agritourism Acts, Zoning Issues and Landowner Liability

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/agritourism-acts-zoning-issues-and-landowner-liability.html

The “Agriculture” Exemption From The Requirement To Pay Overtime Wages

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/the-agriculture-exemption-from-the-requirement-to-pay-overtime-wages.html

The Scope and Effect of Equine Liability Acts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/the-scope-and-effect-of-equine-liability-acts.html

What’s a Rural Landowner’s Responsibility Concerning Crops, Trees and Vegetation Near an Intersection?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/whats-a-rural-landowners-responsibility-concerning-crops-trees-and-vegetation-near-an-intersection.html

CONTRACTS

Some Thoughts on Production Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/some-thoughts-on-production-contracts.html

CRIMINAL LIABILITIES

Prison Sentences Upheld For Egg Company Executives Even Though Government Conceded They Had No Knowledge of Salmonella Contamination.

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/07/prison-sentences-upheld-for-egg-company-executives-even-though-government-conceded-they-had-no-knowledge-of-salmonella-contam.html

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Registration of a Pesticide Doesn't Mean It Might Not Be Misbranded

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/07/registration-of-a-pesticide-doesnt-mean-it-might-not-be-misbranded-.html

FIFRA Pre-Emption of Pesticide Damage Claims

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/fifra-pre-emption-of-pesticide-damage-claims.html

Air Emissions, CWA and CERCLA

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/air-emissions-cwa-and-cercla.html

Are Seeds Coated With Insecticides Exempt From FIFRA Regulation?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/are-seeds-coated-with-insecticides-exempt-from-fifra-regulation.html

ESTATE PLANNING

The Situs of a Trust Can Make a Tax Difference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/07/the-situs-of-a-trust-can-make-a-tax-difference.html

Treasury Attacks Estate and Entity Planning Techniques With Proposed Valuation Regulations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/treasury-attacks-estate-and-entity-planning-techniques-with-proposed-valuation-regulations.html

Common Estate Planning Mistakes of Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/common-estate-planning-mistakes-of-farmers.html

Staying on the Farm With the Help of In-Home Care

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/staying-on-the-farm-with-the-help-of-in-home-care.html

Including Property in the Gross Estate to Get a Basis Step-Up

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/including-property-in-the-gross-estate-to-get-a-basis-step-up.html

Farm Valuation Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/farm-valuation-issues.html

The Future of the Federal Estate Tax and Implications for Estate Planning

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/the-future-of-the-federal-estate-tax-and-implications-for-estate-planning.html

Tribute To Orville Bloethe

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/tribute-to-orville-bloethe.html

INCOME TAX

House Ways and Means Committee Has A Blueprint For Tax Proposals - Implications For Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/07/house-ways-and-means-committee-has-a-blueprint-for-tax-proposals-implications-for-agriculture.html

In Attempt To Deny Oil and Gas-Related Deductions, IRS Reads Language Into the Code That Isn’t There – Tax Court Not Biting

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/07/in-attempt-to-deny-oil-and-gas-related-deductions-irs-reads-language-into-the-code-that-isnt-there-tax-court-not-biti.html

IRS Does Double-Back Layout on Self-Employment Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/irs-does-double-back-layout-on-self-employment-tax.html

S.E. Tax on Passive Investment Income; Election Out of Subchapter K Doesn’t Change Entity’s Nature; and IRS Can Change Its Mind

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/se-tax-on-passive-investment-income-election-out-of-subchapter-k-doesnt-change-entitys-nature-and-irs-can-change-it.html

Handling Depreciation on Asset Trades

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/handling-depreciation-on-asset-trades.html

Claiming “Bonus” Depreciation on Plants

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/claiming-bonus-depreciation-on-plants.html

Proper Reporting of Crop Insurance Proceeds

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/proper-reporting-of-crop-insurance-proceeds.html

Permanent Conservation Easement Donation Opportunities and Perils

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/permanent-conservation-easement-donation-opportunities-and-perils.html

Sales By Farmers/Rural Landowners Generate Common Questions

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/sales-by-farmersrural-landowners-generate-common-questions-.html

Expense Method Depreciation - Great Tax Planning Opportunities On Amended Returns

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/expense-method-depreciation-great-tax-planning-opportunities-on-amended-returns.html

The DPAD and Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/the-dpad-and-agriculture.html

Donating Food Inventory to a Qualified Charity - New Opportunity for Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/donating-food-inventory-to-a-qualified-charity-new-opportunity-for-farmers.html

Farm Valuation Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/farm-valuation-issues.html

Treatment of Farming Casualty and Theft Losses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/treatment-of-farming-casualty-and-theft-losses.html

More on Handling Farm Losses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/more-on-handling-farm-losses.html

Selected Tax Issues For Rural Landowners Associated With Easement Payments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/selected-tax-issues-for-rural-landowners-associated-with-easement-payments.html

Are You A Farmer? It Depends!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/are-you-a-farmer-it-depends.html

Rents Are Passive, But They Can Be Recharacterized - And Grouped (Sometimes)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/rents-are-passive-but-they-can-be-recharacterized-and-grouped-sometimes.html

It’s Fall and Time to “Hoop it Up”!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/its-fall-and-time-to-hoop-it-up.html

Utilizing the Home Sale Exclusion When Selling the Farm

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/utilizing-the-home-sale-exclusion-when-selling-the-farm.html

Farmland Acquisition – Allocation of Value to Depreciable Items

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/farmland-acquisition-allocation-of-value-to-depreciable-items.html

Tribute To Orville Bloethe

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/tribute-to-orville-bloethe.html

IRS Continues (Unsuccessfully) Attack on Cash Accounting By Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/irs-continues-unsuccessfully-attack-on-cash-accounting-by-farmers.html

The Uniform Capitalization Rules and Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/the-uniform-capitalization-rules-and-agriculture.html

The Non-Corporate Lessor Rule – A Potential Trap In Expense Method Depreciation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/the-non-corporate-lessor-rule-a-potential-trap-in-expense-method-depreciation.html

REAL PROPERTY

Texas Mineral Estates, Groundwater Rights, Surface Usage and the “Accommodation Doctrine”

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/texas-mineral-estates-groundwater-rights-surface-usage-and-the-accommodation-doctrine.html

So You Want To Buy Farmland? Things to Consider

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/so-you-want-to-buy-farmland-things-to-consider.html

What’s the Character of the Gain From the Sale of Farm or Ranch Land?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/09/whats-the-character-of-the-gain-from-the-sale-of-farm-or-ranch-land.html

Utilizing the Home Sale Exclusion When Selling the Farm

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/12/utilizing-the-home-sale-exclusion-when-selling-the-farm.html

REGULATORY LAW

New Food Safety Rules Soon to Apply to Farmers and Others In the Food Production Chain

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/10/new-food-safety-rules-soon-to-apply-to-farmers-and-others-in-the-food-production-chain.html

New Regulations on Marketing of Livestock and Poultry

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/new-regulations-on-marketing-of-livestock-and-poultry.html

The Future of Ag Policy Under Trump

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/the-future-of-ag-policy-under-trump.html

Verifying Employment – New Form I-9; The Requirements and Potential Problem Areas

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/verifying-employment-new-form-i-9-the-requirements-and-potential-problem-areas.html

SECURED TRANSACTIONS

Feedlot Has Superior Rights to Cattle Sale Proceeds

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/08/feedlot-has-superior-rights-to-cattle-sale-proceeds.html

WATER LAW

Watercourses and Boundary Lines

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2016/11/watercourses-and-boundary-lines.html

April 19, 2021 in Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, April 2, 2021

Ag Law and Taxation - 2017 Bibliography

Overview

Today's post is a bibliography of my ag law and tax blog articles of 2017.  This will make it easier to find the articles you are looking for in your research.  In late January I posted the 2020 bibliography of articles.  In late February I posted the bibliography of the 2019 articles.  Last month, I posted the 2018 bibliography of articles.  Today’s posting is the bibliography of my 2017 articles.  Later this month I will post the 2016 bibliography. 

