Sunday, May 5, 2013
Langevoort on Contemporary Law of Insider Trading
'Fine Distinctions' in the Contemporary Law of Insider Trading, by Donald C. Langevoort, Georgetown University Law Center, was recently posted on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
William Cary’s opinion for the SEC in In re Cady, Roberts & Co. built the foundation on which the modern law of insider trading rests. This paper — a contribution to Columbia Law School’s recent celebration of Cary’s Cady Roberts opinion, explores some of these — particularly the emergence of a doctrine of “reckless” insider trading. Historically, the crucial question is this: how or why did the insider trading prohibition survive the retrenchment that happened to so many other elements of Rule 10b-5? It argues that the Supreme Court embraced the continuing existence of the “abstain or disclose” rule, and tolerated constructive fraud notwithstanding its new-found commitment to federalism — which I call the (fictional) “Cary-Powell compromise” — because it accepted the central premise on which the expressive function of insider trading regulation is based: manifestations of greed and lack of self-restraint among the privileged, especially fiduciaries or those closely related to fiduciaries, threaten to undermine the official identity of the public markets as open and fair. But enough time may have passed that we may have lost sight of the compromise associated with this fiction and started acting as if insider trading really is the worst kind of deceit. The result is pressure on doctrine to expand, using anything plausible in the 10b-5 toolkit. The aim is to tie this concern more clearly to the uneasy deceptiveness of insider trading, first using somewhat familiar examples such as the debate over whether possession or use is required for liability and the supposed overreach of Rule 10b5-2. Each of these settings brings us back to the centrality of intent, reminding us that the Cary-Powell compromise has in mind a form of purposefulness that is closely tied to greed and opportunism, making insider trading a sui generis form of securities fraud. That takes us to the most jarring recent development in insider trading law, the emergence (particularly in SEC v. Obus) of recklessness as an alternative basis for liability.
Bebchuk, et alia on Pre-Disclosure Acquisitions by Activist Investors
Pre-Disclosure Accumulations by Activist Investors: Evidence and Policy, by Lucian A. Bebchuk, Harvard Law School; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI); Alon P. Brav, Duke University - Fuqua School of Business; Robert J. Jackson Jr., Columbia Law School;and Wei Jiang, Columbia Business School - Finance and Economics, was recently posted on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
A rulemaking petition recently submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the senior partners of a prominent law firm urges the SEC to accelerate the timing of the disclosure of accumulations of large blocks of stock in public companies. Relying upon a few recent anecdotes, the petition argues that existing rules have been rendered obsolete by changes in trading technology that enable activist investors to accumulate increasingly large blocks of stock before disclosing.
In this Article, we provide the first systematic evidence on all disclosures by activist investors and the first empirical analysis of this subject. We find that key factual premises underlying the petition, including the assumption that pre-disclosure accumulations have increased considerably over time, are not supported by the evidence. Moreover, we show that accelerating the timing of disclosure could have adverse effects on public-company investors and identify important but overlooked consequences of the considered reform of disclosure rules. Our analysis provides empirical evidence that should inform the SEC’s consideration of this issue — and a foundation on which subsequent empirical and policy analysis can build.
Padfield on Concession Theory
Rehabilitating Concession Theory, by Stefan J. Padfield, University of Akron School of Law, was recently posted on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
In Citizens United v. FEC, a 5-4 majority of the Supreme Court ruled that, “the Government cannot restrict political speech based on the speaker's corporate identity.” The decision remains controversial, with many arguing that the Court effectively overturned over 100 years of precedent. I have previously argued that this decision turned on competing conceptions of the corporation, with the majority adopting a contractarian view while the dissent advanced a state concession view. However, the majority was silent on the issue of corporate theory, and the dissent went so far as to expressly disavow any role for corporate theory at all. At least as far as the dissent is concerned, this avoidance of corporate theory may have been motivated at least in part by the fact that concession theory has been marginalized to the point where anyone advancing it as a serious theory risks mockery at the hands of some of the most esteemed experts in corporate law. For example, one highly-regarded commentator criticized the dissent by saying: “It has been over half-a-century since corporate legal theory, of any political or economic stripe, took the concession theory seriously.” In this Essay I consider whether this marginalization of concession theory is justified. I conclude that the reports of concession theory’s demise have been greatly exaggerated, and that there remains a serious role for the theory in discussions concerning the place of corporations in society. This is important because without a vibrant concession theory we are primarily left with aggregate theory and real entity theory, two theories of the corporation that both defer to private ordering over government regulation.
