PropertyProf Blog

Editor: Stephen Clowney
Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Member of the Law Professor Blogs Network

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Why Didn't the Germans Bomb Big Ben During WWII?

Benthebig

Short answer: They tried but luck intervened. 

Quora has a longer take on the mechanics of WWII bombing.  The rub:

At the time of the Blitz, the Germans, like every air power, did not have the ability to specifically target key buildings through high-altitude bombing raids, which were themselves necessary to hit valuable targets in order to avoid intense anti-aircraft fire. That combination of factors resulted in the reliance on city-flattening, strategic bombing raids: Just drop a bunch of bombs from where the guys on the ground can't hit you and hope for the best.

May 27, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wiseman on the Oil and Gas Commons

HwisemanHannah Wiseman (Florida State) has posted Coordinating the Oil and Gas Commons (BYU Law Review) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

Oil and gas development involves many configurations of property rights and regulations that lead to commons-type challenges. Numerous mineral owners have rights to drain oil and gas from shared underground reservoirs, and mineral owners in many states may use the surface to access minerals without paying surface owners any damages. These mineral owners also use underground resources in a manner that precludes or enhances certain future subsurface uses, such as natural gas and carbon dioxide storage, geothermal development, or other mineral development. Drilling an oil or gas well can also prevent future surface use — for example, many municipalities in Texas prohibit building on top of or within a certain number of feet of an abandoned well. Yet potential future surface and subsurface users often have no voice in the decision to drill. Within the regulatory sphere, local, state, regional, and federal governments have some voice in oil and gas governance, yet none exercise full regulatory authority over the externalities caused by this development, leading to a type of regulatory commons in which numerous actors have partial control over a regulated activity but leave certain gaps.

This Article explores this complex array of rights and regulations from a commons-based perspective and suggests solutions. To allow oil and gas development while avoiding inefficient externalities, more types of property owners should have individually-defined rights to the subsurface resource and should be able to negotiate with mineral owners; surface owners should receive damages for mineral owners’ use of the subsurface; or the rule of capture, which allows for rapid extraction of oil and gas from a common pool and potential over-use of valuable land at the surface, should be modified. In the regulatory sphere, the Article suggests that local, state, regional, and federal actors all need a say in the regulatory process — thus pushing back against the trend to preempt local involvement — but that the federal government should play more of a coordinating role, identifying gaps that need filling.

May 27, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Is Title Insurance a Scam?

Scam

The New York Times details the battle over the industry's shenanigans:

It is no secret . . . that many borrowers are overcharged for title insurance. In 2007, the Government Accountability Office warned that the price of title policies was inflated by lack of competition in the title-insurance market, as well as apparently illegal kickbacks paid by title agents to realtors, mortgage brokers, loan officers and others who sent business their way.

The 2010 Dodd-Frank law called for cleaning up title insurance, and, in 2014, regulators from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau issued a rule to carry out the law. Basically, the rule created a safe harbor from liability for regulatory violations, but only for loans with closing costs of less than 3 percent of the total loan, including fees to title companies affiliated with lenders. In effect, the rule uses market incentives to limit title costs by offering lighter regulation in exchange for keeping costs down.

Congress is resisting. A bipartisan majority in the House recently passed a Republican bill to exclude title fees from the calculation that determines the level of regulatory scrutiny. The White House has threatened a veto. But, in the Senate, Republicans could add the bill to other legislation that Democrats may want.

May 26, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Ziff on Specific Performance in Canada

ZiffBruce Ziff (Alberta) has posted Death to Semelhago! (Dalhousie Law Journal) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

In the 1996 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in Semelhago v. Paramadevan, Justice John Sopinka stated that it is longer appropriate to assume that specific performance will issue as a matter of course to enforce a contract for the sale of land. Before performance will be ordered, it must be proven (and not assumed) that common law damages for breach of contract will not suffice to do justice. In this article, the Semelhago decision and the case law generated in its aftermath will be reviewed, and the policy arguments pertaining to the current law addressed. In short, it will be argued that the Semelhago dictum should be rejected.

