Wednesday, June 4, 2014

InfiLaw Suspends Request to Acquire Charleston Law

The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) had planned to vote on June 5 whether to approve Infilaw's application to acquire the Charleston School of Law. Infilaw has decided to suspend its application, but still plans to pursue the purchase. The story can be found at:

June 4, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, May 29, 2014

Charleston Law Founder Ed Westbrook Counters Infilaw

Charleston School of Law Founder Ed Westbrook has written an extensive response to questions raised concerning Infilaw's continued push to acquire the law school. Westbrook has been a supporter of moving the law school to nonprofit status since it's inception. His memorandum can be found at:

May 29, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, May 18, 2014

Redding: The Legal Academy Under Erasure

Vice Chancellor and Professor Richard Redding (Chapman) has written an interesting article about legal education reform, which will be published in the Catholic University Law Review. The article is called "The Legal Academy Under Erasure," and the abstract can be found at:

May 18, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Charleston Faculty Makes a Strong and Courageous Statement

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The SC Commission on Higher Education (CHE) will be voting on the sale of the Charleston School of Law (CSOL) to Infilaw on Monday, May 19. The CHE is holding hearings about the matter on Friday, May 16. Interested parties in favor of the sale have represented that the CSOL faculty supports the sale, and that is simply not true.

This week, the faculty of CSOL presented two letters to the CHE. One was openly signed by tenured faculty members who felt they could not stay silent, even in the face of possible retribution for their opposition to the sale. The other was a letter from an attorney representing other members of the faculty certifying that a "super majority" of the faculty does not support a sale to Infilaw. Both letters can be found at:

May 14, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Graduation Speakers

I forget most graduation speeches, but I was privileged to hear Congressman John Lewis's address to the Ole Miss law school graduates on May 10. He is truly a great American hero, and is the most inspiring speaker I have ever heard. He is also one of the nicest and most humble people I have ever met.

U.S. Rep John Lewis (D-Ga.) spoke to UM School of Law graduates during the school's commencement ceremony Saturday in the Grove.

Who is speaking at your law school this year? Please comment with the names of your  commencement speakers.

UPDATE on Speakers: NY Attorney General Eric Schneiderman at Syracuse University College of Law

Harold Hongju Koh, 22nd Legal Adviser to the Department of State and current Sterling Professor of International Law at Yale Law School (and former Dean of Yale Law School). will speak at University of Denver Sturm College of Law (thanks to Dean Martin Katz)

May 13, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (1)

Monday, May 12, 2014

Dean Frank Wu: Tuition Cuts and Tuition "Cuts"

This essay is by Dean Frank H. Wu, who is Chancellor & Dean of University of California Hastings College of the Law. This essay was previoiusly published at the Huffington Post.

In a recent report on the state of legal education, Moody's, the credit rating service, noted in passing that tuition cuts are not necessarily an effective tactic for improving enrollment. The rationale is important for people to understand.

Tuition cuts might not be all that they appear to be. The reason is virtually all institutions of higher education already discount tuition to a great extent. Almost all of them also are tuition dependent: Their operating budget comes from what students pay them.

That is the case for the highly-regarded and the not so reputable. Public institutions and those that value public service typically return a significant amount of their tuition revenue to their students in the form of need-based financial aid. Other schools that wish to recruit highly-credentialed students award scholarships on the basis of those metrics. Some of the moneys for these purposes may come from endowments, but much of it comes from what students themselves are putting into the coffers.

Whether it is meant to help many students by offering the opportunity for higher education or buy a few of them by rewarding earlier academic records, the budgetary consequence is the same. As with most other ventures, there is a difference between gross and net.

So a tuition cut may well leave many, perhaps most, individuals worse off as compared to the baseline. Here are the consequences of a cut to tuition.

Assume before it publicizes a cut, a school has a program oriented toward need-based grants. It may be giving as many as three-quarters of its students such packages. Only a quarter of them are paying the full sticker price. Three-quarters pay less; the one-quarter make that possible.

Now after a cut, that school has two choices. (We can put to the side the equivalent of money falling from the sky: alternate revenue sources. They exist, but they usually are an order of magnitude less than what would be needed to offset significant tuition decreases.)

The first option is a real cut. The school could reduce expenditures in a manner commensurate to its loss of total tuition coming in. To be pointed about what that means: Since human resources are the bulk of the budget, such a real cut means faculty, staff, or both, would have to be paid less or be laid off. Savings from the non-personnel share of the budget are not likely to be sufficient to make ends meet.