Friday, May 3, 2013
White Speaks on Global Financial Regulation
SEC Chair Mary Jo White, in her first public speech, addressed the Investment Company Institute today and focused on Regulation in a Global Financial System. While some had speculated that she would take this opportunity to address mutual fund reform, and specifically money market funds, in fact she said little on the subject in her prepared remarks:
As the SEC works to develop and propose meaningful money market fund reform, our goal is to preserve the economic benefits of the product while addressing potential redemption pressures and the susceptibility of these funds to runs – runs in which retail investors are especially likely to suffer losses.
While I’m sure that you would like me to say more about this today, I’ll stop there as the staff and Commissioners are actively engaged in discussions designed to yield an appropriate and balanced proposal in the near future.
I am confident that the ultimate result of this process will take into account the views of Commissioners who vary in background and perspective, but share the goals of protecting investors and promoting market efficiency and capital formation. The SEC regulatory process is grounded in sound economic analysis and is well-informed by public comment, including helpful comments from the ICI fund investors and others with important and relevant perspectives on money market funds.
This is the process the SEC will bring to bear as it considers proposing money market fund reform. And I hope that ultimately it will lead to a good, investor-oriented result that has been informed by and can be shared with other regulators in the global marketplace.
Thursday, May 2, 2013
FINRA Names New VP for Risk & Strategy
FINRA has a new Executive Vice President, Risk and Strategy. Carlo V. di Florio, currently Director of the SEC's Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations (OCIE), is joining FINRA and will lead its Office of Risk, Emerging Regulatory Issues, Enterprise Risk Management and Strategy. According to the FINRA press release, "Di Florio will have overall responsibility for ensuring that FINRA has effective processes for assessing the most significant risks to the investing public and the integrity of our markets, and developing strategic responses to mitigate, manage and monitor those risks and industry trends."
SEC Charges Gatekeepers of Two Mutual Fund Trusts with Inaccurate Disclosures
The SEC charged the gatekeepers of a pair of mutual fund trusts with causing untrue or misleading disclosures about the factors they considered when approving or renewing investment advisory contracts on behalf of shareholders.
An SEC investigation that arose from an examination of the Northern Lights Fund Trust and the Northern Lights Variable Trust found that some of the trusts' shareholder reports either misrepresented material information considered by the trustees or omitted material information about how they evaluated certain factors in reaching their decisions on behalf of the funds and their shareholders. The trustees and the trusts' chief compliance officer Northern Lights Compliance Services (NLCS) were responsible for causing violations of the SEC's compliance rule, and the trusts' fund administrator Gemini Fund Services (GFS) caused violations of the Investment Company Act recordkeeping and reporting provisions.
The firms and the trustees have agreed to settle the SEC's charges.
The five trustees named in the SEC enforcement action are: Michael Miola of Arizona, Lester M. Bryan of Utah, Anthony J. Hertl of Florida, Gary W. Lanzen of Nevada, and Mark H. Taylor of Ohio.
Some trusts are created as turnkey mutual fund operations that launch numerous funds to be managed by different unaffiliated advisers and overseen by a single board of trustees. The federal securities laws require all mutual fund directors to evaluate and approve a fund's contract with its investment adviser, and the funds must report back to shareholders about the material factors considered by the directors in making these decisions. The SEC Enforcement Division's Asset Management Unit has been taking a widespread look into the investment advisory contract renewal process and fee arrangements in the fund industry.
According to the SEC's order instituting settled administrative proceedings, the Northern Lights trusts included up to 71 mutual fund series from January 2009 to December 2010, most of which were managed by different advisers and sub-advisers. The trustees conducted 15 board meetings during that time period, and made decisions about 113 advisory and 32 sub-advisory contracts during what's known as the 15(c) process. Section 15(c) of the Investment Company Act requires fund directors to request and evaluate information that is reasonably necessary to evaluate the terms of any contract for an investment adviser of a registered investment company.