May 26, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, May 25, 2015

Are We Ready for National Minimum Urban Density Standards?

Eliot Allen thinks it's time for a serious federalization of land use law:

In the face of global water and climate trends, it therefore seems reasonable to ask whether we can afford to let development density exacerbate conditions and limit our options for achieving greater resilience. Perhaps the time has come to discuss national minimum urban density standards. The rationale for minimum urban densities is simple: in locations where achievement of public policy depends on compactness, the capacity of a finite amount of land in a community is too valuable to use insufficiently, and doing so is detrimental for everyone.

May 25, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Ramaekers on the Development of EU Property Law

EramEveline Ramaekers (Oxford) has posted The Development of EU Property Law on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

European Union property law is a quickly developing field of law. By studying the European acquis communautaire we can see that the contours of a European system of property law have slowly been emerging through legislation that incorporates property law rules and terminology. However, at the moment, EU property law is still very fragmented and has for a long time not been rooted in any clear policy or legislative agenda. It is important to study and further develop this field of law because it is seriously out of step with the development of European contract law and because national rules of property law as they currently stand could and do cause hindrances to free movement within the European internal market. This article sketches the existing European legislation concerning property law and provides a proposal for its future development. It thereafter highlights the most recent developments in EU property law, showing that the European legislature, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), academics, and practitioners are all increasingly paying attention to this exciting and challenging new field of law.

May 25, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Stewart on Fracking in Ohio

FennerFenner Stewart (Calgary) has posted When the Shale Gale Hit Ohio: The Failures of the Dormant Mineral Act, Its Heroic Interpretations, and Grave Choices Facing the Supreme Court (Capital Law Review) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

As stories of signing bonuses and the promise of rich gas royalties spread through the local communities in Eastern Ohio, owning land was like owning a lottery ticket. For some, fortunes were made over night. For others, their land was not over the sweet spots of the shale plays. And for others still, what appeared to be their easy path to prosperity was blocked, much to their surprise and chagrin, by title ambiguities. It was at this point that Ohio’s dormant mineral rights became litigious, and the Ohio Dormant Mineral Act (ODMA) was scrutinized for the first time. In fact, to say that the ODMA was scrutinized may be an understatement, as local lawyers have commented: "The amount of litigation that has been generated involving Ohio’s DMA during the past three years [2011-2014] has rarely been seen with regard to a single statute."

Ohio’s Seventh District Court of Appeals recently attempted to remedy the ODMA’s ambiguities. The appellate court, however, may not have the final word on the matter. The Ohio Supreme Court will review a number of issues in the coming year, and there are still others which may ultimately need to be reviewed. In light of this, this article will evaluate the appellate court’s judgments. This study is confined to research the following issues: (1) whether all three appellant panels correctly determined that the 1989 version provides for automatic vesting; (2) whether the court in Eisenbarth correctly determined that the look-back period under the 1989 version is for a fixed twenty-year period; and (3) what is the proper interpretation and application of the title transaction savings event. This article will argue for automatic vesting, argue against a fixed look-back period, and finally, offer some guidance as to the application of the title transaction savings event.

May 25, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, May 22, 2015

Motorcycle Gangs Have Complicated Property Rules About Bottom Rockers

 

Motorcycle

It turns out that the nasty shootout between two motorcycle gangs in Texas may have it's origin in a dispute over who controls certain "bottom rockers."  From an interview with a DEA agent:

What caused this shootout in Waco is the coveted bottom rocker. [...] So, I’ll try to explain this in laymen’s terms: When you watch Sons of Anarchy, they have those vests they wear that have what we call their colors. And on the back it shows their trademark, which is their symbol. And at the top, above the backpatch, is the name of the gang—and at the bottom is the state you’re claiming territory to. So the Bandidos have state claim to Texas. And they don’t allow any other motorcycle gang to be in that state and wear a Texas bottom rocker. They’ll allow some smaller motorcycle gangs to exist as long as they don’t wear that Texas bottom rocker. And what happened here was, the Cossacks have been around since 1969, the Bandidos since 1966. The Cossacks always stayed out of being a motorcycle gang, but they’ve been growing in numbers, and becoming more and more hardcore. So they decided that they were going to wear the Texas bottom rocker—which is telling the Bandidos that they believe that this is their territory, and they’re willing to die for that claim.