The library of content continues to grow with relevant information for you practice or your farming/ranching business.

The 2017 bibliography of articles – it’s the subject matter of today’s post.

BANKRUPTCY

The Most Important Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/the-most-important-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016.html  

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016 (Ten Through Six)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016-ten-through-six.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law Developments of 2016 (Five Through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-developments-of-2016-five-through-one.html

Farm Financial Stress – Debt Restructuring

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/farm-financial-stress-debt-restructuring.html

Qualified Farm Indebtedness – A Special Rule for Income Exclusion of Forgiven Debt

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/qualified-farm-indebtedness-a-special-rule-for-income-exclusion-of-forgiven-debt.html

What Are a Farmer’s Rights When a Grain Elevator Fails?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/what-are-a-farmers-rights-when-a-grain-elevator-fails.html

Agricultural Law in a Nutshell

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/agricultural-law-in-a-nutshell.html

The Business of Agriculture – Upcoming CLE Symposium

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/the-business-of-agriculture-upcoming-cle-symposium.html

Tough Financial Times in Agriculture and Lending Clauses – Peril for the Unwary

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/tough-financial-times-in-agriculture-and-lending-clauses-peril-for-the-unwary.html

What Interest Rate Applies to a Secured Creditor’s Claim in a Reorganization Bankruptcy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/what-interest-rate-applies-to-a-secured-creditors-claim-in-a-reorganization-bankruptcy.html

PACA Trust Does Not Prevent Chapter 11 DIP’s Use of Cash Collateral

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/paca-trust-does-not-prevent-chapter-11-dips-use-of-cash-collateral.html

Are Taxes Dischargeable in Bankruptcy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/are-taxes-dischargeable-in-bankruptcy.html

Christmas Shopping Season Curtailed? – Bankruptcy Venue Shopping, That Is!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/christmas-shopping-season-curtailed-bankruptcy-venue-shopping-that-is.html

BUSINESS PLANNING

The Most Important Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/the-most-important-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016 (Ten Through Six)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016-ten-through-six.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law Developments of 2016 (Five Through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-developments-of-2016-five-through-one.html

C Corporation Penalty Taxes – Time to Dust-Off and Review?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/c-corporation-penalty-taxes-time-to-dust-off-and-review.html

Divisive Reorganizations of Farming and Ranching Corporations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/divisive-reorganizations-of-farming-and-ranching-corporations.html

The Scope and Effect of the “Small Partnership Exception”

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/the-scope-and-effect-of-the-small-partnership-exception.html

Using the Right Kind of an Entity to Reduce Self-Employment Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/using-the-right-kind-of-an-entity-to-reduce-self-employment-tax.html

Employer-Provided Meals and Lodging

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/employer-provided-meals-and-lodging.html

Self-Employment Tax on Farming Activity of Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/self-employment-tax-on-farming-activity-of-trusts.html

Minority Shareholder Oppression Case Raises Several Tax Questions

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/minority-shareholder-oppression-case-raises-several-tax-questions.html

Farm Program Payment Limitations and Entity Planning – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/farm-program-payment-limitations-and-entity-planning-part-one.html

Farm Program Payment Limitations and Entity Planning – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/farm-program-payment-limitations-and-entity-planning-part-two.html

Summer Ag Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/summer-ag-taxestate-and-business-planning-conference.html

An Installment Sale as Part of an Estate Plan

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/an-installment-sale-as-part-of-an-estate-plan.html

The Use of a Buy-Sell Agreement for Transitioning a Business

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/the-use-of-a-buy-sell-agreement-for-transitioning-a-business.html

The Business of Agriculture – Upcoming CLE Symposium

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/the-business-of-agriculture-upcoming-cle-symposium.html

Forming a Farming/Ranching Corporation Tax-Free

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/forming-a-farmingranching-corporation-tax-free.html

Farmers Renting Equipment – Does it Trigger A Self-Employment Tax Liability?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/farmers-renting-equipment-does-it-trigger-a-self-employment-tax-liability.html

New Partnership Audit Rules

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/new-partnership-audit-rules.html

Self-Employment Tax on Farm Rental Income – Is the Mizell Veneer Cracking?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/self-employment-tax-on-farm-rental-income-is-the-mizell-veneer-cracking.html

IRS To Finalize Regulations on Tax Status of LLC and LLP Members?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/irs-to-finalize-regulations-on-tax-status-of-llc-and-llp-members.html

H.R. 1 – Farmers, Self-Employment Tax and Business Arrangement Structures

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/hr-1-farmers-self-employment-tax-and-business-arrangement-structures.html

Summer 2018 – Farm Tax and Farm Business Education

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/summer-2018-farm-tax-and-farm-business-education.html

Partnerships and Tax Law – Details Matter

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/partnership-and-tax-law-details-matter.html   

CIVIL LIABILITIES

The Most Important Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/the-most-important-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016 (Ten Through Six)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016-ten-through-six.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Developments of 2016 (Five Through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-developments-of-2016-five-through-one.html

Recreational Use Statutes – What is Covered?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/recreational-use-statutes-what-is-covered.html

Is Aesthetic Damage Enough to Make Out a Nuisance Claim?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/is-aesthetic-damage-enough-to-make-out-a-nuisance-claim.html

Liability Associated with a Range of Fires and Controlled Burns

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/liability-associated-with-a-range-fires-and-controlled-burns.html

What’s My Liability for Spread of Animal Disease

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/whats-my-liability-for-spread-of-animal-disease.html

Dicamba Spray-Drift Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/dicamba-spray-drift-issues.html

Agricultural Law in a Nutshell

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/agricultural-law-in-a-nutshell.html

The Business of Agriculture – Upcoming CLE Symposium

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/the-business-of-agriculture-upcoming-cle-symposium.html

Right-to-Farm Laws

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/right-to-farm-laws.html

CONTRACTS

The Most Important Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/the-most-important-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016 (Ten Through Six)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016-ten-through-six.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law Developments of 2016 (Five Through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-developments-of-2016-five-through-one.html

Another Issue With Producing Livestock on Contract – Insurance

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/another-issue-with-producing-livestock-on-contract-insurance.html

The Ability of Tenants-in-Common To Bind Co-Tenants to a Farm Lease – and Related Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/the-ability-of-tenants-in-common-to-bind-co-tenants-to-a-farm-lease-and-related-issues.html

Ag Goods Sold at Auction – When is a Contract Formed?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/ag-goods-sold-at-auction-when-is-a-contract-formed.html

Agricultural Law in a Nutshell

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/agricultural-law-in-a-nutshell.html

The Business of Agriculture – Upcoming CLE Symposium

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/the-business-of-agriculture-upcoming-cle-symposium.html

Ag Contracts and Express Warranties

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/ag-contracts-and-express-warranties.html

What Remedies Does a Buyer Have When a Seller of Ag Goods Breaches the Contract?           

