Tuesday, December 1, 2015
No, no, no. The sky isn't falling. Yes, it's true that the $75 million damage award against RBC for aiding and abetting a duty of care violation by the board of Rural/Metro in connection with the company's sale was upheld, but the sky is not falling.
In the Rural/Metro Chancery Court opinion, Vice Chancellor raised the spectre of a falling banker sky when he emphasized the role of bankers as gatekeepers of the M&A process:
The threat of liability helps incentivize gatekeepers to provide sound advice, monitor clients, and deter client wrongs. Framed for present purposes, the prospect of aiding and abetting liability for investment banks who induce boards of directors to breach their duty of care creates a powerful financial reason for the banks to provide meaningful fairness opinions and to advise boards in a manner that helps ensure that the directors carry out their fiduciary duties when exploring strategic alternatives and conducting a sale process, rather than in a manner that falls short of established fiduciary norms. It is not irrational for the General Assembly to have excluded aiders and abettors from the ambit of those receiving exculpation under Section 102(b)(7). The statutory language therefore controls.
By holding bankers' feet against the fire and expanding liability for bankers, the fear of aiding and abetting liability might ensure financial advisors are more attentive to their obligations to clients. This prospect sent some shockwaves through the world of bankers. But that fear might have been a little over-wrought.
In yesterday's ruling, the Delaware Supreme Court made it clear that although the facts in this particular case supported an aiding and abetting claim, the ruling was not an expansion of banker liability along the lines suggested in the Chancery Court opinion: "[O]ur holding is a narrow one that should not be read expansively to suggest that any failure on the part of a financial advisor to prevent directors from breaching their duty of care gives rise to a claim for aiding and abetting a breach of the duty of care."
In narrowing its ruling, the court expanded on Vice Chancellor Laster's gatekeeper analysis and in the process narrowed its bite:
In affirming the principal legal holdings of the trial court, we do not adopt the Court of Chancery’s description of the role of a financial advisor in M & A transactions. In particular, the trial court observed that “[d]irectors are not expected to have the expertise to determine a corporation’s value for themselves, or to have the time or ability to design and carryout a sale process. Financial advisors provide these expert services. In doing so, they function as gatekeepers.” Rural I, 88 A.3d at 88 (citations omitted). Although this language was dictum, it merits mention here. The trial court’s description does not adequately take into account the fact that the role of a financial advisor is primarily contractual in nature, is typically negotiated between sophisticated parties, and can vary based upon a myriad of factors. Rational and sophisticated parties dealing at arm’s-length shape their own contractual arrangements and it is for the board, in managing the business and affairs of the corporation, to determine what services, and on what terms, it will hire a financial advisor to perform in assisting the board in carrying out its oversight function. The engagement letter typically defines the parameters of the financial advisor’s relationship and responsibilities with its client. Here, the Engagement Letter expressly permitted RBC to explore staple financing. But, this permissive language was general in nature and disclosed none of the conflicts that ultimately emerged. As became evident in the instant matter, the conflicted banker has an informational advantage when it comes to knowledge of its real or potential conflicts. See William W. Bratton & Michael L. Wachter, Bankers and Chancellors, 93 TEX. L. REV. 1, 36 (2014) (“The basic requirements of disclosure and consent make eminent sense in the banker-client context. The conflicted banker has an informational advantage. Contracting between the bank and the client respecting the bank’s conflict cannot be expected to succeed until the informational asymmetry has been ameliorated. Disclosure evens the field: the client board has choices in the matter . . . and needs to make a considered decision regarding the seriousness of the conflict.”). The banker is under an obligation not to act in a manner that is contrary to the interests of the board of directors, thereby undermining the very advice that it knows the directors will be relying upon in their decision making processes. Adhering to the trial court’s amorphous “gatekeeper” language would inappropriately expand our narrow holding here by suggesting that any failure by a financial advisor to prevent directors from breaching their duty of care gives rise to an aiding and abetting claim against the advisor.
So, bankers are not insurers of bad director behavior. Bankers are insurers of their own behavior. If bankers want the benefit of conflict waivers, then specific disclosure is the answer. If you are going to act in a way that might raise a conflict, then disclose the facts and allow the client board to make an informed waiver of those specific acts. I suspect that for the vast majority of the investment banking community, this is not going to be an issue. Conclusion: sky intact.