For more on colors, one-piece patches v. three-piece patches, and the differences between a riding club and a motorcycle club, see here.

May 22, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Lee on Privatized Public Housing

LeeJamie Lee (Baltimore) has posted Rights at Risk in Privatized Public Housing (Tulsa Law Review) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

Traditional public housing is dwindling. Federal policy has increasingly encouraged privatization, shifting stewardship of public housing out of the hands of government and into the hands of private, for-profit companies. Privatization in this context has both benefits and risks. A particularly compelling area of study is the attempt by lawmakers to conscript private contractors into serving public policy goals. Private landlords are obligated not merely to provide housing, but to conduct themselves in ways that promote the interests of vulnerable people. The case of public housing suggests that legislative mandates and contractual obligations are not enough to assure this outcome, and must be accompanied by a commitment to vigorous monitoring and enforcement.

May 22, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Ilya Somin's New Book on Kelo

The author previews his new book and explains why he wrote it.  The gist:

Although I don’t have survey data on this, my impression is that law professors probably support the result in Kelo by almost as lopsided a margin as the general public opposes it. The decision is also overwhelmingly endorsed by left-of-center federal judges (though some liberal state judges differ), and by many government officials and urban planners. Having previously written a book about the dangers of political ignorance, I recognize that having majority public opinion on my side does little to prove my position correct. When experts disagree with the public, we should take seriously the very real possibility that the group with greater knowledge of the subject is right. One of the main purposes of The Grasping Hand is to explain why dominant view among my fellow academic experts is wrong – not only from the standpoint of my own preferred approach to constitutional theory, but from that of a variety of widely accepted versions of both originalism and living constitutionalism.

May 20, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Ryan on the Public Trust Doctrine and Mono Lake

ErinryanErin Ryan (Lewis & Clark) has posted The Public Trust Doctrine, Private Water Allocation, and Mono Lake: The Historic Saga of National Audubon Society v. Superior Ct. (Environmental Law) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

This article tells the epic tale of the fall and rise of Mono Lake — the strange and beautiful Dead Sea of California — which fostered some of the most important environmental law developments of the last century, and which has become a platform for some of the most potentially important developments in the new century. It shares the backstory and legacy of the California Supreme Court’s famous decision in National Audubon Society v. Superior Court, 658 P.2d 709 (Cal. 1983), known more widely as “the Mono Lake case.” Inspired by innovative legal scholarship and advocacy, the decision spawned a quiet legal revolution in public trust ideals, which has redounded to other states and even nations as far distant as India.

The Mono Lake dispute pitted advocates for the local ecosystem and community against proponents of the continued export of Mono Basin water to millions of thirsty Californians hundreds of miles to the south. The controversy itself spanned decades, but the story leading up to the litigation stretches back more than a hundred years, adding depth and dimension to the tale that is easily missed on a casual reading of the Audubon Society decision itself. It is a case study on the challenges and possibilities for balancing legitimate needs for public infrastructure and economic development with competing environmental values, all within systems of law that are still evolving to manage these conflicts. And at this particular moment in time, commemorating the hundredth anniversary of the Los Angeles Aqueduct that would threaten the lake and the twentieth anniversary of the State Water Board’s ultimate decision to save it, the Mono Lake story is especially worth revisiting.

Part II introduces the main cast of characters in the Mono Lake story, starting with the public trust and prior appropriations doctrines around which the legal controversy unfolds. Part III introduces the three places at the center of the drama — Los Angeles, the Owens Valley, and the Mono Lake Basin — in recounting the history of the Californian water struggles leading up to the Mono Lake case. Part IV discusses the Audubon Society litigation itself and its aftermath, reviewing the court’s conclusion and the subsequent decision by the California Water Resources Control Board implementing the judicial directive. After analyzing the most important doctrinal developments in the opinion, it discusses subsequent critiques and new developments in public trust law.