The SEC's order found that some boilerplate disclosures related to the 15(c) process that were included by GFS in some fund series shareholder reports contained untrue or misleading information. For example, one disclosure claimed that the trustees had considered peer group information about the advisory fee, however no such data had been provided to the trustees. Other disclosures misleadingly indicated that the fund's advisory fee was not materially higher than its peer group range, when in fact the fee was nearly double the peer group's mean fee or even higher. GFS failed to ensure that certain shareholder reports contained the required disclosures about the trustees' evaluation process and failed to ensure that certain series within the trusts maintained and preserved their 15(c) files.
The SEC's order also found that certain mutual fund series did not follow their policies and procedures for the trustees' approval of the investment advisers' compliance programs. Fund boards are required to approve the policies and procedures of service providers to a fund, including its adviser. The policies and procedures of each series within the Northern Lights trusts stated that the trustees could approve the compliance program of each series' investment adviser based on their review of an adviser's compliance manual or based on a summary provided by NLCS that familiarized them with the salient features of the compliance program and provided a good understanding of how the program addressed particularly significant compliance risks. Rather than following this process, the trustees' approval of the advisers' compliance programs was based primarily on their review of a brief written statement prepared by NLCS saying that the advisers' compliance manuals were "sufficient and in use" and a verbal representation by NLCS that such manuals were adequate.
DU Online Law Review Devotes Issue to JOBS Act
J. Robert Brown Jr., University of Denver Sturm College of Law, announces that:
The DU Online Law Review has devoted an entire issue to the JOBS Act (available at http://www.denverlawreview.org/jobs-act-feature) . The content came from eight students under faculty supervision. The papers each analyzed a specific provision in the JOBS Act and relied upon a common format. The papers addressed the law as it existed on the eve of the JOBS Act and analyzed the changes implemented by Congress, including the relevant legislative history. Each paper offered practical insight into the operation of the selected statute.
The papers encompassed significant portions of the JOBS Act. Three addressed crowdfunding (Lindsay Anderson Smith, Crowdfunding and Using Net Worth to Determine Investment Limits, Lina Jasinskaite, The JOBS Act: Does the Income Cap Really Protect Investors? and Michael W. Shumate, Crowdfunding and State Level Securities Fraud Enforcement under the JOBS Act), two addressed the changes to the private placement process under Rule 506 (Erica Siepman, The JOBS Act and the Elimination of the Ban on General Solicitations and Samuel Hagreen, The JOBS Act: Exempting Internet Portals from the Definition of Broker-Dealer ), and one addressed the number of shareholders of record that trigger registration with the SEC (Susan Beblavi, The JOBS Act Title V: Raising the Threshold for Registration), emerging growth companies (Will McAllister, The JOBS Act Title I: The “On-Ramp” to IPOs for Emerging Growth Companies) and Regulation A (David Rodman, Regulation A , the JOBS Act, and Public Offering Lite).
Wednesday, May 1, 2013
SEC Proposes Rules and Guidance on Cross-Border Security-Based Swap Transactions
The SEC today voted unanimously to propose rules and interpretive guidance for parties to cross-border security-based swap transactions. The proposal explains which regulatory requirements apply when a transaction occurs partially within and partially outside the U.S. The proposed rules also set forth when security-based swap dealers, major security-based swap participants, and other entities — such as clearing agencies, execution facilities, and data repositories — must register with the SEC.
The comment period for the proposed rules and interpretive guidance for cross-border security-based swap activities will be open for 90 days after they are published in the Federal Register.
Separately, the Commission voted unanimously to reopen the public comment period for all rules not yet finalized stemming from Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act (TITLE VII—WALL STREET TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY). The comment periods for these rules — and a policy statement describing the expected order for these new rules to take effect — will be reopened for 60 days after notice is published in the Federal Register.
House Finance Chair Fundraises and Skis with Wall Street
ProPublica's Justin Elliott has a great story: House Finance Chair Hensarling Goes on Ski Vacation with Wall Street. The title says it all.