The second option is the illusion of a "cut." The school could reduce what insiders call the "discount rate" to exactly the amount that makes up for the tuition drop. Again to be pointed about what that means: Given that most students previously received generous grants, most of them end up actually paying more. The students who were not receiving grants prior are the only ones who in fact benefit.

To illustrate it with numbers, consider the simplest possible example. Suppose Acme Law School had two students (in this hypothetical, each of them stands in for hundreds who are treated identically); and a "rack rate" of $50,000 per year. Alpha, who is impoverished, receives a $10,000 grant; Bravo, who is well-to-do, receives no grant.

The real cost of attendance for a year (not including living expenses) is as follows. Alpha expends $40,000 ($50,000 tuition less a grant); Bravo, $50,000 (the stated tuition with no break).

Imagine then Acme Law School that announces a tuition cut of 10 percent or $5,000. Its new, much-praised "flat rate" is $45,000.

But the leaders of Acme Law School do not wish to affect its programs. That frames their intentions in the most positive terms. They need to maintain the same overall revenue the school was receiving from Alpha and Bravo notwithstanding the cut, which is $90,000 (the $40,000 from the former plus the $50,000 from the latter).

Accordingly, to achieve their goals, they direct that the financial aid program be zeroed out. Alpha and Bravo each pay $45,000. The school receives $90,000 as it always has. Transaction costs are lowered as a side benefit.

Look at what has happened to Alpha and Bravo. Alpha pays more than before, $45,000 instead of $40,000; Bravo pays less, $45,000 instead of $50,000. Alpha has a subsidy taken away; Bravo benefits.

Note too this is not ideological. If you object to Alpha receiving need-based financial aid to begin with, change the example to a credentials-based scholarship. So in this variation, Alpha, who has scored at the top of the range on standardized tests and been valedictorian from her undergraduate alma mater, would have been offered a $10,000 scholarship. That is eliminated with the tuition cut.

Thus, at a school that has announced a tuition cut, there must be, sooner or later, an announcement of the real cut that matches it. Absent that, the inference that can be made is that only the illusion of a cut has been presented. It is marketing, puffery, call it what you will.

The same can be said of flat-rate tuition programs more generally. It's no different than flat-rate taxation proposals. The resulting flat-rate may or may not be a better deal than varying rates, depending on a student's individual situation.

All of the above is exacerbated by the lower levels of enrollment at law schools. A school trying to balance its budget, as all of them need to do, can compensate for lower enrollment with higher tuition, or vice versa. But simultaneous downward trends on enrollment and tuition cannot be sustained without even greater real cuts to spending, financial aid, or both.

Whatever people think about the cost of higher education, it is important to understand the choices that decision makers face. Much of what looks like reform may be symbolic.

May 12, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Greece: It's the Word

While this is off the topic of legal education, I wanted to weigh in on the Supreme Court's decision in Town of Greece, New York v. Galloway, No. 12–696, slip op. at 8 (Sup. Ct. 2014).

As a southerner, and a member of a minority religion, I am used to prayer in public governmental  settings. People have asked me if I am offended when a person offering the prayer or invocation prays in Jesus's name, and I am not. What bothers me is when a person in a public setting says "we pray this..."  The "we" is the word that I find problematic, and the "we" is what the Supreme Court failed to understand. 

At our law school graduation this coming Saturday I would never presume to speak for everyone, or even anyone else in that audience on a political issue. Why do people offering a prayer assume that they know how everyone else in a public gathering prays? Prayer is very personal, and some people exercise their First Amendment rights by choosing not to pray, at all.

While I am not a fan of prayer at public gatherings, I am happy to tolerate it (and the Supreme Court has said I must accept it) if the person praying would simply say "I pray this..." I would fully support that person's right to express their beliefs in public.  I do not grant them the right, or authority, to pray for me, and neither should the Supreme Court.


May 7, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (1)

Friday, May 2, 2014

Texas A&M Appoints Andy Morriss to Serve as Dean

Congratulations to Andy, and to my friends at Texas A&M. I do think it is interesting that the press release refers to Andy as the inaugural dean of the law school, since the law school has been in existence for almost 25 years as Texas Wesleyan.

May 2, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, May 1, 2014

SC Commission on Higher Ed Delays Vote on Infilaw Purchase of Charleston

The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) has decided it needs more time to review  information and public comments it has received in reference to the proposed sale of the Charleston School of Law to Naples, Florida based Infilaw.

Members of a CHE licensing panel said they received more than 100 pages documents over the past three days and asked for additional time. Several members came with lists of questions for InfiLaw officials.