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/what-remedies-does-a-buyer-have-when-a-seller-of-ag-goods-breaches-the-contract.html  

COOPERATIVES

The Most Important Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2016

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/the-most-important-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law Developments of 2016 (Five Through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2016-ten-through-six.html

What Is a Cooperative Director’s Liability to Member-Shareholders and Others?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/what-is-a-cooperative-directors-liability-to-member-shareholders-and-others.html

CRIMINAL LIABILITIES

The Necessity Defense to Criminal Liability

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/the-necessity-defense-to-criminal-liability.html

The Business of Agriculture – Upcoming CLE Symposium

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/the-business-of-agriculture-upcoming-cle-symposium.html

What Problems Does The Migratory Bird Treaty Act Pose For Farmers, Ranchers and Rural Landowners?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/what-problems-does-the-migratory-bird-treaty-act-pose-for-farmers-ranchers-and-rural-landowners.html

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Drainage Activities on Farmland and the USDA

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/drainage-activities-on-farmland-and-the-usda.html

The Application of the Endangered Species Act to Activities on Private Land

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/the-application-of-the-endangered-species-act-to-activities-on-private-land.html

Eminent Domain – The Government’s Power to “Take” Private Property

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/eminent-domain-the-governments-power-to-take-private-property.html

Spray Drift As Hazardous Waste?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/spray-drift-as-hazardous-waste.html

What Problems Does The Migratory Bird Treaty Act Pose For Farmers, Ranchers and Rural Landowners?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/what-problems-does-the-migratory-bird-treaty-act-pose-for-farmers-ranchers-and-rural-landowners.html

The Prior Converted Cropland Exception From Clean Water Act Jurisdiction

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/the-prior-converted-cropland-exception-from-clean-water-act-jurisdiction.html

Air Emission Reporting Requirement For Livestock Operations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/air-emission-reporting-requirement-for-livestock-operations.html

ESTATE PLANNING

Rights of Refusal and the Rule Against Perpetuities

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/rights-of-refusal-and-the-rule-against-perpetuities.html

Some Thoughts On Long-Term Care Insurance

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/some-thoughts-on-long-term-care-insurance.html

Overview of Gifting Rules and Strategies                                                                 

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/overview-of-gifting-rules-and-strategies.html

Disinheriting a Spouse – Can It Be Done?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/disinheriting-a-spouse-can-it-be-done.html

Specific Property Devised in Will (or Trust) That Doesn’t Exist At Death – What Happens?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/specific-property-devised-in-will-that-doesnt-exist-at-death-what-happens.html

Discounting IRAs for Income Tax Liability?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/discounting-iras-for-income-tax-liability.html

Special Use Valuation and Cash Leasing

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/special-use-valuation-and-cash-leasing.html

Self-Employment Tax On Farming Activity Of Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/self-employment-tax-on-farming-activity-of-trusts.html

Would an Interest Charge Domestic International Sales Corporation Benefit a Farming Business?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/would-an-interest-charge-domestic-international-sales-corporation-benefit-a-farming-business.html

An Installment Sale as Part of An Estate Plan

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/an-installment-sale-as-part-of-an-estate-plan.html

Using An IDGT For Wealth Transfer and Business Succession

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/using-an-idgt-for-wealth-transfer-and-business-succession.html

Federal Tax Claims in Decedent’s Estates – What’s the Liability and Priority?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/federal-tax-claims-in-decedents-estates-whats-the-liability-and-priority.html

Estate Tax Portability – The Authority of the IRS To Audit

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/estate-tax-portability-the-authority-of-the-irs-to-audit.html

Digital Assets and Estate Planning       

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/digital-assets-and-estate-planning.html

INCOME TAX

The Burden of Proof in Tax Cases – What are the Rules?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/the-burden-of-proof-in-tax-cases-what-are-the-rules.html

The Home Office Deduction

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/the-home-office-deduction.html

IRS To Continue Attacking Cash Method For Farmers Via the “Farming Syndicate Rule”

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/irs-to-continue-attacking-cash-method-for-farmers-via-the-farming-syndicate-rule.html

Using Schedule J As A Planning Tool For Clients With Farm Income

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/using-schedule-j-as-a-planning-tool-for-clients-with-farm-income.html

Deductibility of Soil and Water Conservation Expenses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/deductibility-of-soil-and-water-conservation-expenses.html

Should Purchased Livestock Be Depreciated or Inventoried?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/should-purchased-livestock-be-depreciated-or-inventoried.html

The Changing Structure of Agricultural Production and…the IRS

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/the-changing-structure-of-agricultural-production-andthe-irs.html

Farm-Related Casualty Losses and Involuntary Conversions – Helpful Tax Rules in Times of Distress

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/farm-related-casualty-losses-and-involuntary-conversions-helpful-tax-rules-in-times-of-distress.html

Charitable Contributions Via Trust

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/charitable-contributions-via-trust.html

Ag Tax Policy The Focus in D.C.

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/ag-tax-policy-the-focus-in-dc-.html

For Depreciation Purposes, What Does Placed in Service Mean?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/for-depreciation-purposes-what-does-placed-in-service-mean.html

Tax Treatment of Commodity Futures and Options

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/tax-treatment-of-commodity-futures-and-options.html

Discounting IRAs for Income Tax Liability?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/discounting-iras-for-income-tax-liability.html

Like-Kind Exchanges, Reverse Exchanges, and the Safe Harbor

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/like-kind-exchanges-reverse-exchanges-and-the-safe-harbor.html

Insights Into Handling IRS Disputes

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/insights-into-handling-irs-disputes.html

Employer-Provided Meals and Lodging

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/employer-provided-meals-and-lodging.html

Self-Employment Tax On Farming Activity Of Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/self-employment-tax-on-farming-activity-of-trusts.html

Minority Shareholder Oppression Case Raises Several Tax Questions

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/minority-shareholder-oppression-case-raises-several-tax-questions.html

Input Costs – When Can a Deduction Be Claimed?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/input-costs-when-can-a-deduction-be-claimed.html

Like-Kind Exchange Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/like-kind-exchange-issues.html

Tax Issues With Bad Debt Deductions

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/tax-issues-with-bad-debt-deductions.html

Like-Kind Exchanges – The Related Party Rule and a Planning Opportunity

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/like-kind-exchanges-the-related-party-rule-and-a-planning-opportunity.html

Tax Treatment of Cooperative Value-Added Payments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/tax-treatment-of-cooperative-value-added-payments.html

Would an Interest Charge Domestic International Sales Corporation Benefit a Farming Business?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/would-an-interest-charge-domestic-international-sales-corporation-benefit-a-farming-business.html

Timber Tax Issues – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/timber-tax-issues-part-one.html

Timber Tax Issues – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/timber-tax-issues-part-two.html

An Installment Sale as Part of An Estate Plan

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/an-installment-sale-as-part-of-an-estate-plan.html

Using An IDGT For Wealth Transfer and Business Succession

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/using-an-idgt-for-wealth-transfer-and-business-succession.html

Prospects for Tax Legislation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/prospects-for-tax-legislation.html

Deferred Payment Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/deferred-payment-contracts.html

