Thursday, January 9, 2020
Top Ten Agricultural Law and Tax Developments of 2019 (Numbers 4 and 3)
Today’s post continues the walk through the top legal and tax developments in 2019 impacting agriculture. As can be gathered from the most recent several posts, the legal and tax systems have a major impact on agriculture and agricultural producers. Agricultural law and taxation is very dynamic and the rules are often different as applied to a “farmer” than when they are applied to a non-farmer.
In today’s post, I examine the fourth and third most important developments to impact agriculture in 2019.
- Regulatory Changes to the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
The ESA establishes a regulatory framework for the protection and recovery of endangered and threatened species of plants, fish and wildlife. 16 U.S.C. § 1531, et seq. The ESA has the potential to restrict substantially agricultural activities because many of the protections provided for threatened and endangered species under the ESA extend to individual members of the species when they are on private land where many endangered species have some habitat.
In late July of 2018, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) issued three proposed rules designed to modify certain aspects of the ESA. Public comment on the proposed rules was accepted until September 24, 2018. On August 12, 2019, the agencies announced the finalization of the regulations.
The regulatory modifications to the ESA stem from early 2017 when President Trump signed an executive order (Exec. Order 13777, “Enforcing the Regulatory Reform Agenda”) requiring federal agencies to revoke two regulations for every new rule issued. The order also required federal agencies to control the costs of all new rules within their budget. In addition, the order barred federal agencies from imposing any new costs in finalizing or repealing a rule for the remainder of 2017 unless that cost were offset by the repeal of two existing regulations. Exceptions were included for emergencies and national security. Beginning in 2018, the order required the director of the White House Office of Management and Budget to give each agency a budget for how much it can increase regulatory costs or cut regulatory costs. The order was touted as the “most significant administrative action in the world of regulatory reform since President Reagan created the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in 1981."
The ESA has long been considered critical to species protection, but it has also been one of the most contentious environmental laws largely because of its impact on the usage of private as well as public land. The judicial and legal costs of enforcing the ESA are quite high, as both environmental and industry groups have historically brought litigation to protect their interests on account of the ESA. As for private land, about half of ESA listed species have at least 80 percent of their habitat on private lands. This has given concern to landowners that the presence of a listed species on their land will result in land use restrictions, loss in value, and possible involvement in third-party lawsuits.
When a species is listed as endangered or threatened, the Secretary must consider whether to designate critical habitat for the species. “Critical habitat” is the specific area within the geographical range occupied by the species at the time of listing that is essential to the conservation of the species. Critical habitat may also include specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by the species at the time it is listed if the USFWS determines that such areas are essential for conservation of the species. However, critical habitat need not include the entire geographical range which the species could potentially occupy. 16 U.S.C. § 1532(5). In making a critical habitat determination, the USFWS must consider economic impacts and other relevant impacts, as well as best scientific data. See, e.g., New Mexico Cattle Growers Association. v. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 248 F.3d 1277 (10th Cir. 2001). The USFWS may exclude any area from critical habitat if the benefits of the exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying the area as critical habitat, unless the USFWS determines on the basis of best scientific and commercial data available that the failure to designate an area as critical habitat will result in the extinction of the species.
The Final Rules
In general. The final rules are entitled, “Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revision of the Regulations for Listing Species and Designating Critical Habitat.” 83 Fed. Reg. 35,193 (Aug. 12, 2019). The final rules will be codified at 50 C.F.R. pt. 424 and clarify the procedures and criteria that are used to add or remove species from the endangered and threatened species lists and how their critical habitat is designated. The new rules also eliminate the rule that, by default, extended many prohibitions on endangered species to those species that only had threatened stats. In addition, the final rules further define the procedures for interagency cooperation.
The listing process. The final rules modify the ESA listing process. The final rule allows for economic impacts of the potential listing, delisting or reclassifying of a species to be accounted for. The findings of anticipated economic impact must be publicly disclosed. In addition, the Secretary must evaluate areas that are occupied by the species, and unoccupied areas will only be considered “essential” where a critical habitat designation that is limited only to the geographical areas that a species occupies would be inadequate to ensure conservation of the species. In addition, for an unoccupied area to be designated as critical habitat, the Secretary must determine that there is a reasonable certainty that the area will contribute to the conservation of the species and that the area contains one or more physical or biological features essential to the conservation of the species. Also, a “threatened” listing for a species is to be evaluated in accordance with whether the species is likely to become endangered in the “foreseeable future” (as long as a threat is probable).
The final rules also require any critical habitat for a listed species designation to first take into account all areas that a species occupies at the time of listing before considering whether any unoccupied areas are necessary for the survival or recovery of the species. On that point, a determination must be made that “there is a reasonable likelihood that the area will contribute to the conservation of the species” before designating any unoccupied area as critical habitat. This is consistent with the U.S. Supreme Court opinion in Weyerhaeuser Co. v. United States Fish & Wildlife Service, 139 S. Ct. 361(2018), where the Court held that an endangered species cannot be protected under the ESA in areas where it cannot survive.
The “blanket rule.” The ESA statutory protections, including the prohibition on an “unauthorized take” of a species apply only to endangered species. However, the USFWS has automatically extended those protections to all species listed as threatened through a broad regulation known as the “blanket 4(d) rule.” The final rules remove these automatically provided protections to threatened species that are given to endangered species. As a result, the USFWS will be required to develop additional regulations for threatened species on a case-by-case basis to extend the protections given endangered species.