Part V concludes with parting reflections about important questions that the Mono Lake story leaves us to ponder, including whose interests count when we talk about the “public” trust, how they differ from aggregated private interests, and which to account for when balancing the economic, cultural, and environmental considerations in public trust conflicts. It considers the extent to which the doctrine creates substantive or procedural obligations, and the responsibilities of different legal actors and institutions in implementing them. The contested answers to these questions are what make the public trust doctrine so fascinating, so powerful, and so critical as we continue to confront the inevitable crises between competing natural resource values.

May 20, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Most Property Casebooks Cost About $200

IMG_5056

Here's a quick look at the current pricing of some leading property textbooks (all prices for new books from Amazon):

1.  Dukeminier & Krier (8th edition): $195

2.  Singer (6th edition): $202

3. Sprankling and Coletta (2nd edition): $169

4.  Merrill & Smith (2nd edition): $195

5.  Kurtz & Hovenkamp (6th edition): $181

6.  Nelson & Whitman (4th edition): $210

May 19, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Saxer on Exactions After Koontz

SsaxerShelley Saxer (Pepperdine) has posted When Local Government Misbehaves (Utah Law Review) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

In this article, Dean Saxer examines the Supreme Court’s decision in Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District. In that land use case, the Court held that proposed local government monetary exactions from property owners to permit land development were subject to the same heightened scrutiny test as imposed physical exactions. The Court left unanswered the question of how broadly this heightened scrutiny should be applied to other monetary obligations imposed by the government. Saxer argues that “in lieu” exactions that are individually assessed as part of the permitting process should be treated differently than the impact fees that are developed through the legislative process and are applied equally to all developers without regarding to a specific project. Accordingly, Koontz’s application should be limited to “the special context of land-use exactions” rather than be extended to all regulatory monetary obligations.

Saxer begins by identifying the various levels of scrutiny applied to land use decisions and shows how these levels are designed to prevent the abuse of power, particularly when actions are exercised at the individualized level. She concludes by suggesting that exactions that result in a permanent physical occupation of real property should be subject to heightened scrutiny. However, only administrative, individualized, monetary exactions, designed to replace a physical exaction, such as the kind involved in Koontz, should be subject to heightened scrutiny to control the potential for abuse. Legislatively-determined monetary conditions such as impact fees, but not taxes, should be subject to review under state law standards, which range from a reasonableness test to more stringent tests under statutory or judicial determinations. In the absence of a state standard of review, legislatively-enacted impact fees challenged in federal court should be analyzed under the standard rational basis test for land use regulation.

May 19, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, May 18, 2015

Can a Land Tax Fix Problems of Inequality?

Slate brings the ideas of Henry George to the fore:

To see a good argument for a land tax, look to any high-cost city where the tax code penalizes construction and rewards speculation, encouraging landowners to keep land vacant. On West 29th Street in New York City, two blocks east of the High Line and a couple of blocks from Macy's, Edison ParkFast charges drivers $40 to park for a day in its vacant lot. That may be a lot to pay for parking, but it’s not an impressive haul for 180 square feet of earth in Midtown. Yet the annual property taxes for this asphalt parcel amount to just $9,404. Parking just one car each day of the year would more than foot the bill. The seven-story building next door, by contrast, pays more than $250,000 in taxes each year.

So what would actually happen if we taxed land instead of buildings? Unfortunately, the various American experiments in Georgism don’t tell us everything we’d want to know about how it might play out in society writ large. Still, there are lessons to be learned from places like Fairhope, Alabama, a charming town on the Eastern Shore of Mobile Bay. Home to the nation’s oldest and largest single-tax colony, Fairhope has waved the Georgist flag from its scenic, public bluffs for more than a century. Its evolution offers a glimpse of a world in which a different approach to tax law radically reshapes the structure of a society—and shows how implementing a land tax in isolation can be frustrated by the layered burden of state and federal laws.