When Is A Farmer Not A “Qualified Farmer” For Conservation Easement Donation Purposes?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/when-is-a-farmer-not-a-qualified-farmer-for-conservation-easement-donation-purposes.html

Substantiating Charitable Contributions

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/substantiating-charitable-contributions.html

Forming a Farming/Ranching Corporation Tax-Free

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/forming-a-farmingranching-corporation-tax-free.html

Farmers Renting Equipment – Does It Trigger A Self-Employment Tax Liability?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/farmers-renting-equipment-does-it-trigger-a-self-employment-tax-liability.html

Commodity Credit Corporation Loans and Elections

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/commodity-credit-corporation-loans-and-elections.html

New Partnership Audit Rules

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/new-partnership-audit-rules.html

Alternatives to Like-Kind Exchanges of Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/alternatives-to-like-kind-exchanges-of-farmland.html

South Dakota Attempts To Change Internet Sales Taxation – What Might Be The Impact On Small Businesses?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/south-dakota-attempts-to-change-internet-sales-taxation-what-might-be-the-impact-on-small-businesses.html

Fall Tax Schools

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/fall-tax-schools.html

Self-Employment Tax on Farm Rental Income – Is the Mizell Veneer Cracking?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/self-employment-tax-on-farm-rental-income-is-the-mizell-veneer-cracking.html

Tax Treatment of Settlements and Court Judgments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/tax-treatment-of-settlements-and-court-judgments.html

The “Perpetuity” Requirement For Donated Easements

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/the-perpetuity-requirement-for-donated-easements.html

The Tax Rules Involving Prepaid Farm Expenses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/the-tax-rules-involving-prepaid-farm-expenses.html

It’s Just About Tax School Time

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/its-just-about-tax-school-time.html

IRS To Finalize Regulations On Tax Status of LLC and LLP Members?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/irs-to-finalize-regulations-on-tax-status-of-llc-and-llp-members.html

The Deductibility (Or Non-Deductibility) of Interest

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/10/the-deductibility-or-non-deductibility-of-interest.html

H.R. 1 - Farmers, Self-Employment Tax and Business Arrangement Structures

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/hr-1-farmers-self-employment-tax-and-business-arrangement-structures.html

The Broad Reach of the Wash-Sale Rule

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/the-broad-reach-of-the-wash-sale-rule.html

Comparison of the House and Senate Tax Bills – Implications for Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/comparison-of-the-house-and-senate-tax-bills-implications-for-agriculture.html

Partnerships and Tax Law – Details Matter

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/partnership-and-tax-law-details-matter.html

Senate Clears Tax Bill - On To Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/senate-clears-tax-bill-on-to-conference-committee.html

Are Taxes Dischargeable in Bankruptcy?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/are-taxes-dischargeable-in-bankruptcy.html

Bitcoin Fever and the Tax Man

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/bitcoin-fever-and-the-tax-man.html

House and Senate to Vote on Conference Tax Bill This Week

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/house-and-senate-to-vote-on-conference-tax-bill-this-week.html

Another Tax Bill Introduced, Year-End Planning, and Jan. 10 Seminar/Webinar

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/another-tax-bill-introduced-year-end-planning-and-jan-10-seminarwebinar.html

PUBLICATIONS

Agricultural Law in a Nutshell

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/agricultural-law-in-a-nutshell.html

REAL PROPERTY

Another Issue When the Definition of “Agriculture” Matters – Property Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/another-issue-when-the-definition-of-agriculture-matters-property-tax.html

The Ability of Tenants-in-Common To Bind Co-Tenants to a Farm Lease – and Related Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/the-ability-of-tenants-in-common-to-bind-co-tenants-to-a-farm-lease-and-related-issues.html

Like-Kind Exchanges, Reverse Exchanges, and the Safe Harbor

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/05/like-kind-exchanges-reverse-exchanges-and-the-safe-harbor.html

Like-Kind Exchange Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/like-kind-exchange-issues.html

Easements on Agricultural Land – Classification and Legal Issues

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/easements-on-agricultural-land-classification-and-legal-issues.html

Should I Enter Into An Oil and Gas Lease?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/should-i-enter-into-an-oil-and-gas-lease.html

REGULATORY LAW

Checkoffs, The Courts and Free Speech

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/checkoffs-the-courts-and-free-speech.html

Joint Employment Situations In Agriculture – What’s the FLSA Test?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/joint-employment-situations-in-agriculture-whats-the-flsa-test.html

Farmers, Ranchers and Government Administrative Agencies

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/farmers-ranchers-and-government-administrative-agencies.html

IRS To Target “Hobby” Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/irs-to-target-hobby-farmers.html

Drainage Activities on Farmland and the USDA

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/drainage-activities-on-farmland-and-the-usda.html

What is a “Separate Person” For Payment Limitation Purposes?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/what-is-a-separate-person-for-payment-limitation-purposes.html

Livestock Indemnity Payments – What They Are and Tax Reporting Options

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/03/livestock-indemnity-payments-what-they-are-and-tax-reporting-options.html

Can One State Regulate Agricultural Production Activities in Other States?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/can-one-state-regulate-agricultural-production-activities-in-other-states.html

Farm Program Payment Limitations and Entity Planning – Part One

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/farm-program-payment-limitations-and-entity-planning-part-one.html

Farm Program Payment Limitations and Entity Planning – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/farm-program-payment-limitations-and-entity-planning-part-two.html

Eminent Domain – The Government’s Power to “Take” Private Property

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/eminent-domain-the-governments-power-to-take-private-property.html

Department of Labor Overtime Rules Struck Down – What’s the Impact on Ag?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/department-of-labor-overtime-rules-struck-down-whats-the-impact-on-ag.html

The Prior Converted Cropland Exception From Clean Water Act Jurisdiction

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/the-prior-converted-cropland-exception-from-clean-water-act-jurisdiction.html

Air Emission Reporting Requirement For Livestock Operations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/air-emission-reporting-requirement-for-livestock-operations.html

Federal Labor Law and Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/federal-labor-law-and-agriculture.html

 Electronic Logs For Truckers and Implications for Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/electronic-logs-for-truckers-and-implications-for-agriculture.html

SECURED TRANSACTIONS

Ag Supply Dealer Liens – Important Tool in Tough Financial Times

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/01/ag-supply-dealer-liens-important-tool-in-tough-financial-times.html

“Commercial Reasonableness” of Collateral Sales

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/commercial-reasonableness-of-collateral-sales.html

What Are A Farmer’s Rights When a Grain Elevator Fails?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/07/what-are-a-farmers-rights-when-a-grain-elevator-fails.html

Selling Collateralized Ag Products – The “Farm Products” Rule

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/selling-collateralized-ag-products-the-farm-products-rule.html

SEMINARS AND CONFERENCES

Fall Tax Schools

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/09/fall-tax-schools.html

Another Tax Bill Introduced, Year-End Planning, and Jan. 10 Seminar/Webinar

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/another-tax-bill-introduced-year-end-planning-and-jan-10-seminarwebinar.html

Summer 2018 - Farm Tax and Farm Business Education

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/11/summer-2018-farm-tax-and-farm-business-education.html

The Business of Agriculture – Upcoming CLE Symposium

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/08/the-business-of-agriculture-upcoming-cle-symposium.html

Summer Ag Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/06/summer-ag-taxestate-and-business-planning-conference.html

WATER LAW

Prior Appropriation – First in Time, First in Right

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/prior-appropriation-first-in-time-first-in-right.html

Kansas Water Law - Reactions to and Potential Consequences of the Garetson decision

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/02/kansas-water-law-reactions-to-and-potential-consequences-of-the-garetson-decision.html

Public Access To Private Land Via Water

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/04/public-access-to-private-land-via-water.html

Big Development for Water in the West - Federal Implied Reserved Water Rights Doctrine Applies to Groundwater

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2017/12/big-development-for-water-in-the-west-federal-implied-reserved-water-rights-doctrine-applies-to-grou.html

April 2, 2021 in Bankruptcy, Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Cooperatives, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, March 29, 2021

Damaged and/or Destroyed Trees and Crops – How is the Loss Measured?

