Friday, December 21, 2007
The Judicial Council of the Fifth Circuit filed a report (available below) that will be sent to Chief Justice Roberts recommending the impeachment of U.S. District Judge G. Thomas Porteous, Jr., who sits on the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana. Judge Porteous served as a state court judge in the 24th Judicial District, which covers Jefferson Parish (i.e. New Orleans), before his appointment to the federal bench in 1994. The report gives four grounds for impeachment:
- "[N]umerous false statements under oath during his and his wife’s Chapter 13 bankruptcy, including filing the petition under a false name; concealing assets of the bankruptcy estate; failing to identify gambling losses; and failing to list all creditors." He is also accused of taking extensions of credit from casinos and paying off certain creditors in violation of bankruptcy court orders.
- "[F]raudulent and deceptive conduct concerning the debt he owed to Regions Bank prior to bankruptcy."
- Receiving "gifts and things of value from attorneys who had cases pending before him" and failure to disclose his financial relationship with a lawyer in one case before him in which he refused to recuse himself.
"[F]inancial disclosure statements for the years 1994-2000 are inaccurate and misleading because they fail to report the gifts and things of value he received from attorneys, and in the year 2000 failed to report accurately significant amounts of reportable indebtedness owed by Judge Porteous."
Judge Porteous was a subject of a federal investigation involving a bail bondsman that relates back to his state court days, but an AP story (here) notes that federal prosecutors notified him earlier in 2007 that he would not be charged in that case.
The 1980s saw three federal judges impeached and removed from office: Harry Claiborne of Nevada for tax evasion, Alcee Hastings of Florida for perjury and conspiracy to solicit a bribe, and Walter Nixon of Mississippi for perjury before a grand jury. In each of those cases, the judge was charged with a federal offense before the impeachment, with Hastings acquitted of the charges before impeachment while Claiborne and Nixon were in jail when the impeachment process started. Both Claiborne and Nixon received their full salary as Article III judges while serving time before their removal from office by the Senate. Nixon challenged the Senate's impeachment procedures, which the Supreme Court rejected on non-justiciability grounds (Nixon v. United States, 506 U.S. 224 (1993)). Interestingly, Hastings is now a Congressman, and would be called upon to vote on Judge Porteous' impeachment if the case gets to the full House of Representatives.
Judge Porteous' case is unusual, at least compared to the three 1980s impeachments, in that he has not been charged with a crime. Two of the violations alleged in the Fifth Circuit's report could trigger a federal prosecution. The federal bankruptcy fraud provisions are quite broad, with 18 U.S.C. Sec. 152(2) reaching any persor who "knowingly and fraudulently makes a false oath or account in or in relation to any case under title 11." Similarly, the bank fraud statute, 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1344, and false statement to a financial institution provision, 18 U.S.C. Sec 1014, would cover the dealings with Regions Bank. The fourth ground, related to false financial reports, appears to fall outside the statute of limitations period.
According to the report, Judge Porteous testified at a hearing before the Fifth Circuit's Judicial Council and later argued his case before the decision was made to adopt the report. The only reference in the report to the vote states that it was by a majority, so it is not clear whether any of the judges dissented. There is no indication at this point that federal prosecutors plan to pursue any charges. I would expect that Judge Porteous' statements would be available to a grand jury to review in considering a case, so prosecutors may wait until the impeachment process plays out.
In case you wondered, the Constitution explicitly provides that impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction and removal from office by the Senate does not affect a criminal case against the official. The general impeachment provision is in Article II, Sec. 4, relating to the President, Vice President, and other civil officers, and states that they can be removed from office upon "Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, and other high Crimes and Misdemeanors." While that sounds like a criminal case, Article I, Sec. 3, Cl. 7 provides, "Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law." In other words, a full-fledged criminal prosecution can come after the impeachment, and there is no double jeopardy bar arising from the Congressional action despite the reference to "conviction" for a high crime or misdemeanor. (ph)