May 18, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Lynch on Fracking & Takings

LynchKevin Lynch (Denver) has posted Fracking/Takings (Cincinnati Law Review) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

As the use of fracking has spread during the recent oil and gas boom, inevitable conflicts have arisen between industry and its neighbors, particularly as fracking has moved into densely populated urban and suburban areas. Concerned over the impacts of fracking – such as risks to health and safely, diminished property values, air and water pollution, as well as noise, traffic, and other annoyances – many people have demanded a government response.

Government regulation of fracking has struggled to catch up, although in recent years many state and local governments have taken steps to reduce the impacts of fracking in their communities. This article focuses on government restrictions in New York and Colorado, two of the key battlegrounds in the fight over fracking. New York recently prohibited fracking across the entire state, after several towns had enacted their own bans. In Colorado, the people have used the ballot initiative process to enact restrictions on fracking directly.

The industry has responded not only with public relations spending to improve the fracking’s damaged reputation, but also legal challenges to these efforts to rein in oil and gas development. In addition to suing local governments, often arguing they do not have authority to regulate fracking, industry threatens to bring costly takings claims for compensation due to alleged economic harms.

This Article examines the numerous legal and factual issues that should make it difficult for industry to succeed on fracking/takings claims. First, regulation of fracking, even including outright bans, can almost always be defended as necessary to prevent a nuisance or other background principle of law that justifies government regulation. Even if a nuisance defense could be overcome, industry would have difficulty proving that regulation has destroyed all economic value in their property, unless courts take a narrow view of property that would highlight the arbitrary nature of the “denominator problem.” When fracking/takings claims are considered under the default balancing of the Penn Central case, takings are unlikely to be found except in rare outlier cases. Finally, because requiring governments to pay compensation in fracking/takings cases would likely create a windfall for industry, particularly if the oil and gas eventually is extracted in the future, courts should resist the temptation to rule against government restrictions to protect public health, safety, and the environment.

May 18, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Saturday, May 16, 2015

What Happens If You Build a Utopia and No One Shows Up?

The New York Times details the story of Michael Colby and Donald Graves, who tried to build a modern Utopia in Central Pennsylvania.  Things didn't exactly go according to plan:

The 25 buildings that dot the landscape are mostly dormant, save for Zephram’s house and Johannes’s house. The two have been living separately, so to speak, for a decade, individual housing being an unlooked-for boon when their commune went to pieces and they ceased to be a couple.

They’ve sold most of their antique tools, save for a handful, which they’ve added to the collection of furniture, housewares, paintings, textiles and other Pennsylvania Dutch relics they’ve amassed over the years. The two have turned the whole lot — thousands of artifacts — into a museum, filling the cavernous barn where they spent their first winter with exhibits.

They’ve written a memoir, tragicomic, of course, and are looking for a publisher.

May 16, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Lee on Average Reciprocity of Advantage

Lee_brianBrian Lee (Brooklyn) has posted Average Reciprocity of Advantage (Book Chapter) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

The concept of “average reciprocity of advantage,” or “in-kind compensation,” is often invoked in property theory but rarely analyzed. The concept’s most familiar application is in defenses of the government’s imposing certain burdens on property owners without paying monetary compensation for the owners’ resulting loss. The government’s action is said to be justified on the grounds that each burdened owner simultaneously benefits from other owners’ bearing the same burden, and this reciprocity makes the burdened owners whole. This paper argues that the classic paradigm of average reciprocity of advantage is best understood as arising from a regulation’s having solved a coordination problem — reaching a result that all parties objectively should have favored but was unattainable through private ordering because of impediments to bargaining — thereby leaving all affected parties better off by their own lights. However, the conditions necessary for such a situation to arise are quite stringent, and when they not satisfied, as is likely often to be the case, the diversity of property owners’ interests and risk tolerances makes it unlikely that the restriction’s reciprocal benefits will dependably make burdened owners whole. Thus, appeals to reciprocal advantage or in-kind compensation will not reliably be able to do the justificatory work asked of them. Nevertheless, this paper argues, it does not follow that in-kind compensation is irrelevant to justifying property regulations. Such a conclusion would itself be inconsistent with broadly and deeply held convictions about regulations’ legitimate scope. Instead, the presence of reciprocal advantages derives its importance not from an illusory potential to make burdened property owners whole, but rather from reciprocity’s role in preserving the respect due to civic equals. The extent to which reciprocal advantages are conferred upon the burdened party can serve as a proxy for the risk of exploitation in the imposition of that burden, and thus can help determine whether those burdens are properly understood as participation in a shared project of civic governance or merely as a naked imposition of power for the benefit of others.