Overview

Sometimes a farmer, rancher or other rural landowner experiences damages to trees as a result of someone else’s conduct.  Maybe the damage occurs from aerial spry drift or excess (and wrongful) water drainage from an adjacent tract, or from some other occurrence.  The trees could be a producing orchard; or a windbreak designed to minimize soil loss and protect buildings; or ornamental trees and bushes providing an aesthetic benefit.  Often, trees are planted to become mature trees with an eye toward materially benefitting the property – whether monetarily or not.  

No matter whether the damage was intentional or a result of negligence, the computation of the amount of damages the landowner is entitled to can be difficult to determine. 

Computing tree damage - it’s the topic of today’s post. 

Negligence – Determining Liability

The negligence concept is the great workhorse of tort law.  More than 90 percent of all civil liability problems are those relating to negligence.  The negligence system is designed to provide compensation to those who suffer personal injury or property damage.  The negligence system is a fault-based system.  The vast majority of situations involving damage to trees are the result of negligent conduct with liability determined under the negligence, fault-based approach

For a person to be deemed legally negligent, certain conditions must exist. These conditions can be thought of as links in a chain. Each condition must be present before a finding of negligence can be obtained.  The first condition is that of a legal duty giving rise to a standard of care.  To be liable for a negligent tort, the defendant's conduct must have fallen below that of a “reasonable and prudent person” under the circumstances.  If a legal duty exists, it is necessary to determine whether the defendant's conduct fell short of the conduct of a “reasonable and prudent person (or professional) under the circumstances.”  This is called a breach, and it is the second element of a negligent tort case.  Once a legal duty and breach of that duty are shown to exist, a causal connection (the third element) must be established between the defendant's act and (the fourth element) the plaintiff's injuries (whether to person or property.  In other words, the resulting harm to the plaintiff must have been a reasonably foreseeable result of the defendant's conduct at the time the conduct occurred. Reasonable foreseeability is the essence of causality (also known as proximate cause).

Computing Damages

The fourth element of a tort claim, damages, when occurring to an annual crop (such as corn, soybeans and wheat, for example), are pegged by the lost value of the crop pegs.  That’s the starting point for determining the amount that can be recovered.  Of course, the party suffering the loss must establish the extent of the monetary damage, often by market data or by establishing the existence of a contract that specified the amount to be received on harvest and sale, discounted for risk of loss due to weather and/or insects. 

But, when the damage occurs to a plant, such as a tree, there is an additional component to the damage calculation – restoration.  Restoration involves calculating the cost of returning the disaffected landowner’s property to its condition before the damage occurred.  Sometimes courts compute the restorative cost as the difference in the value of the land before and after the damage.  But, the cases also demonstrate that the computation is not easy. See, e.g., B. & B. Farms, Inc. v. Matlock’s Fruit Farms, Inc., 73 Wash. 2d 146, 437 P.2d 178 (1968); Reeder Flying Service v. Crompton, 470 P.2d 281(Wyo. 1970).  The courts use various measures to assess the loss, but the goal is to provide adequate compensation so that the injured party is restored as closely as possible to pre-damage status.

Note:  A lawsuit to recover damages to trees (as well as crops), under the common law, is considered to be an action to recover for injuries to real estate.  Thus, the lawsuit is to be filed in the county where the trees are/were standing. 

For trees and vines that produce nuts and fruits, the measure of damages is generally the difference in land value immediately before and after the damage or destruction.  See, e.g., Rowe v. Chicago & North Western Railway Co., 102 Iowa 286 (1897); Collins v. Morris, 97 Kan. 264 (1916).  But, it might also be possible for the plaintiff to recover the value of the crop before the damage occurred.  So, the plaintiff should provide evidence of the cost of harvesting and marketing the crop in addition to the value of the crop itself.  Damages are a net computation.  See, e.g., Peterson v. Hager, 714 F.2d 1035 (10th Cir. 1983)But, one court has held that damages to a fruit crop itself could not be awarded because the value of the fruit-producing trees was an element of the damages.  If the value of the crop were to be included in the damage calculation, the court reasoned, the result would be double damages.  Hill v. Morrison, 88 Cal. App. 405, 263 P. 573 (1928). 

Recent Case

A Kansas case last year illustrates how courts handle claims involving alleged damages to trees.  In Ringneck Farms, LLC v. Steuwe, 471 P.3d 33 (Kan. Ct. App. 2020), the plaintiff owned a ranch used for commercial hunting purposes that was adjacent to the defendant’s property. The ranch had a row of hedge trees approximately 20 yards wide and 300 yards long adjacent to the defendant’s property. The hedge trees were mature trees. The defendant’s tenant contacted the plaintiff requesting permission to cut down the hedgerow and install a fence. The plaintiff told the tenant to not cut down the trees or disturb the vegetation. However, the tenant proceeded to cut down the hedgerow and installed the fence. In the process about 156 mature trees were destroyed. The plaintiff sued alleging negligence, conversion and trespass claiming that that the loss of the trees decreased the value of the property for hunting purposes. The defendant filed a motion in limine seeking to bar the plaintiff from presenting evidence about the trees’ replacement value, claiming that Kansas law did not recognize replacement value as a proper measure of damages for tree destruction. The defendant specifically referred to the plaintiff’s two experts, arborists that were prepared to testify that the replacement cost of the trees was $1,092,361.

The trial court granted the defendant’s motion. The defendant then moved for summary judgment, claiming that the trial court’s grant of the motion in limine established that the plaintiff could not establish that damages existed and, thus, had no claim. The trial court granted the summary judgment motion on the negligence issue, finding that the plaintiff did not know the market value of the ranch before and after the trees were removed and, thus, could not prove damages. In its response to the summary judgment motion, the plaintiff claimed that the ranch was damaged by virtue of the tree removal reducing the quality of hunting on the ranch. However, the trial court viewed this assertion did not convert any of the defendant’s statement of facts.

On appeal, the issue was whether the plaintiff had presented sufficient evidence of damages to present its case to a jury. The appellate court first determined that the plaintiff had not abandoned its claims for conversion and trespass because the defendant didn’t specifically address the conversion and trespass claims in the defendant’s trial court motions focusing solely on negligence. The appellate court also determined that the trial court did not err in granting the defendant’s motion in limine. The appellate court noted that damages had to be calculated in a reasonable manner, citing the fact that replacement cost of the trees with mature trees would exceed three times the value of the ranch. Thus, it was proper for the trial court to exclude the plaintiff’s proposed evidence on replacement cost of the hedgerow with mature trees.