Agency cooperation. The final rules also provide alternative mechanisms intended to improve the efficiency of ESA consultations conducted by the USFWS and federal agencies. The revisions include a process for expedited consultation in which a federal agency and the USFWS may enter into upon mutual agreement. A 60-day limit is included for completion of informal consultations with the option to extend the consultation to no more than 120 days.
The final regulations are an attempt to inject additional common-sense into the application of the ESA and align it to a greater extent to its original purpose. Another intended impact is a decreased burden on farmers and ranchers. Only time will tell if that is actually accomplished.
- Irrigation Return Flows and the Clean Water Act
The CWA bars the discharge of any pollutants into the nation's waters without a permit. The CWA recognizes two sources of pollution. Point source pollution is pollution which comes from a clearly discernable discharge point, such as a pipe, a ditch, or a concentrated animal feeding operation. Point source pollution is the concern of the federal government. Nonpoint source pollution, while not specifically defined under the CWA, is pollution that comes from a diffused point of discharge, such as fertilizer runoff from an open field. Control of nonpoint source pollution is to be handled by the states through enforcement of state water quality standards and area-wide waste management plans.
Importantly, in 1977, the Congress amended the CWA to exempt return flows from irrigated agriculture as a point source pollutant. Thus, irrigation return flows from agriculture are not considered point sources if those “...discharges [are] composed entirely of return flows from irrigated agriculture.” See, e.g., 33 U.S.C. §1342(l)(1); 40 C.F.R. §122.3. See also Hiebenthal v. Meduri Farms, 242 F. Supp. 2d 885 (D. Or. 2002). This statutory exemption was elaborated in a 1994 New York case, Concerned Area Residents for the Environment v. Southview Farm, 34 F.3d 114 (2d Cir. 1994). In that case, the court noted that when the Congress exempted discharges composed “entirely” of return flows from irrigated agriculture from the CWA discharge permit requirements, it did not intend to differentiate among return flows based on their content. Rather, the court noted, the word “entirely” was intended to limit the exception to only those flows which do not contain additional discharges from activities unrelated to crop production.
In Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen’s Associations v. Glaser, 937 F.3d 1191 (9th Cir. 2019), the plaintiffs (various fishing activist groups) filed a CWA citizen suit action claiming that the defendant’s (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) Grasslands Bypass Project in the San Joaquin Valley of California was discharging polluted water (water containing naturally-occurring selenium from soil) into a WOTUS via a subsurface tile system under farmland in California’s Central Valley without a CWA permit. The plaintiffs directly challenged the exemption of tile drainage systems from CWA regulation via “return flows from irrigated water” on the basis that groundwater discharged from drainage tile systems is separate from any irrigation occurring on farms and is, therefore, not exempt. After the lower court initially refused to grant the government’s motion to dismiss, it later did dismiss the case noting that the parties agreed that the only reason the project existed was to enable the growing of crops requiring irrigation, and that the drainage of contaminated water only occurred due to irrigated agriculture. The lower court noted that the plaintiffs failed to plead sufficient facts to support a claim that some discharges were unrelated to agricultural crop production. Later, the plaintiffs retooled their complaint to claim that not all of the irrigated water that was discharged through the tile systems came from crop production. Rather, the plaintiffs claimed that some of the discharges that flowed into groundwater were from former farmlands that now contained solar panels. It was this “seepage” from the non-farmland that the plaintiffs claimed was discharged in the farm field tile system and caused the system to contain pollutants that didn’t come exclusively from agricultural crop irrigation. The lower court found the tile system to be within the exemption for “return flows from irrigation,” noting that “entirely” meant “majority” because (in the court’s view) a literal interpretation of the amended statutory language would produce an “absurd result.”
The appellate court reversed. The appellate court held that discharges that include irrigation return flows from activities “unrelated” to crop production are not exempt from the CWA permit requirement. To the appellate court, “entirely” meant just that – “entirely.” It didn’t mean “majority” as the lower court had determined.
What’s the impact of the appellate court’s decision? After all, shouldn’t the appellate court be praised for construing a statute in accordance with what the law actually says? What was the concern of the lower court of a literal interpretation of the statute? For starters, think of the burden of proof issue. Does the appellate court’s decision mean that a plaintiff must prove that some discharges come from non-agricultural irrigation activities, or does it mean that upon an allegation that irrigation return flows are not “entirely” from agricultural crop production that the farmer must prove that they all are? If the latter is correct, that is a next-to-impossible burden for a farmer. Such things as runoff from public roadways and neighboring farm fields can and do often seep into a farmer’s tile drainage system. If that happens, at least in the Ninth Circuit (Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Washington), a farmer’s discharges will require a CWA permit. This is the “absurd result” that the lower court was trying to avoid by construing “entirely” as “majority.”
The appellate court remanded the case to the lower court for further review based on the appellate court’s decision. However, the point remains that the appellate court determined that the exception for return flows from agriculture only applies when all of the discharges involved comes from agricultural sources. That’s why the case is important to any farmer that irrigates crops.
In the next post, I will address the two most significant developments of 2019. What do you think they might be?