May 16, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Thursday, May 14, 2015

Texas Man Finds Hidden Treasure at Estate Sale

Drawer

Yahoo News explains:

It didn't take long for Emil Knodell, of Bellville, Texas, to buy a chest for $100 that he soon discovered had a hidden drawer of treasure.

[...] But when he and a staff person from Premiere Estate Sales Network tried to load the piece of furniture into a vehicle, they heard moving metal when they tipped it on its side.

"He asked for help loading it," said Jeff Allen, who works for Premiere Estate Sales Network in Sugar Land, Texas. "As soon as we laid it down, it started making all this racket on the inside. Obviously we were very intrigued with what was happening with the dresser. There were rings, diamonds, gold and all kinds of stuff. It was a real adrenaline rush. Both of us were in shock for a second." [...]  But Knodell said he never thought about keeping the items in the piece of furniture he just bought.

Allen said the dresser dates back to around 1890.

"I bought the chest drawers. I didn’t buy those things. If I kept them, I would never feel right about it. There would be a cloud over the whole thing. It’s a feeling more than anything else," Knodell said.

May 14, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Gay on Investors Effect on Household Real Estate Affordability

SebgaySebastien Gay (Chicago - Econ) has posted Investors Effect on Household Real Estate Affordability on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

We examine whether the recent behavior of real estate investors had an effect on housing affordability between 2007 and 2014. We analyze investors’ purchasing and selling behavior and study their spillover effects on the affordability of the local real estate market where they invest. We find that large portfolio investors decrease the affordability in neighborhoods, reselling a property bought at the 37th percentile at the 70th percentile of the market. We also find that in order to maximize yield, investors tend to invest in poorer neighborhoods, leading to a decrease in affordability for lower income population wanting to buy a property in these areas.

May 14, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Saito on Whiteness as Property in the American Settler Colonial Project

SaitoNatsu Saito (Georgia State) has posted Race and Decolonization: Whiteness as Property in the American Settler Colonial Project (Harvard Journal on Racial & Ethnic Justice) on SSRN.  Here's the abstract:

Challenges to institutionalized racism have been largely framed in terms of equitable access to, and redistribution of, the wealth and power accumulated and controlled by those who define themselves as White. If, however, that wealth and power owes its existence to the ongoing colonization of Indigenous lands and peoples, can non-Indigenous peoples of color assert equal rights to the spoils of conquest without tacitly legitimizing and thereby reinforcing the subordination and exploitation of American Indians, as well as Native Hawaiians and Alaska Natives?

This essay begins with a brief overview of how constitutional rights have been constrained by race, focusing first on the limits imposed upon the guarantee of equal protection and then reviewing ways in which Indigenous nations have been excluded from constitutional protection. It proposes that settler colonial theory may better account for contemporary racial realities because it frames the subordination of both Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous Others not in terms of abstract rights, but in terms of the functions served by their land and labor.

Building on the insights provided by Cheryl I. Harris in her groundbreaking work, Whiteness as Property, this essay considers the integral role Whiteness has played in the construction of both land and personhood as property, concluding that racialization is inherent to property as we know it. Finally, it considers some of the liberatory options that could emerge for all peoples of color from the reconceptualization and reconstruction of property in this society.

May 13, 2015 | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)