On review of the grant of summary judgment on the negligence claims, the appellate court noted that the general rule that the measure of damages for negligent destruction of trees is the difference in market value of the land immediately before and after the damage. However, the appellate court noted that this rule is flexible, and the parties may present evidence supporting alternative measures of damages – trees having value independent of the land; loss of income from fruit trees; sentimental value of a tree, etc.  See, e.g., Evenson v. Lilley, 295 Kan. 43, 282 P.3d 610 (2012). On this point, the appellate court concluded that the plaintiff had submitted sufficient evidence of damages to overcome the defendant’s summary judgment motion. The appellate court noted that the plaintiff had provided sufficient evidence to overcome the motion by showing that the removal of the trees impacted the quality of hunting on the ranch which justified reasonable replacement costs as a measure of damages. The appellate court also determined that the plaintiff had provided sufficient evidence of damages on the conversion and trespass claims. The case was remanded to the trial court for further proceedings. 

Conclusion

When tree damage occurs on a farm, ranch or rural property the computation of damages is a key focus.  The damage calculation can differ based on whether the trees are income producing, soil preservation, or simply provide aesthetic beauty.  However, in general, the courts try to make the damaged party whole by returning them to the place they were in before the damage occurred.  Preserving evidence and substantiating the loss is key to recovery.

March 29, 2021 in Civil Liabilities | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, March 21, 2021

Ag Law and Taxation - 2018 Bibliography

Overview

Today's post is a bibliography of my ag law and tax blog articles of 2018.  Many of you have requested that I provide something like this to make it easier to find the articles, and last month I posted the bibliography of the 2020 and 2019 articles.  Soon I will post the bibliography of the 2017 articles and then 2016.  After those are posted.  I will post one long bibliography containing all of the articles up to that point in time.  Then, to close out 2021, I will post the articles of 2021. 

The library of content is piling up.

Cataloging the 2018 ag law and tax blog articles - it's the topic of today's post.

BANKRUPTCY

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017 (Ten through Six)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017-ten-through-six.html

Chapter 12 Bankruptcy – Feasibility of the Reorganization Plan

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/chapter-12-bankruptcy-feasibility-of-the-reorganization-plan.html

Farm Bankruptcy and the Preferential Payment Rule

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/farm-bankruptcy-and-the-preferential-payment-rule.html

Can a Bankrupt Farm Debtor Make Plan Payments Directly to Creditors?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/can-a-bankrupt-farm-debtor-make-plan-payments-directly-to-creditors.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

Chapter 12 Bankruptcy and the Tools-of-the-Trade Exemption

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/chapter-12-bankruptcy-and-the-tools-of-the-trade-exemption.html

Developments in Ag Law and Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/developments-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

BUSINESS PLANNING

The “Almost Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-almost-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017.html

The Spousal Qualified Joint Venture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/the-spousal-qualified-joint-venture.html

The Spousal Qualified Joint Venture – Implications for Self-Employment Tax and Federal Farm Program Payment Limitations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/the-spousal-qualified-joint-venture-implications-for-self-employment-tax-and-federal-farm-program-payment-limitations.html

Form a C Corporation – The New Vogue in Business Structure?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/form-a-c-corporation-the-new-vogue-in-business-structure.html

Tax Issues When Forming a C Corporation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/tax-issues-when-forming-a-c-corporation.html

End of Tax Preparation Season Means Tax Seminar Season is About to Begin

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/end-of-tax-preparation-season-means-tax-seminar-season-is-about-to-begin.html

Converting a C Corporation to an S Corporation – The Problem of Passive Income

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/converting-a-c-corporation-to-an-s-corporation-the-problem-of-passive-income.html

Valuation Discounting

              https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/valuation-discounting.html

Valuation Discounting – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/valuation-discounting-part-two.html

The Impact of the TCJA on Estates and Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/the-impact-of-the-tcja-on-estates-and-trusts.html

Buy-Sell Agreements for Family Businesses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/buy-sell-agreements-for-family-businesses.html

When is an Informal Business Arrangement a Partnership?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/when-is-an-informal-business-arrangement-a-partnership.html

Management Activities and the Passive Loss Rules

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/management-activities-and-the-passive-loss-rules.html

Expense Method Depreciation and Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/expense-method-depreciation-and-trusts.html

Qualified Business Income Deduction – Proposed Regulations

  https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/qualified-business-income-deduction-proposed-regulations.html

Intentionally Defective Grantor Trust – What is it and How Does it Work?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/intentionally-defective-grantor-trust-what-is-it-and-how-does-it-work.html

When Can a Corporate Shareholder be Held Liable for Corporate Debts and Liabilities?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/when-can-a-corporate-shareholder-be-held-liable-for-corporate-debts-and-liabilities.html

Farm Wealth Transfer and Business Succession – The GRAT

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/farm-wealth-transfer-and-business-succession-the-grat.html

Social Security Planning for Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/social-security-planning-for-farmers.html

Corporations Post-TCJA and Anti-Corporate Farming Laws

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/corporations-post-tcja-and-anti-corporate-farming-laws.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

What Happens When a Partner Dies?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/what-happens-when-a-partner-dies.html

What are the Tax Consequences on Sale or Exchange of a Partnership Interest?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/what-are-the-tax-consequences-on-sale-or-exchange-of-a-partnership-interest.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

CIVIL LIABILITIES

The “Almost Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-almost-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017.html

Landlord Liability for Injuries Occurring on Leased Premises

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/landlord-liability-for-injuries-occurring-on-leased-premises.html

When Does a Rule of Strict Liability Apply on the Farm?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/when-does-a-rule-of-strict-liability-apply-on-the-farm.html

When Can I Shoot My Neighbor’s Dog?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/when-can-i-shoot-my-neighbors-dog.html

Reasonable Foreseeability

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/reasonable-foreseeability.html

What is “Agriculture” for Purposes of Agritourism?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/what-is-agriculture-for-purposes-of-agritourism.html

Negligence – Can You Prove Liability?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/negligence-can-you-prove-liability.html

Wind Farm Nuisance Matter Resolved – Buy the Homeowners Out!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/wind-farm-nuisance-matter-resolved-buy-the-homeowners-out.html

Torts Down on the Farm

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/torts-down-on-the-farm.html

Roadkill – It’s What’s for Dinner

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/roadkill-its-whats-for-dinner.html

What Difference Does it Make if I Post My Property “No Trespassing”?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/what-difference-does-it-make-if-i-post-my-property-no-trespassing.html

Liability for Injuries Associated with Horses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/liability-for-injuries-associated-with-horses.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

Developments in Ag Law and Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/developments-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

CONTRACTS

Is a Farmer a Merchant?  Why it Might Matter

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/is-a-farmer-a-merchant-why-it-might-matter.html

Some Thoughts on the Importance of Leasing Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/some-thoughts-on-the-importance-of-leasing-farmland.html

Contract Rescission – When Can You Back Out of a Deal?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/contract-rescission-when-can-you-back-out-of-a-deal.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

Disclaiming Implied Warranties

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/disclaiming-implied-warranties.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

COOPERATIVES

The Qualified Business Income (QBI) Deduction – What a Mess!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-qualified-business-income-qbi-deduction-what-a-mess.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

CRIMINAL LIABILITIES

Curtilage – How Much Ag Property is Protected from a Warrantless Search?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/curtilage-how-much-ag-property-is-protected-from-a-warrantless-search.html

Establishing the Elements of a Cruelty to Animals Charge

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/establishing-the-elements-of-a-cruelty-to-animals-charge.html