The panel will hold a special meeting on May 19 and present their recommendation to the full commission at its June 5 meeting. In addition to CHE approval for the sale, Infilaw needs approval by the ABA. An ABA site team visited the school earlier this semester.

Read more here:

May 1, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, April 25, 2014

Florida Coastal Dean Search Process

Maryann Jones, Dean Emeritus of Western State, is the Chair of the Florida Coastal Dean Search. She was kind enough to share the process being used by the school to conduct the search. It is:

Florida Coastal School of Law (FCSL) is conducting its dean search in compliance with ABA Standards. The process is designed to be extremely inclusive, with participation by all relevant stakeholders, to include faculty, staff, students, board members, and alumni. Candidates are thoroughly vetted by the faculty, which has significant representation on the Dean Search Committee. The Committee ultimately makes recommendations to the Board of Directors, which makes the final decision. 

The FCSL Search Committee began the application collection process in fall 2013. At that time, the Committee began to review resumes and invited a select group of candidates for telephone interviews. Candidates who successfully completed the phone interviews were invited to participate in an external assessment. Based upon the telephone interviews as well as the external assessment, the committee chose a group of candidates to proceed to the campus interview stage, wherein the candidate met with groups of faculty, students, staff, and administrators.

After on-campus meetings are completed, the Committee will seek feedback from faculty students and staff, and recommend final candidates for potential consideration to the Board of Directors. The Committee is required to recommend six candidates to the President and Board of Directors, and will continue the process until six candidates are selected.

We respect the privacy of each candidate and treat the details of the process as confidential to maintain the integrity of the process and the respect for all individuals involved. We are confident that this process will result in the selection of a great leader for Florida Coastal School of Law. 

April 25, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Florida Coastal Dean Search Raises Deeper Issues

The editors of this blog have received disturbing reports from sources inside the Florida Coastal School of Law regarding its dean search.

We have been told that the search itself has been fairly typical. Applicants were screened by a search committee, which then selected candidates for in-depth phone interviews.  Those selected to move on from the phone interviews then went through multiple interviews and assessments with outside talent evaluation agencies. From that process, the seven finalists were chosen for on-campus interviews.

The on-campus process involved dinner with the President of the school, and then a meeting with the staff and faculty during a series of small groups sessions the following day. Each candidate was to give a presentation on the candidate’s vision for the school to the full faculty at lunch the day of the interview.  That is fairly standard for dean searches nationwide.

One oddity was that the faculty was told they could only exclude one of the seven candidates from consideration. In effect, that means that the faculty has very little role in selecting the dean from the six remaining candidates. That is odd, but not particularly alarming, provided that the faculty had a significant role in the selection of candidates.

The disturbing part of the report involves a candidate who raised concerns about the school’s declining student credentials and bar pass rates. That candidate was asked to leave in the middle of the lunch presentation. The candidate resisted, but was told that security would be called to remove the candidate from campus. This all happened in the view of about 40 faculty and staff present at this presentation, which was being recorded so others who were teaching class could see it later. 

Th econcerns raised by the dean candidate are supported by publicly available information showing that the 2013 entering class at Coastal had the following 75/50/25 LSAT profile: (148/144/141). Reports indicate that the students who have placed seat deposits in 2014 have a virtually identical profile as the 2013 entering class.

The LSAT in 2008 and 2009 was (153/150/147). In 2010 the numbers were (152/149/146). The decline continued to in the succeeding years (151/147/145) in 2011 and (151/146/143) in 2012. 

As might have been  predicted, the weaker entering class of 2010 had a low bar pass rate, 67% for first time takers on the July 2013 Florida bar.  This was the first time in several years that Florida Coastal had dropped below 70%.


April 22, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (2)

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Conference Announcement: Second National Symposium on Experiential Education in Law

Registration has opened online for the 

Second National Symposium on Experiential Education in Law

June 13 – 15, 2014 in Greensboro, North Carolina

Hosted by Elon University School of Law and the Alliance for Experiential Learning in Law

Featured speakers include William C. Hubbard, President Elect of the American Bar Association, and Bill Henderson, Professor of Law, Maurer School of Law at Indiana University at Bloomington

The registration fee is $100. Visit to register and to learn more about the symposium. Contact Jane Law at Elon University School of Law with any questions related to registration: or (336) 279-9325.


