February 22, 2006
Recent CRS Reports on IT and Web Communications
OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING AND CITATION ARCHIVES: BACKGROUND AND CONTROVERSY
CRS Publication Date: 12/26/2005
Document No.: RL33023
Author(s): Genevieve J. Knezo, Resources, Science, and Industry Division
Abstract: This report begins with an inventory of basic information: definitions and guides to histories of the growth of open access publishing and citation archives and descriptions of selected major open access activities. It moves on to summarize major points of difference between proponents and opponents of nongovernmental open access publishing and databases, and then highlights federal, including National Institutes of Health (NIH), open access activities and contentious issues surrounding these developments. The report also briefly describes open access developments in the United Kingdom (where a number of governmental and nongovernmental initiatives have occurred) and in the international arena. Finally, controversial issues which could receive attention in the 109th Congress are summarized.
INTERNET: AN OVERVIEW OF KEY TECHNOLOGY POLICY ISSUES AFFECTING ITS USE AND GROWTH
CRS Publication Date: 12/20/2005
Document No.: 98-67
Author(s): Marcia S. Smith, John D. Moteff, Lennard G. Kruger, Angele A. Gilroy, Jeffrey W. Seifert, and Patricia Moloney Figliola, Resources, Science, and Industry Division; and Rita Tehan, Knowledge Services Group
Abstract: The continued growth of the Internet for personal, government, and business purposes may be affected by a number of technology policy issues being debated by Congress. Among them are access to broadband (high-speed) Internet services, computer and Internet security, Internet privacy, the impact of "spam," concerns about what children may encounter (such as pornography) when using the Internet, management of the Internet Domain Name System, and government information technology management. This report provides overviews of those issues, plus appendices providing a list of pending legislation, a list of acronyms, a discussion of legislation passed in earlier Congresses, and a list of other CRS reports that provide more detail on these and related topics.
HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTERS AND EXPORT CONTROL POLICY: ISSUES FOR CONGRESS
CRS Publication Date: 01/25/2006
Document No.: RL31175
Author(s): Glenn J. McLoughlin, Resources, Science, and Industry Division; and Ian F. Fergusson, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Abstract: Congress, through its constitutionally delegated authority to regulate foreign commerce, has the authority to control exports for national security or foreign policy purposes. The 109th Congress may examine issues of national export control policy, including reauthorization of the Export Administration Act (EAA), and control policies concerning several key technologies. Among these technologies are High Performance Computers - HPCs. HPCs are either single computing machines (usually called supercomputers) or a cluster of widely available, high-end workstations or personal computers. Congressional interest in HPCs has primarily, but not exclusively, been focused on the dual-use applications of HPCs. That is, HPCs may be commercially obtained in the open global market, but they also may have military applications, such as simulating nuclear weapon tests, producing chemical and biological weapons production, and for enhancing military command, control, and communications.
Ron Jones, University of Cincinnati College of Law
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