Tuesday, April 30, 2013
FINRA Names Chief Economist
FINRA announced the appointment of a Chief Economist and Senior Vice President, who will report directly to FINRA CEO Richard Ketchum. Jonathan S. Sokobin is currently Acting Deputy Director, Research and Analysis in the Office of Financial Research at the U.S. Treasury Department. The appointment is further demonstration of the importance of cost-benefit analysis in financial regulation. According to the press release,
The Office of the Chief Economist will work closely with the Office of General Counsel and other departments in developing new rules and analyze the costs and benefits of existing and potential rulemakings. In order to facilitate that effort, the Office will be responsible for gathering and analyzing data on securities firms and markets.
Franken Calls on SEC to Prevent Mandatory Arbitration Clauses in Brokerage Contracts
Senator Al Franken (D-Minn) and other Congressional representatives have written to SEC Chair Mary Jo White, urging the agency to use its authority under Dodd-Frank to prevent mandatory arbitration clauses in brokerage contracts. Concerns over the use of the predispute arbitration agreements have increased in the wake of Charles Schwab's inclusion of a class action waiver (contrary to FINRA rules) in its brokerage agreement. A FINRA hearing panel recently held that FINRA could not enforce its rules prohibiting the class action waiver against Schwab because of U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of FAA preemption in AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion. FINRA Enforcement has appealed the hearing panel's decision.
Here is the text of the letter:
Dear Chairman White,
We write to express our strong belief that the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) should promptly exercise its authority under Section 921 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to prohibit the use of mandatory arbitration provisions in customer service agreements.
The Dodd-Frank Act was enacted, among other reasons, to protect American consumers from abusive financial services practices. Section 921 reflects Congress’s concern over the increasingly widespread use of mandatory arbitration agreements in customer and client contracts, and grants the Commission authority to restrict or prohibit the use of these provisions. Ensuring a choice of forum, particularly for small investors, heightens fairness and ultimately enhances participation in our capital markets. To our disappointment, in the almost three years since the Dodd-Frank Act’s enactment, the Commission has largely disregarded this important mandate.
The time is ripe for the Commission to act under Section 921 to protect the investing public and prevent further abuse of forced arbitration contracts.
Recently, we were alarmed to see further attempts to erode investor rights when Charles Schwab, one of the country’s largest brokers, expanded the mandatory arbitration clauses in its customer agreements to include a mandatory class action waiver clause. In this instance, Schwab argued that, in response to the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) in AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, it could include a waiver of class action and class arbitration rights in its customer agreements. FINRA initiated a disciplinary action against Schwab for violation of FINRA rules barring class action waivers. In February, however, a FINRA hearing panel ruled that although Schwab’s actions did in fact violate FINRA rules, those rules could not be enforced under Concepcion.
While the Supreme Court in Concepcion did find that the FAA preempts state actions that would restrict the use of arbitration, the facts in the Schwab case are notably distinguishable—not least because FINRA is a membership organization seeking to enforce its own rules. However, the ambiguity created by the panel’s ruling underscores the urgency with which the Commission should adopt rules under Section 921.
Section 921 was included in the Dodd-Frank Act to address the threat to consumers posed by mandatory arbitration clauses in investment contracts. During Congress’s deliberation of this section, legislators heard concerns that investors forced into arbitration must face “high upfront costs; limited access to documents and other key information; limited knowledge upon which to base the choice of arbitrator; the absence of a requirement that arbitrators follow the law or issue written decisions; and extremely limited grounds for appeal.”
If arbitration offers investors an efficient forum to resolve disputes, as some argue, investors may choose that option—but they should be given the choice. It is equally important that investors not be precluded from bringing class actions because of contractual fine print imposed by a mandatory waiver class action clause.
Although evidence suggests that the use of mandatory arbitration agreements is widespread, we are concerned about the lack of transparency and reliable data regarding the prevalence of such agreements. We encourage the Commission to track how many brokerage firms are inserting mandatory arbitration agreements and class action waivers into consumer contracts, so that this questionable practice may be better monitored and addressed.