When almost 300 legal educators, judges, lawyers and law students met in Boston 18 months ago for the first national symposium on experiential education in law, they recognized the changing landscape of legal education focusing on effective and integrated experiential education to accommodate limited finances and changes in the profession. These pioneers committed to developing thoughtful and innovative approaches to improve legal education and enhance the relevance of lawyers in the rapidly changing 21st century. 

The 2014 symposium will present the findings of the working groups organized by the Alliance for Experiential Learning in Law with the help of legal educators, judges and lawyers from over 100 law schools and many other enterprises across the legal profession and provide examples of innovation from other professions that can inform how legal educators can adapt to changing paradigms. These working groups have focused on important issues that must define legal education now and for the future.

What do we mean by experiential learning?

What are the → Innovations → Barriers → Successes in producing integrated and effective curricula?

What ideas have the Alliance Working Groups developed since the Inaugural Symposium?

What perspective can other disciplines provide regarding our efforts?


This event is being organized by:


The Alliance for Experiential Learning in Law Steering Committee

Cindy Adcock, Charlotte School of Law

Margaret Barry, Vermont Law School

Luke Bierman, Northeastern University School of Law

Susan Brooks, Drexel University School of Law

Christine Cimini, Vermont Law School

Roberto Corrada, Sturm College of Law, University of Denver

Bob Dinerstein, Washington College of Law, American University

Steve Ellmann, New York Law School

Deborah Epstein, Georgetown Law

Bob Jones, The Law School, University of Notre Dame

Kate Kruse, Hamline University School of Law

Susan Reich Paulsen, University of Minnesota Law School

Ruthane Robbins, Rutgers University School of Law

Pat Coughlan Voorhies, Northeastern University School of Law


Second National Symposium on Experiential Learning in Law Planning Committee

Steve Friedland, Co-Chair, Elon University School of Law

Margaret Barry, Co-Chair, Vermont Law School

Bill Henderson, Co-Chair, Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Christy Benson, Elon School of Business

Olympia Duhart, Nova University School of Law

Jim Exum, Elon University School of Law; Former Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court

Bill McNichol, Reed Smith; Rutgers University School of Law

Madeline Obler-Grill, Elon Law Journal

Gene Pridgen, K&L Gates; Immediate Past President, North Carolina Bar Association

Vivian Wexler, Bingham McCutchen

Pat Coughlan Voorhies, Northeastern University School of Law

April 15, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, April 9, 2014

ABA Placement Statistics Released

The ABA placement data for each law school has been released, and can be found at:

April 9, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunset Boulevard?

Recently, my daughter had a part in Oxford High School’s production of “Sunset Boulevard.” She astutely noted that advances technology had changed or destroyed the careers of many people in the movie industry, including Gloria Swanson, who starred as Norma Desmond in the classic film. One of Norma’s classic lines in Sunset Boulevard is “I am big! It's the pictures that got small.” She also says “We didn't need dialogue. We had face.” Norma’s inability to accept changes in her industry and adapt to them would lead to her downfall.

Technology has changed the legal profession, and nothing can reverse that. In the long run it will lower overhead costs, and provide more efficient access to legal services. It will allow small firms to compete with big firms. Technology is transformative, which is scary, but it is not a bad thing. The law schools and lawyers that adapt to these changes will be just fine. Those who do not will be Norma Desmond.

April 9, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Dean Daniel Rodriguez on faculty retirement incentives as "evidence of adaptation, not desperation"

Dean Daniel Rodriguez of Northwestern University School of Law posted the following essay on Word on the Streeterville, his Northwestern dean's blog.  The title of the essay is "A Most Unfortunate Narrative."

Many law schools are working hard to keep up enrollments and student credentials; some are indeed struggling.  As deans and university leaders work hard to make adjustments on the expenses side in order to deal constructively with these difficult issues, there has emerged an almost daily narrative about how the sky is falling (which is isn’t).

The most recent iteration of this is the news emerging from a handful of schools that faculty members are being offered retirement incentives.  Although I am in no vantage point to assess the wisdom of any of these strategies for any of these law schools, it strikes me as a sensible reaction to enrollment circumstances that are, for the most part, currently out of control for some law schools.  The business of retirement incentives is not, of course, a new phenomenon.  With the end of mandatory retirement, university departments can manage human resource costs only by looking at creative tactics such as retirement incentives.  Sometimes this will involve more senior (and typically highly compensated) members of the community; other times, given the long careers ahead of young faculty members, this will involve incentives nearer the front end.  These incentives create a dynamic of negotiation not distinct from any other sort of employer-worker negotiation.  They are tried-and-true carrots, not sticks.