Friday, November 20, 2015
More change in Chancery now that word has come down that Vice Chancellor Noble is retiring in February, 2016. In recent years, there has been a new wholesale change on the bench in Chancery. Could it be that Vice Chancellor Laster will now be the most senior tenured Vice Chancellor? Time flies.
Wednesday, October 14, 2015
Gov. Markell has announced the nomination of Tamika Montgomery-Reeves, a Wilson Sonsini partner, to replace retiring Vice Chancellor Donald Parsons. Ms. Montgomery-Reeves will be the first African-American to serve as Vice Chancellor in the Chancery Court and the first woman since Justice Carolyn Berger was elevated to the Supreme Court in 1994. Ms. Montgomery-Reeves recently represented the defendants in the Riverbed Technologies litigation.
Riverbed may mark the beginning of the end for the litigation industrial complex. Vice Chancellor Glasscock began his opinion there with the following paragraph:
As a bench judge in a court of equity, much of what I do involves problems of, in a general sense, agency: insuring that those acting for the benefit of others perform with fidelity, rather than doing what comes naturally to men and women— pursuing their own interests, sometimes in ways that conflict with the interests of their principals. In this task, I am generally aided by advocates in an adversarial system, each representing the interest of his client. Of course, these counsel are themselves agents, but their actions are generally aligned with that of their principals in a way that does not require Court involvement. The area of class litigation involving the actions of fiduciaries stands apart from this general rule, however, especially in litigation like the instant case, involving the termination of ownership rights of corporate stockholders via merger. Such cases are particularly fraught with questions of agency: among others, the basic questions regarding the behavior of the fiduciaries that are the subject of the litigation; questions of meta-agency involving the adequacy of the actions of the class representative—the plaintiff—on behalf of the class; and what might be termed meta-meta-agency questions involving the motivations of counsel for the class representative in prosecuting the litigation. At each remove, there may be interests of the agent that diverge from that of the principals. This matter, involving the deceptively straightforward review of a proposed settlement, bears a full load of such freight.
While Glasscock hesitated, he signaled in this opinion that the Vice Chancellors have had enough. So... Welcome to the bench Ms. Montgomery-Reeves!
Wednesday, October 7, 2015
Gov. Markell is about to announce his nomination to replace Vice Chancellor Parsons who announced his retirement this past summer. Here's the thing. The Chancery Court has not had a female chancellor since Vice Chancellor Berger left the court to join the Supreme Court in 1994. Now, according to press reports Gov. Markell is considering three nominees - all women:
According to sources, the candidates are Abigail M. LeGrow, who is a Master in Chancery or judicial officer who assists the court; Tamika Montgomery-Reeves, a corporate lawyer and partner at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati in Wilmington; and Elena C. Norman, a partner and corporate lawyer at Young Conaway Stargatt & Taylor in Wilmington. LeGrow and Montgomery-Reeves declined to comment. Norman could not be reached for comment.
The Senate will consider Gov. Markell's nomination on Oct. 28. That's the sound of glass cracking. Good.
Tuesday, April 21, 2015
Tuesday, April 7, 2015
A nice little retrospective in the Delaware Law Weekly on Chief Justice Leo Strine's first year as chief:
Strine became Delaware's eighth Supreme Court chief justice on Feb. 28, 2014. Since then, he has issued more than 100 opinions and orders, welcomed three new justices to the court, formed a committee to overhaul problem-solving courts, and started a commission for access to justice.
More than a year already. Where has the time gone?
Wednesday, March 18, 2015
Usually amendments to the corporate law are pretty sleepy affairs. This year is different. There's anti-fee-shifting legislation, In the slew of amendments generating interest this year, there's the new Chancery facilitated arbitration procedure, and then there are the amendments to the appraisal statute. If you would have told me two years ago that arbitration would be the least controversial of all the amendments, I would have laughed at you, but there you have it.
The amendments to the appraisal statute (262 Appraisal) come in response to the rise in appraisal arbitrage. There are a number of important changes to the way Section 262 operates. First, the amendment follows what is common practice in other states by setting a floor with respect to appraisal petitions before getting access to the remedy. Going forward, stockholders will only be entitled to an appraisal if all the shares seeking an appraisal exceed 1% of the outstanding shares or at least $1 million in merger consideration. In any event a transaction done pursuant to Sections 253 and 267 would always have appraisal rights.