We are deeply concerned that the Commission’s failure to respond to the dangers posed by widespread forced arbitration will weaken existing investor protections. Given the uncertainty created by the recent FINRA decision, we urge the Commission to act quickly to exercise its authority under Section 921 to prevent this practice and protect investor rights.
We recognize that the Commission is balancing competing demands, and that it must prioritize its recent mandates by Congress. The exigent circumstances at hand, however, require that the Commission exercise its authority under Section 921 of the Dodd-Frank Act and prohibit the use of mandatory arbitration provisions.
 FINRA Department of Enforcement v. Charles Schwab & Company Inc. (CRD No. 5393) Disciplinary Proceeding No. 201102976021. February 21, 2013.
 Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs on S. 3217, S. Rep. No.111-176, at 110.
Monday, April 29, 2013
Level Global Investors Settles SEC Insider Trading Charges Involving Dell and Nvidia
The SEC announced that Greenwich, Conn.-based hedge fund advisory firm Level Global Investors LP agreed to pay more than $21.5 million to settle charges that its co-founder, who also served as a portfolio manager, and its analyst engaged in repeated insider trading in the securities of Dell Inc. and Nvidia Corp.
In January 2012, the SEC filed insider trading charges against Level Global, the firm's co-founder Anthony Chiasson, a former analyst Spyridon "Sam" Adondakis, and six other defendants, including five investment professionals and the hedge fund advisory firm Diamondback Capital Management. The SEC alleged that Adondakis was a member of a group of closely associated hedge fund analysts who illegally obtained highly sensitive information regarding the financial performance of Dell and Nvidia before this information was made public. The illegally obtained information involved Dell and Nvidia's revenues and profit margins and sometimes indicated that the tech companies' quarterly results would differ significantly from the consensus expectations of Wall Street analysts.
According to the SEC, during 2008 and 2009, Adondakis passed the information on to Chiasson, who used it to execute trades on behalf of hedge funds managed by Level Global and reap millions of dollars in illegal profits. In 2011, following news reports of the government's investigation, Level Global, which had once managed as much as $4 billion, announced that it would close its business and begin returning money to its investors. It is presently in the process of winding down its business.
The settlement with Level Global, which is subject to court approval, requires the firm to disgorge $10,082,725 in fees that it reaped from the alleged insider-trading scheme, to pay prejudgment interest of $1,348,824, and to pay a penalty of $10,082,725. Level Global has also agreed to the entry of an order permanently enjoining the firm from future violations of Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Rule 10b-5, and Section 17(a) of the Securities Act of 1933.
Level Global neither admits nor denies the SEC's allegations. Adondakis previously pleaded guilty to parallel criminal charges and agreed to a settlement with the SEC in which he admitted liability for insider trading. The SEC is continuing to pursue its insider trading claims against the firm's co-founder Chiasson, who was convicted in December 2012 of securities fraud in a parallel criminal proceeding.
Saturday, April 27, 2013
Alexander on Cyberfinancing for Economic Justice
Cyberfinancing for Economic Justice, by Lisa T. Alexander, University of Wisconsin Law School, was recently posted on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
This article argues for the socially optimal regulation of online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending and crowdfunding to advance economic justice in the United States. Peer-to-peer lending websites, such as Prosper.com or Kiva.org, facilitate lending transactions between individuals online without the involvement of a traditional bank or microfinance institution. Crowdfunding websites, such as Kickstarter.com, enable individuals to obtain financing from large numbers of contributors at once through an open online request for funds. These web-based transactions, and the intermediary organizations that facilitate them, constitute emerging cyberfinancing markets. These markets connect many individuals at once, across class, race, ethnicity, nationality, space, and time in an interactive and dynamic way. During a time of significant economic distress in the United States, these markets also represent an unprecedented economic development opportunity for historically marginalized economic actors. Yet, no legal scholar has addressed the implications of these developments for economic justice in the United States. Drawing from the fields of law and geography, social networking theory, and comparative institutional analysis, this Article conceptualizes these new markets as "cyberspaces," similar to geographic spaces, whose laws, norms, and rules will partially determine who will benefit from the economic opportunities that arise in these spaces. The recently enacted Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act does not facilitate substantial distributive justice in crowdfunding markets. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), which produced a report in response to the 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act's mandate that it study the P2P lending industry, has also failed to recommend a regulatory structure that will facilitate economic justice. This Article recommends that a range of federal regulators such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC), the new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and the U.S. Treasury Department (Treasury), should collaborate to implement a revised Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) that would promote economic justice in these markets