That law schools are looking to manage their costs by taking close looks at their faculty labor force seems entirely sensible.  It is hardly the harbinger of disaster; and, like the press releases that are attached to these proposals, these are important messages to the wider community of students and alumni that the law schools are looking at constructive ways of preserving strong academic programs and high quality in their student bodies.

These should be welcome developments.  Folks like our friends at Above the Law, who are habitually cranky about law school decisionmaking and the motivations of academic leaders, should say:  “Hurray.  It’s about time law schools take a hard look at costs.”  But, instead, the headline of the day is essentially “Law Schools are Crashing Around Us.  Witness the Scramble to ‘Kick Out’ Faculty Members.”  Think I am exaggerating?  Here’s a link to a post by the sober Pepperdine Law professor and influential blogger, Paul Caron.

Take a breath, doomsayers.  Have some perspective.  This is evidence of adaptation, not desperation.  And you are not helping the general situation, IMHO!

March 25, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, March 17, 2014

What Causes a Dean Search to Fail?

The University of Florida has announced that the search for the next dean of the Levin College of Law has failed.

While I have always felt that the only truly failed search is one in which the wrong person is hired, the Florida search is unique because so much information has been shared publicly. What causes a dean search like Florida's to fail, and how will a second search achieve better results, next year?

The reports surrounding the search clearly inidcate that the law school faculty found two of the candidates highly acceptable to lead them in the years ahead. They also voted another candidate acceptable, but had reservations about him. This raises the question of what the President found objectionable about these candidates. Was it merely the fact that he asked for four names, and only got three? Was the President's favorite candidate not among the three names sent forward as acceptable? Did the President tolerate the long and work-intensive process only to the extent it produced him the candidate he planned to appoint all along?

The answers to these questions will greatly impact the next search at Florida.  I would bet that Florida's next dean will come from its own faculty (as is often the case following a failed search).


March 17, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, March 16, 2014

Dean Frank Wu: "That's Why We Call It 'Work'"

This essay is by Dean Frank H. Wu, who is Chancellor & Dean of University of California Hastings College of the Law. This essay was previoiusly published at Above The Law.

I was talking to a reporter the other day about changes within the legal profession. She had called me to ask what types of jobs were opening up. I disappointed her. She wanted specialties offering positions that were sexy, new, and numerous.

I explained there were indeed more jobs. But I did not know any of them that satisfied all of her criteria.

There were many possibilities for her article. None of them were everything she was looking for.

That would be true for the individuals obtaining those roles as well. I recall a former colleague who used to say in response to the extravagant expectations that young people express about their careers: “That’s why we call it ‘work.’” She meant that there isn’t any reason to believe it will be fun. It is more likely to be boring, stressful, or both boring and stressful by turns if not simultaneously.

By the journalist’s standards, unless it is sexy, new and numerous, it does not register at all. That isn’t the best understanding of the universe of possibilities. Law is not intrinsically sexy….


Some jobs that are not sexy are indeed new and numerous. Litigation support, performing e-discovery, or its transactional equivalent, analyzing terms and conditions of contracts, has been set up as its own track. Junior associates once took care of these tasks, eventually advancing to more meaningful functions. A category of lawyers now can be assigned to such labor on a more or less permanent basis, thanks to the combination of automation and outsourcing.

Other jobs are sexy and new but not numerous. A recent graduate of my law school conducted an intensive search and was hired to the government negotiating team addressing global climate change. That is about as exciting a position as possible for someone interested in environmental policy; it didn’t exist a generation ago. But it’s basically a one-off; there are few such opportunities.

Employers also need to recruit for jobs that are sexy and numerous though not new. There is increased demand for litigators who are interested in trusts and estates disputes: taking a side with families squabbling with one another about what the deceased has bequeathed descendants. If you want to gain trial experience, this is sexy — assuming you are able to argue accounting. The rivalry and resentment animating these cases is as ancient as humanity itself, meaning there is no end of intense interaction with opposing counsel and clients.

Yet the more significant story is that whole fields of law are developing. The insistence on sexy, new, and numerous frames the issues poorly.

Privacy, for example, is a concern of anyone with a credit card or who accesses the internet, which is to say everyone who is a consumer within the modern economy. We care about these issues. The rules are only starting to develop, subject to the most powerful political considerations and policy arguments.

Firms, both plaintiff’s side pursuing a contingency fee and the defense bar representing corporations, as well as government agencies, have set up privacy units. Yet privacy compliance is not necessarily legal practice in a traditional sense. It can be performed by professionals who work alongside lawyers. It is legal work though maybe not lawyer’s work.