To give you a sense of what this floor means, Dell generated valid petitions for only 2% of the stockholders - though the value of the merger consideration would have easily exceeded $1 million. The floor makes sense and will likely get rid of nuisance litigation to the extent there is any nuisance appraisal litigation. I don't think that's a real problem, but I suppose if you are going in to tinker, you might as well tinker.
Of larger import, is the amendment that permits the acquirer to pay some portion of the consideration immediately and stop the accruing of interest on the amount paid, leaving interest to accrue only on the amounts still in controversy. Because of the statutory interest rate, that one change might go quite a way to reducing some incentives for hedge funds to pursue appraisal arbitrage as a business. In CKx, defendants made a motion to require petitioners to accept the uncontested portion of the merger consideration in order to stop the clock on the accrual of interest. Vice Chancellor Glasscock refused to issued such an order. However, this amendment would explicitly permit that maneuver.
These changes may not go far enough for some - who were seeking things like stock tracing. Stock tracing would require the beneficial holder to prove that she was a beneficial stockholder prior to announcement of the merger. Right now, so long as the record holder was a holder prior to the merger, the beneficial holder need not establish that they were owners prior to the announcement of the merger. This is a loophole that appraisal arbs have driven trucks through.
Dole has complained that the changes are too timid and is pushing Delaware to go further. Indeed, Dole is even threatening to "pull out of Delaware" if it doesn't do more to eliminate appraisal arbs. Frankly, it's a ridiculous threat that I would have thought Delaware legislators would be sophisticated enough to discount. The inference is that if Delaware doesn't eliminate the appraisal arb business through stock tracing, that Dole would close its shipping business in Delaware. Umm. Okay. Hard to see how the two are related. If they close that business they will do so for business reasons, not because of the appraisal statute. If Dole means it will reincorporate elsewhere. Ok, where? Have fun.
Anyway, it's going to be a more interesting summer than previously thought in Wilmington.
Thursday, March 12, 2015
As Lawrence Cunningham noted, tenacity, thy name is Delaware! Along with the recent proposed amendments to the corporate law, the Delaware General Assembly will also consider the new Delaware Rapid Arbitration Act - to replace the Chancery Arbitration procedure that was deemed unconstitutional.
Regular readers of this blog might remember that I was opposed to Chancery arbitration as it was originally conceived. Here's a paper I wrote on the subject. Ultimately, the Federal Appellate Courts agreed with my view. Public judges sitting in public courts conducting confidential hearings is not a good look for many reasons.
In any event, the new approach - Chancery facilitated arbitration - an improvement and will likely pass constitutional muster. Also, the way the act has been written, there is little fear that firms might attempt to put Chancery arbitration provisions in corporate charters. In order to be eligible for Chancery arbitration, among other conditions, the arbitration agreement has to be signed by both parties, thus making it difficult to make constructive notice arguments in connection with the purchase of stock. Consequently, as it is currently drafted, the scope of arbitration-eligible disputes is relatively narrow - merger agreements and other commercial agreements that might typically appear before the Chancery Court. Also, although the arbitral proceedings are facilitated by the Chancery court, the arbitrators are not sitting judges and are paid directly by the parties. Proceedings will be confidential, judgments will be treated consistent with the FAA.
This attempt to create an arbitration regime will likely stick. All in all, not a bad effort.
Tuesday, March 10, 2015
The Delaware General Assembly is considering its annual amendments to the corporate law. This time, the proposed amendments (2015 Amendment text here) are doing more than just some ministerial changes/fixes to the text. The amendments purport to deal with two big issues. First, the amendments add a new section 115 that would explicitly permit corporations to include forum selection provisions in their certificates of incorporation or bylaws. I proposed as much in a 2011 article, so it's nice to see that take shape. By including forum selection provisions as a permissible menu option, the legislature is clearing the deck and making it much more likely that Delaware firms will opt in going forward. It's not a total solution to the problem of transaction related litigation, but it does help reduce the volume of litigation that must be managed. By the way, 94.9% of all deals were accompanied by litigation last year. This is a problem that's not going away on its own.