Brams & Mitts on M&A Auctions
Mechanism Design in M&A Auctions, by Steven J. Brams, New York University (NYU) - Wilf Family Department of Politics, and Joshua Mitts, Yale Law School, was recently posted on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
The recent controversy over “Don’t Ask, Don’t Waive” standstills in M&A practice highlights the need to apply mechanism design to change-of-control transactions. In this Essay, we propose a novel two-stage auction procedure that induces honest bidding among participants while potentially yielding a higher sale price than an open ascending, a sealed-bid first price, or a Vickrey second-price auction. Our procedure balances deal certainty with value maximization through the Nobel Prize-winning principle of incentive compatibility, making participation in the M&A auction and honest disclosure of reservation prices in the parties’ interests rather than relying solely on heavy-handed ex-post enforcement. Moreover, the social benefits of our two-stage auction mechanism - greater transparency regarding the distribution of bids, avoidance of the winner’s curse, certainty in the M&A auction environment, and fairness to buyers and sellers - justify reduced judicial scrutiny of transactions utilizing the procedure under Revlon and Chancellor Strine’s recent dicta in Ancestry.com.
Heminway on Funding For-Profit Social Enterprises
To Be or Not to Be (a Security): Funding For-Profit Social Enterprises, by Joan MacLeod Heminway, University of Tennessee College of Law, was recently posted on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
This article explores the federal securities law status of financial interests in for-profit social enterprise entities. When analyzed through the lens of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, financial interests in social enterprise businesses raise both concerns and opportunities. Ultimately, the federal securities regulation status of interests in for-profit social enterprise ventures is important for choice-of-entity reasons (since the regulatory framework may impose different costs on interests in different structural business forms), for capital-structuring reasons within individual forms of entity, and for risk-management reasons at the entity level. In addition, an inquiry into the applicability of federal securities regulation to the funding of social enterprise serves as a catalyst for further thought on the optimal applicability of federal securities regulation to interests in business entities and projects.
Cunningham on Deferred Prosecution and Corporate Governance
Deferred Prosecutions and Corporate Governance: An Integrated Approach to Investigation and Reform, by Lawrence A. Cunningham, George Washington University Law School, was recently posted on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
When evaluating how to proceed against a corporate investigative target, law enforcement authorities often ignore the target’s governance arrangements, while subsequently negotiating or imposing governance requirements, especially in deferred prosecution agreements. Ignoring governance structures and processes amid investigation can be hazardous and implementing improvised reforms afterwards may have severe unintended consequences — particularly when prescribing standardized governance devices. Drawing, in part, on new lessons from three prominent cases — Arthur Andersen, AIG and Bristol-Myers Squibb — this Article criticizes prevailing discord and urges prosecutors to contemplate corporate governance at the outset and to articulate rationales for prescribed changes. Integrating the role of corporate governance into prosecutions would promote public confidence in prosecutorial decisions to broker firm-specific governance reforms currently lacking and increase their effectiveness. The Article, therefore, contributes a novel perspective on the controversial practice: though substantial commentary urges prosecutors to avoid intruding into corporate governance, this Article explains the importance of prosecutors investing in it.
Court Finds Windham Securities and Principal Misappropriated Clients' Funds
On April 25, 2013, a federal court in New York found defendants Joshua Constantin and Windham Securities, Inc. jointly and severally liable for over $2.49 million and defendant Brian Solomon liable for over $249,000 in disgorgement, pre-judgment interest, and civil penalties. In addition, the court found relief defendants Constantin Resource Group, Inc. (CRG) and Domestic Applications Corp. (DAC) jointly and severally liable with Constantin and Windham for over $760,000 and $532,000, respectively, of disgorgement and pre-judgment interest.