What Difference Does it Make if I Post My Property “No Trespassing”?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/what-difference-does-it-make-if-i-post-my-property-no-trespassing.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

The “Almost Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-almost-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017 (Five through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017-five-through-one.html

Is a CWA Permit Needed for Pollution Discharges via Groundwater?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/is-a-cwa-permit-needed-for-pollution-discharges-via-groundwater.html

Non-Tax Ag Provisions and the Omnibus Bill

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/non-tax-ag-provisions-in-the-omnibus-bill.html

Wetlands and Farm Programs – Does NRCS Understand the Rules?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/wetlands-and-farm-programs-does-nrcs-understand-the-rules.html

Regulation of Wetlands and “Ipse Dixit” Determinations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/regulation-of-wetlands-and-ipse-dixit-determinations.html

WOTUS Developments

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/wotus-developments.html

Does the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Apply to Farmers?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/does-the-migratory-bird-treaty-act-apply-to-farmers.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

Is Groundwater a “Point Source” Pollutant?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/is-groundwater-a-point-source-pollutant.html

“Waters of the United States” Means “Frozen Soil”?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/waters-of-the-united-states-means-frozen-soil.html

Developments in Ag Law and Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/developments-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

Can an Endangered Species be Protected in Areas Where it Can’t Survive?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/can-an-endangered-species-be-protected-in-areas-where-it-cant-survive.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

ESTATE PLANNING

The “Almost Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-almost-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017.html

The Tax Cuts and Job Acts – How Does it Impact Estate Planning?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-tax-cuts-and-jobs-act-how-does-it-impact-estate-planning.html

What’s the Charitable Deduction for Donations From a Trust?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/whats-the-charitable-deduction-for-donations-from-a-trust.html

The Spousal Qualified Joint Venture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/the-spousal-qualified-joint-venture.html

Why Clarity in Will/Trust Language Matters

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/why-clarity-in-willtrust-language-matters.html

Some Thoughts on the Importance of Leasing Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/some-thoughts-on-the-importance-of-leasing-farmland.html

End of Tax Preparation Season Means Tax Seminar Season is About to Begin

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/end-of-tax-preparation-season-means-tax-seminar-season-is-about-to-begin.html

Modifying an Irrevocable Trust – Decanting

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/modifying-an-irrevocable-trust-decanting.html

Valuation Discounting – Part Two

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/valuation-discounting-part-two.html

The Impact of the TCJA on Estates and Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/the-impact-of-the-tcja-on-estates-and-trusts.html

Impact of Post-Death Events on Valuation

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/impact-of-post-death-events-on-valuation.html

Beneficiary Designations, Changed Circumstances and the Contracts Clause

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/beneficiary-designations-changed-circumstances-and-the-contracts-clause.html

Qualified Business Income Deduction – Proposed Regulations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/qualified-business-income-deduction-proposed-regulations.html

Spousal Joint Tendencies and Income Tax Basis

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/spousal-joint-tenancies-and-income-tax-basis.html

Farm and Ranch Estate Planning in 2018 and Forward

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/farm-and-ranch-estate-planning-in-2018-and-forward.html

The TCJA, Charitable Giving and a Donor-Advised Fund

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/the-tcja-charitable-giving-and-a-donor-advised-fund.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

Unpaid Tax at Death – How Long Does IRS Have to Collect?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/unpaid-tax-at-death-how-long-does-irs-have-to-collect.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

INCOME TAX

The “Almost Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-almost-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017 (Five through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017-five-through-one.html

The Qualified Business Income (QBI) Deduction – What a Mess!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-qualified-business-income-qbi-deduction-what-a-mess.html

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act – How Does it Impact Estate Planning?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-tax-cuts-and-jobs-act-how-does-it-impact-estate-planning.html

What’s the Charitable Deduction for Donations from a Trust?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/whats-the-charitable-deduction-for-donations-from-a-trust.html

Can Farmers Currently Deduct Research Expenditures?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/can-farmers-currently-deduct-research-expenditures.html

Innovation on the Farm – Will the Research and Development Credit Apply?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/innovation-on-the-farm-will-the-research-and-development-credit-apply.html

What Happens When the IRS Deems an Ag Activity to Be a Hobby?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/what-happens-when-the-irs-deems-an-ag-activity-to-be-a-hobby.html

The Spousal Qualified Joint Venture – Implications for Self-Employment Tax and Federal Farm Program Payment Limitations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/the-spousal-qualified-joint-venture-implications-for-self-employment-tax-and-federal-farm-program-payment-limitations.html

Livestock Sold or Destroyed Because of Disease

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/livestock-sold-or-destroyed-because-of-disease.html

Form a C Corporation – The New Vogue in Business Structure?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/form-a-c-corporation-the-new-vogue-in-business-structure.html

Deductible Repairs Versus Capitalization

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/deductible-repairs-versus-capitalization.html

The Tax Treatment of Farming Net Operating Losses

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/the-tax-treatment-of-farming-net-operating-losses.html

Congress Modifies the Qualified Business Income Deduction

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/congress-modifies-the-qualified-business-income-deduction.html

IRS Collections – The Basics

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/irs-collections-the-basics-.html

Tax Issues Associated with Oil and Gas Production

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/tax-issues-associated-with-oil-and-gas-production.html

Refundable Fuel Credits – Following the Rules Matters

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/refundable-fuel-credits-following-the-rules-matters.html

Distinguishing Between a Capital Lease and an Operating Lease

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/distinguishing-between-a-capital-lease-and-an-operating-lease.html

End of Tax Preparation Season Means Tax Seminar Season is About to Begin

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/end-of-tax-preparation-season-means-tax-seminar-season-is-about-to-begin.html

Passive Activities and Grouping

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/passive-activities-and-grouping.html

Divorce and the New Tax Law – IRS Grants Some Relief

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/divorce-and-the-new-tax-law-irs-grants-some-relief.html

Gifts of Ag Commodities to Children and the New Tax Law

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/gifts-of-ag-commodities-to-children-and-the-new-tax-law.html

Post-Death Sale of Crops and Livestock

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/post-death-sale-of-crops-and-livestock.html

Is There a Downside Risk to E-Filing Your Taxes?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/is-there-a-downside-risk-to-e-filing-your-taxes.html

Purchase and Sale Allocations to CRP Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/purchase-and-sale-allocations-to-crp-contracts.html

Converting a C Corporation to an S Corporation – The Problem of Passive Income

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/converting-a-c-corporation-to-an-s-corporation-the-problem-of-passive-income.html

The Impact of the TCJA on Estates and Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/the-impact-of-the-tcja-on-estates-and-trusts.html

The TCJA and I.R.C. 529 Plans

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/the-tcja-and-irc-529-plans.html

Farmers, Self-Employment Tax, and Personal Property Leases

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/farmers-self-employment-tax-and-personal-property-leases.html

State Taxation of Online Sales

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/state-taxation-of-online-sales.html

The Depletion Deduction for Oil and Gas Operations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/the-depletion-deduction-for-oil-and-gas-operations.html

Charitable Giving Post-2017

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/charitable-giving-post-2017.html

When is an Informal Business Arrangement a Partnership?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/when-is-an-informal-business-arrangement-a-partnership.html

Management Activities and the Passive Loss Rules

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/management-activities-and-the-passive-loss-rules.html

Tax Issues on Repossession of Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/tax-issues-on-repossession-of-farmland.html