The other proposed amendment is much more controversial. The new sections 102(f) and 109(b) reverse the Delaware Supreme Court's decision in ATP Tour, Inc. In ATP, the court upheld a fee shifting bylaw that, if widely adopted, would likely have shut down most, if not all, shareholder litigation, good and bad. ATP would be like using a sledgehammer to hang paintings in your house. These new sections make such provisions illegal. You'll remember that last year the legislature tried to move an ATP amendment through in the aftermath of the decision. While corporate law amendments are usually a fairly boring affair, that one drew the attention of the US Chamber of Commerce. This time, the US Chamber is back, arguing that the adoption the anti-fee shifting provision "could threaten Delaware's billion dollar incorporation franchise." That seems like a bit of excessive rhetoric.
Stay tuned. I suspect this year will be anything but a quiet ride through the amendment process.
Monday, February 23, 2015
Gov. Markell has nominated Collins J. Seitz to replace Justice Ridgely. Mr. Seitz is a well-known Delaware litigator with some very big cases under his belt. He also has a judicial pedigree. His father, Collins Seitz, was a judge on Federal Third Circuit Court of Appeals and before that Chancellor of the Delaware Chancery Court.
Thursday, February 12, 2015
This from Delawareonline:
Six men, including three current or former judges, have applied for the vacant seat on the Delaware Supreme Court following the recent retirement of Henry du Pont Ridgely, according to sources close to the judicial nominating process.
The applicants for the state's highest court include Superior Court judges William L. Witham Jr and Calvin L. Scott Jr.; former Superior Court Judge Joseph R. Slights III; Collins J. Seitz, Jr. a founding partner of Seitz Ross Aronstam & Moritz LLP; Martin S. Lessner, a partner at Young Conaway Stargatt & Taylor; and John R. Williams, a lawyer in the Delaware Department of Justice appeals unit, the sources said.
Seems unfortunate that we have apparently exhausted the supply of female and minority candidates for this court. In any event, this pick will be Delaware Governor Markell's opportunity to temporarily put a stamp on this court. Under the Delaware constitution, the courts are required to be politically balanced with an equal number of Republicans and Democrats. However, in cases where the court is odd numbered, like the Supreme Court, the Governor is permitted to appoint the swing member from his own party affiliation. In this case Ridgely is a Republican, but since there are already two sitting Republicans and two sitting Democrats, Markell is free to appoint a Democrat to replace Ridgely. I am not sure how many other states follow Delaware's lead with balanced judicial appointments but I like the way it lessens the political stakes involved in judicial selections. If the US Supreme Court followed the same process we might all be better off.
Wednesday, October 1, 2014
Some insider-ish analysis on what led to the nomination of Jim Vaughn to the Delaware Supreme Court from the Delaware Grapevine and the Delaware Law Weekely. Both sources suggest some old-school geographic politics might be at least partly responsible. Vaughn, you see, is from Kent County and getting a representative from Kent County on the court was apparently important. What's interesting about Delaware and its judiciary, if this bit of Kremlinology is true is just how hard Delaware works to create a representative court -- constitutionally mandated political balance and at least implicit geographic balancing. With a nod to now retired Justice Berger, it's worth noting that the court is still not exactly representative. Lots of work to do, still.
Tuesday, September 23, 2014
Friday, September 12, 2014
According to the Delaware Law Weekly, Delaware's Judicial Nominating Committee has sent four names to the governor's office to consider as replacements for the now retired Justice Carolyn Berger:
The candidates are said to be Superior Court President Judge James T. Vaughn Jr.; Superior Court Judge Jan R. Jurden; Joseph R. Slights III, former Superior Court judge and current Morris James partner; and Morris, Nichols, Arsht & Tunnell partner Frederick H. Alexander.
Thursday, June 26, 2014
Karen Valihura was confirmed yesterday to replace the retiring Justice Jack Jacobs. The changes at the Delaware Supreme Court aren't done, yet. Next up, a replacement for retiring Justice Carolyn Berger. Then, maybe things will settle down.
Friday, June 20, 2014
A couple of weeks ago, it looked the stars were aligning in a once in a generation way that would have the plaintiffs and defendants bar stand behind an unusual amendment to the Delaware code. That amendment would effectively prohibit firms from adopting fee-shifting bylaws. Following ATP, it became possible for Delaware corporations to adopt bylaws that would put the costs of shareholder litigation on the plaintiff in the event the plaintiff is unable to get its claims successfully adjudicated on the merits. A proposal was quickly made to the Delaware legislature and it seemed like it would move through quickly. And then, the US Chamber of Commerce - not one to usually care about amendments to the Delaware code - got involved. The proposal has now been tabled.