The SEC's complaint alleged that Windham, Windham's owner and principal Constantin, and former Windham managing director Solomon fraudulently induced investors to provide more than $1.25 million to Windham for securities investments. The complaint alleged that defendants made false claims to the investors about the intended use of the investors' funds and about Windham's investment expertise and past returns. Instead of purchasing securities for the investors, the defendants misappropriated the investors' funds and then provided false assurances to the investors to cover up their fraud.
On April 2, 2013, the court issued an opinion granting the SEC's motion for summary judgment in its entirety. Based on the undisputed evidence, the court found that "[t]he litany of misrepresentations that Solomon and Constantin made to their clients is striking;" that Constantin "diverted [investors'] funds to his own purposes;" and that "both Solomon and Constantin provided clients with misleading documents to cover up the fraudulent nature of their investment scheme." On April 25, 2013, the court issued a supplemental order finding Windham, Constantin, Solomon, CRG, and DAC collectively liable for more than $2.74 million in disgorgement, pre-judgment interest, and civil penalties.
SEC's May 1 Meeting Focuses on Security-Based Swaps
The SEC will hold an Open Meeting on Wednesday, May 1, 2013 at 10:00 a.m., in the Auditorium, Room L-002. The subject matters of the Open Meeting will be:
•Item 1: The Commission will consider whether to propose new rules and interpretive guidance for cross-border security-based swap activities and to re-propose Regulation SBSR and certain rules and forms relating to the registration of security-based swap dealers and major security-based swap participants.
•Item 2: The Commission will consider whether to reopen the comment periods and receive new information for certain rulemaking releases and the policy statement applicable to security-based swaps proposed pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
Call for Papers: First Annual Workshop for Corporate & Securities Litigation
The University of Illinois College of Law and the University of Richmond School of Law invite submissions for the First Annual Workshop for Corporate & Securities Litigation. This workshop will be held on Friday, November 8, 2013, in Chicago, Illinois.
OVERVIEW: This annual workshop will bring together scholars focused on corporate and securities litigation to present their works-in-progress. Papers addressing any aspect of corporate and securities litigation or enforcement are eligible. Appropriate topics include, but are not limited to, securities litigation, fiduciary duty litigation, or comparative approaches to business litigation. We welcome scholars working in a variety of methodologies, including empirical analysis, law and economics, law and sociology, and traditional doctrinal analysis. Authors whose papers are selected will be invited to present their work at a workshop hosted by the University of Illinois College of Law in Chicago, Illinois, on Friday November 8, 2013. Local costs (lodging and workshop meals) will be covered. Participants are asked to pay for their own travel expenses. The workshop is designed to maximize discussion and feedback. All participants will have read the selected papers. The author will provide a brief introduction to the paper, but the majority of the individual sessions will be devoted to collective discussion of the paper involved.
SUBMISSION PROCEDURE: If you are interested in participating, please send an abstract of the paper you would like to present to Jessica Erickson at email@example.com not later than Friday, May 31, 2013. Please include your name, current position, and contact information in the e-mail accompanying the submission. Authors of accepted papers will be notified by Friday, June 28.
Friday, April 26, 2013
SEC Charges JOBS Act Scam
Perhaps the first JOBS Act scam? The SEC announced fraud charges against a Spokane Valley, Wash., company and its owner for misleading investors with claims to raise billions of investment capital under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act and invest it exclusively in American businesses.
The SEC alleges that Daniel F. Peterson and his company USA Real Estate Fund 1 promised investors that they could reap spectacular returns from an upcoming offering in a “secured” product backed by prominent financial firms. Peterson repeatedly told investors that the 2012 JOBS Act would enable him to raise billions of dollars by advertising the offering to the general public, and produce big profits for early investors. He also promised to invest the proceeds of the offering in exclusively American businesses, and help assist in Washington State’s economic recovery. The SEC alleges that Peterson used investors’ money for personal expenses, and is continuing to solicit investors and may be preparing to tout the offering through investor seminars and public advertising.
According to the SEC’s complaint filed in federal court in Spokane, Peterson sold common stock in USA Real Estate Fund from November 2010 to June 2012 to more than 20 investors in Washington and at least five other states.
(Thanks to Jennifer Taub for calling this to my attention.)