Outline of Tax Proposals Released

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/outline-of-tax-proposals-released.html

Life Estate/Remainder Arrangements and Income Tax Basis

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/life-estateremainder-arrangements-and-income-tax-basis-.html

Expense Method Depreciation and Trusts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/expense-method-depreciation-and-trusts.html

Qualified Business Income Deduction – Proposed Regulations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/qualified-business-income-deduction-proposed-regulations.html

The Qualified Business Income Deduction and “W-2 Wages”

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/the-qualified-business-income-deduction-and-w-2-wages.html

Tax Consequences on Partition and Sale of Land

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/tax-consequences-on-partition-and-sale-of-land.html

Deducting Residual Soil Fertility

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/deducting-residual-soil-fertility.html

Social Security Planning for Farmers

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/social-security-planning-for-farmers.html

Eliminating Capital Gain Tax – Qualified Opportunity Zones

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/eliminating-capital-gain-tax-qualified-opportunity-zones.html

The TCJA, Charitable Giving and a Donor-Advised Fund

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/the-tcja-charitable-giving-and-a-donor-advised-fund.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

What is Depreciable Farm Real Property?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/what-is-depreciable-farm-real-property.html

What is “Like-Kind” Real Estate?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/what-is-like-kind-real-estate.html

Developments in Ag Law and Tax

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/developments-in-ag-law-and-tax.html

Trusts and Like-Kind Exchanges

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/trusts-and-like-kind-exchanges.html

Unpaid Tax at Death – How Long Does IRS Have to Collect?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/unpaid-tax-at-death-how-long-does-irs-have-to-collect.html

Non-Depreciable Items on the Farm or Ranch

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/non-depreciable-items-on-the-farm-or-ranch.html

What are the Tax Consequences on Sale or Exchange of a Partnership Interest?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/what-are-the-tax-consequences-on-sale-or-exchange-of-a-partnership-interest.html

Expense Method Depreciation and Structures on the Farm

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/expense-method-depreciation-and-structures-on-the-farm.html

Deduction Costs Associated with Items Purchased for Resale

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/sale-of-items-purchased-for-resale.html

Claiming Business Deductions? – Maintain Good Records, and… Hire a Tax Preparer

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/income-tax/page/7/

Depletion – What is it and When is it Available?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/depletion-what-is-it-and-when-is-it-available.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

INSURANCE

Beneficiary Designations, Changed Circumstances and the Contracts Clause

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/beneficiary-designations-changed-circumstances-and-the-contracts-clause.html

Recent Developments Involving Crop Insurance

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/recent-developments-involving-crop-insurance.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

Farm Liability Policies – Are All Activities on the Farm Covered?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/farm-liability-policies-are-all-activities-on-the-farm-covered.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

REAL PROPERTY

In-Kind Partition and Adverse Possession – Two Important Concepts in Agriculture

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/in-kind-partition-and-adverse-possession-two-important-concepts-in-agriculture.html

Some Thoughts on the Importance of Leasing Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/some-thoughts-on-the-importance-of-leasing-farmland.html

Prescriptive Easements and Adverse Possession – Obtaining Title to Land Without Paying for It

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/prescriptive-easements-and-adverse-possession-obtaining-title-to-land-without-paying-for-it.html

Purchase and Sale Allocations to CRP Contracts

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/05/purchase-and-sale-allocations-to-crp-contracts.html

Tax Issues on Repossession of Farmland

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/tax-issues-on-repossession-of-farmland.html

The Accommodation Doctrine – Working Out Uses Between Surfaces and Subsurface Owners

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/the-accommodation-doctrine-working-out-uses-between-surface-and-subsurface-owners.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

What is “Like-Kind” Real Estate?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/what-is-like-kind-real-estate.html

Negative Easements – Is There a Right to Unobstructed Light, Air, or View?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/negative-easements-is-their-a-right-to-unobstructed-light-air-or-view.html

 The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

REGULATORY LAW

The “Almost Top Ten” Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/the-almost-top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017 (Ten through Six)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017-ten-through-six.html

Is There a Constitutional Way to Protect Animal Ag Facilities?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/is-there-a-constitutional-way-to-protect-animal-ag-facilities.html

Trade Issues and Tariffs – Are Agriculture’s Concerns Legitimate?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/03/trade-issues-and-tariffs-are-agricultures-concerns-legitimate.html

Federal Crop Insurance – Some Recent Case Developments

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/federal-crop-insurance-some-recent-case-developments.html

Non-Tax Ag Provisions in the Omnibus Bill

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/04/non-tax-ag-provisions-in-the-omnibus-bill.html

Are Mandatory Assessments for Generic Advertising of Ag Commodities Constitutional?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/are-mandatory-assessments-for-generic-advertising-of-ag-commodities-constitutional.html

Wind Farm Nuisance Matter Resolved – Buy the Homeowners Out!

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/06/wind-farm-nuisance-matter-resolved-buy-the-homeowners-out.html

Regulation of Wetlands and “Ipse Dixit” Determinations

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/regulation-of-wetlands-and-ipse-dixit-determinations.html

Ag Employment – Verifying the Legal Status of Employees

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/ag-employment-verifying-the-legal-status-of-employees.html

Roadkill – It’s What’s for Dinner

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/roadkill-its-whats-for-dinner.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

“Waters of the United States” Means “Frozen Soil”?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/waters-of-the-united-states-means-frozen-soil.html

How Long Can a Train Block a Crossing?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/11/how-long-can-a-train-block-a-crossing.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html  

SECURED TRANSACTIONS

Ag Finance – Getting the Debtor’s Name Correct on the Financing Statements

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/ag-finance-getting-the-debtors-name-correct-on-the-financing-statement.html

What Are “Proceeds” of Crops and Livestock?

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/what-are-proceeds-of-crops-and-livestock.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html

SEMINARS AND CONFERENCES

Agricultural Law and Economics Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/07/agricultural-law-and-economics-conference.html

Summer Farm Income Tax/Estate and Business Planning Conference

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/02/summer-farm-income-taxestate-and-business-planning-conference.html

Upcoming Seminars

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/08/upcoming-seminars.html

Fall Tax Seminars

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/fall-tax-seminars.html

Year-End Ag Tax Seminar/Webinar

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/year-end-ag-tax-seminarwebinar.html

WATER LAW

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017 (Ten through Six)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017-ten-through-six.html

Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2017 (Five through One)

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/01/top-ten-agricultural-law-and-tax-developments-of-2017-five-through-one.html

The Accommodation Doctrine – Working on Uses Between Surface and Subsurface Owners

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/09/the-accommodation-doctrine-working-out-uses-between-surface-and-subsurface-owners.html

Agricultural Law Online!

            https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/10/agricultural-law-online.html

Drainage Issues – Rules for Handling Excess Surface Water

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/drainage-issues-rules-for-handling-excess-surface-water.html

The “Almost Top Ten” Ag Law and Tax Developments of 2018

https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/agriculturallaw/2018/12/the-almost-top-ten-ag-law-and-tax-developments-of-2018.html  

March 21, 2021 in Bankruptcy, Business Planning, Civil Liabilities, Contracts, Cooperatives, Criminal Liabilities, Environmental Law, Estate Planning, Income Tax, Insurance, Real Property, Regulatory Law, Secured Transactions, Water Law | Permalink | Comments (0)