Friday, June 6, 2014
Governor Markell nominated Karen Valihura, a corporate litigator in Skadden's Wilmington office to the Delaware Supreme Court to replace retiring Justice Jack Jacobs. Ms. Valihura will become the second woman after Justice Carolyn Berger to sit on the court.
Ms. Valihura was interviewed for LawDragon.com just a week or so ago. Among the questions, there's this one:
Lawdragon: Is there a case/deal/client in your career that stands out as a “favorite” or one that is particularly memorable?
Karen Valihura: My favorite deal litigation was Norfolk Southern's takeover fight with CSX over Conrail, resulting in Norfolk Southern's acquisition of a substantial portion of Conrail. It was a classic hostile fight among the Class I railroad titans: Norfolk Southern (represented by Skadden), Conrail and CSX. It involved a multitiered, front-end loaded transaction spanning three preliminary injunction hearings, as well as appeals to the Third Circuit over the Christmas and New Year's holidays. I greatly enjoyed working with and learning from Morris Kramer and Steve Rothschild, who were both legendary Skadden partners; and my fellow senior associate on the matter was Eric Friedman, who is now our firm's Executive Partner. It was Skadden at its finest.
Best of luck to the nominee.
Thursday, June 5, 2014
At a speech before the Delaware Bench and Bar Conference, Chief Justice Strine raised the possibility that Delaware would revisit its Chancery Arbitration Program:
"Regrettably, a federal court in Philadelphia issued a divided ruling striking down these statutes because they violated two judges’ reading of unsettled precedent, a reading that, if good law, would invalidate long-standing dispute resolution procedures used in their own federal court system,” said Strine.
“But, consistent with our history, Delaware is not wallowing in defeat,” Strine said, adding that the governor, the Corporate Law Council and members of the bar “are working on a different approach to be ready for the consideration by the General Assembly in January.”
I could quibble, but I won't. I suspect what they will do is create an arbitration procedure that will be effectively the same as the one they had previously implemented but with some public access. Supporters believe that it won't work without confidentiality, but I suspect public access won't be as terrible as some think.
Thursday, May 29, 2014
According to the Delaware Law Weekly, there are seven candidates to replace retiring Justice Jack Jacobs:
The candidates are said to be Superior Court President Judge James T. Vaughn Jr.; Superior Court Judges Jan R. Jurden and Calvin L. Scott Jr.; Widener University School of Law professor Lawrence Hamermesh; Family Court Chief Judge Chandlee Johnson Kuhn; Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom attorney Karen L. Valihura; and Grant & Eisenhofer attorney Megan McIntyre.
Jurden and Vaughn were recently under consideration for the Chief Justice position, so I suppose no surprise there. Nice to see Larry Hamermesh on the list.
Wednesday, May 28, 2014
The ubiquity of transaction-related litigation is, I think, a real problem. By now, 94%+ of announced mergers end up with some litigation. I think that most reasonable people can agree that not all 94% of transactions where there are lawsuits do the facts suggest that something has gone wrong. Much of the litigation is really just flotsam intended to generate a settlement -- a settlment that directors are all too willing to grant in exchange for a global release.
In any event, there have been a series of efforts, including exclusive forum provisions, which have been deployed in a self-help manner to try manage this issue and its multi-jurisidictional cousin. In the 2013 Boilermakers opinion, Chief Justice Strine gave his blessing to board-adopted exclusive forum bylaw. Following Galaviz v Berg there was some question as to whether an exlcusive forum bylaw adopted by the board had sufficient inidicia of consent such that it would be enforceable against shareholders. In Boilermakers, Strine noted that forum selection bylaws were consistent with both Delaware and federal law, and also that the mere fact that such a bylaw was adopted by the board does not render such a bylaw invalid:
The certificates of incorporation of Chevron and FedEx authorize their boards to amend the bylaws. Thus, when investors bought stock in Chevron and FedEx, they knew (i) that consistent with 8 Del. C. § 109(a), the certificates of incorporation gave the boards the power to adopt and amend bylaws unilaterally; (ii) that 8 Del. C. § 109(b) allows bylaws to regulate the business of the corporation, the conduct of its affairs, and the rights or powers of its stockholders; and (iii) that board-adopted bylaws are binding on the stockholders. In other words, an essential part of the contract stockholders assent to when they buy stock in Chevron and FedEx is one that presupposes the board’s authority to adopt binding bylaws consistent with 8 Del. C. § 109. For that reason, our Supreme Court has long noted that bylaws, together with the certificate of incorporation and the broader DGCL, form part of a flexible contract between corporations and stockholders, in the sense that the certificate of incorporation may authorize the board to amend the bylaws' terms and that stockholders who invest in such corporations assent to be bound by board-adopted bylaws when they buy stock in those corporations.
