August 17, 2006
Recent CRS Reports on Intelligence Activities
Recent CRS Reports on Intelligence Activities include:
- INTELLIGENCE REFORM AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL ALTERNATIVES
- AMENDMENTS TO THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE ACT (FISA)
- INTELLIGENCE ISSUES FOR CONGRESS
- PROTECTION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION
- SECURITY CLASSIFIED AND CONTROLLED INFORMATION: HISTORY, STATUS, AND EMERGING MANAGEMENT ISSUES
INTELLIGENCE REFORM AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL ALTERNATIVES
CRS Publication Date: 07/19/2006
Document No.: RL33355
Author(s): Alfred Cumming, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Abstract: Concerned by reported security and counterintelligence (CI) lapses at the Department of Energy (DOE), Congress in 1999 established a semi-autonomous agency - the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) - to oversee DOE's national security-related programs. Within NNSA, Congress established the Office of Defense Nuclear Counterintelligence to implement NNSA's counterintelligence program. Although DOE's existing Office of Counterintelligence develops CI policy for both agencies, it implements policy only at non-NNSA facilities. Some studies have questioned the effectiveness of a dual office structure in combating foreign espionage and have urged the adoption of an alternative structure. Several alternative organizational approaches have been discussed.
AMENDMENTS TO THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE ACT (FISA)
CRS Publication Date: 07/19/2006
Document No.: M-071906
Author(s): Congressional Research Service
Abstract: This report provides a list of the amendments to FISA since its passage 28 years ago. In table form, it provides the Public Law number, date enacted, title of statute, and summary of pertinent provisions.
INTELLIGENCE ISSUES FOR CONGRESS
CRS Publication Date: 07/12/2006
Document No.: RL33539
Author(s): Richard A. Best, Jr., Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Abstract: To address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis. In December 2004, the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (P.L. 108- 458) was signed, providing for a Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with substantial authorities to manage the national intelligence effort. The legislation also established a separate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
PROTECTION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION
CRS Publication Date: 06/30/2006
Document No.: RL33502
Author(s): Jennifer K. Elsea, American Law Division
Abstract: This report provides background with respect to previous legislative efforts to criminalize the unauthorized disclosure of classified information; describes the current state of the laws that potentially apply, including criminal and civil penalties that can be imposed on violators; and some of the disciplinary actions and administrative procedures available to the agencies of federal government that have been addressed by federal courts. Finally, the report considers the possible First Amendment implications of applying the Espionage Act to prosecute newspapers for publishing classified national defense information.
SECURITY CLASSIFIED AND CONTROLLED INFORMATION: HISTORY, STATUS, AND EMERGING MANAGEMENT ISSUES
CRS Publication Date: 06/26/2006
Document No.: RL33494
Author(s): Harold C. Relyea, Government and Finance Division
Abstract: The security classification regime in use within the federal executive branch traces its origins to armed forces information protection practices of the World War I era. The classification system - designating information, according to prescribed criteria and procedures, protected in accordance with one of three levels of sensitivity, based on the amount of harm to the national security that would result from its disclosure - attained a presidential character in 1940 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued the initial executive order prescribing these information security arrangements. Refinements in the creation, management, and declassification of national security information followed over the succeeding decades, and continue today. In many regards, these developments represent attempts to narrow the bases and discretion for assigning official secrecy to executive branch documents and materials. Limiting the quantity of security classified information has been thought to be desirable for a variety of important reasons: (1) promoting an informed citizenry, (2) effectuating accountability for government policies and practices, (3) realizing oversight of government operations, and (4) achieving efficiency and economy in government management.
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