Boilermakers set the stage for the Delaware Supreme Court very recent opinon in ATP Tour. ATP Tour, you know, the tennis guys. The issue in the ATP is related both to the question of transaction-related litigation and unilaterally adopted bylaws. In ATP, the tour adopted a fee shifting bylaw that would eschew the "American Rule" and require that in the event of unseuccessful shareholder litigation - or litigation that "does not obtain a judgment on the merits that substantially achieves, in substance and amount, the full remedy sought" then the shareholder will be responsible for paying the corporation's litigation fees. Here's the bylaw as adopted:
(a) In the event that (i) any [current or prior member or Owner or anyone on their behalf (“Claiming Party”)] initiates or asserts any [claim or counterclaim (“Claim”)] or joins, offers substantial assistance to or has a direct financial interest in any Claim against the League or any member or Owner (including any Claim purportedly filed on behalf of the League or any member), and (ii) the Claiming Party (or the third party that received substantial assistance from the Claiming Party or in whose Claim the Claiming Party had a direct financial interest) does not obtain a judgment on the merits that substantially achieves, in substance and amount, the full remedy sought, then each Claiming Party shall be obligated jointly and severally to reimburse the League and any such member or Owners for all fees, costs and expenses of every kind and description (including, but not limited to, all reasonable attorneys’ fees and other litigation expenses) (collectively, “Litigation Costs”) that the parties may incur in connection with such Claim.
Clearly, such a bylaw, if adopted and upheld, would bring the transaction-related litigation train to a screeching halt or at the very least dramatically alter the settlement dynamics.
This bylaw ended up in front of the Delaware Supreme Court as a certified question from the federal district court in Delaware. You'll remember that Delaware is one of the few state supreme courts that will accept certified questions of law. The question before the court was whether the unilaterally adopted fee-shifting bylaw above was valid under Delaware law.
That such a provision is legal under Delaware law isn't all that surprising, really. What is surprising is that court would agree to wander into this hornet's nest of an issue entirely of voluntarily. Whether or not to accept a certified question is entirely within the discretion of the court and the court could have avoided deciding the question altogether had it wanted to. But, apparently it wanted to decide the issue.
The reaction to the opinion has been pretty incredible. For example, Delaware litigator Stuart Grant remarked,"The Delaware Supreme Court seems to have caused Delaware to secede from the union." A little over the top, sure. But, the just because plaintiffs hate the result, don't think that the defense bar is jumping up and down claiming victory and recommending widespread adoption of these provisions. They're not. In fact, many worry that adopting such provisions might just put their clients in the cross hairs. No one wants a fight if they can avoid it. And anyway, the global releases their clients get from settling otherwise trivial transaction challenges are valuable security blankets for directors.
The reaction by both plaintiffs and defendants to the ATP ruling has been a unique constellation of interests. Ronald Baruch calls the reaction evidence of the "cozy" litigation community in Delaware. Plaintiffs want to get paid and defendants want their releases. In response the Corporation Law Section of the Delaware Bar has moved quickly to propose an amendment to elminate fee shifting under the DGCL. The proposed amendment (with underlined insertion) is below:
Amend § 102(b)(6), Title 8 of the Delaware Code by making insertions as shown by underlining as follows:
A provision imposing personal liability for the debts of the corporation on its stockholders based solely on their stock ownership, to a specified extent and upon specified conditions; otherwise, the stockholders of a corporation shall not be personally liable for the payment of the corporation's debts except as they may be liable by reason of their own conduct or acts.
The effect of the proposed amendment would make fee shifting impermissable under the DGCL and therefore rule it out as a bylaw. If approved by the legislature in Delaware, the amended 102(b)(6) would go into effect on August 1. Now that's swift justice.
The battle against transaction-related litigation will have to be fought on other ground.