I am not sure I have persuaded the press to orient coverage toward the realities beyond the headlines. The real issue is whether there is work to be done. Law is changing at a rate that the bench and the bar might not have anticipated, but it turns out to be the same in that regard as everything else in our accelerating reality.

March 16, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, March 9, 2014

Dean Frank Wu on Cutting Law Schools

This essay is by Dean Frank H. Wu, who is Chancellor & Dean of University of California Hastings College of the Law. This blog entry appeared originally at Huffington Post.

Law schools must cut. Enrollment is down. The drop has no end in sight. It might be temporary; it might be permanent. Even if it is the former rather than the latter, there is much more to come: two-year JD programslimited licenses, and various demands for reform.

Most law schools already have cut their enrollment. Unless the law school's dean has made a Faustian bargain, the cut to enrollment calls for a cut to the budget.

Many law schools are facing a structural deficit. It is important to explain what that means.

A deficit is a negative balance at the end of a given time period, typically a fiscal year (which may or may not correspond to a calendar year or to an academic year). The expenditures exceed the revenues.

An enterprise might run a one-time deficit because of an extraordinary expense. Say part of a building burns down in a particular year. It has to be rebuilt.

For an independent law school, such as UC Hastings, covering an extraordinary expense necessitates spending from the reserves that have been accumulated for just such a purpose. For the majority of law schools that are embedded within a larger university structure, it is possible the central administration will offer a temporary subsidy to make up for the loss.

A one-time deficit is not desirable, but it is not likely to be fatal. "One-time" is a crucial adjective. There is no reason to expect that another building will burn down the next year.

A structural deficit is something else altogether. It is inherent. Suppose the school has a payroll that is oversized relative to the money coming in. Human resources are what law schools buy; there is little raw material, as would be purchased by a manufacturing venture.

Unlike a building burning down, which one hopes occurs rarely, it is a certainty that employees will wish to be paid regularly. If the payroll cannot be met one year, and nothing is done to change the situation (either laying off some employees or reducing compensation for all employees or deploying some combination of measures), the deficit will repeat itself the following year. This will continue until the reserves are depleted or the outside source of funding is exhausted. The institution then is insolvent.

When any leader in higher education announces that there is a problem of this nature, there is a temptation to infer that the leader is the problem. If only the wrongdoeers were identified, all would be well. The administration must be incompetent, dishonest, or both.

Or sometimes observers assume that there is a hidden surplus in the system. They suppose that a thorough search will turn up excess that could take care of everything if it were eliminated. Yet one person's waste is another person's livelihood.

The extent of the crisis for legal education, however, cannot be denied. It is quite possible that in this application cycle, law schools--not any specific law school, but all accredited law schools taken together--will see a fifty percent reduction in the applicant pool since the recession set in. There have been thirteen consecutive LSAT sittings with fewer takers.

"Crisis" is the right term. Industries rarely see such negative change.

Law schools have been insulated from economic trends. They actually have been somewhat countercyclical, so an uptick in the economy might not help matters. (This description of the situation doesn't even take into account the tuition discounting that must be applied to attract the best students.)

With potential revenue at such a low point, expenditures must be brought into line. The alternative is bankruptcy.

People always hope to address the revenue side. There two common suggestions.

The first is to build out non-JD programs. LLM programs have multiplied. Over the past generation, LLM programs have enrolled primarily foreign students or the handful of Americans who took law degrees outside of the country. More recently, it also has included LLM programs for Americans looking to specialize or add prestige to their pedigree: what once was restricted to the specialty of tax has proliferated to various other fields. In an instant, it has begun to encompass non-professional degrees for individuals in cognate fields who could use legal skills to continue advancing in their current occupations.

The second is to raise more money from private sources. Even institutions that once depended on state subsidies for the bulk of their income have set up advancement operations. They chase their alumni for gifts and submit applications to foundations for grants.

These tactics are necessary and commendable. They can compensate for modest shortfalls, but they cannot cover up basic inadequacies with the business model.

Unless a law school wishes to transform itself out of the training of lawyers, its core will remain the JD program; it is wishful thinking to wager otherwise.

Non-JD students are not available in sufficient quantities, and they do not substitute on a one-to-one basis for JD students in monetary terms. They are at best a two-for-one proposition; speaking of them in that sense only exposes the troubling tendency to treat them as if they were a financial necessity and little more. If they are not similar in quality to the JD students, taking them in trades one set of worries for another.

Fundraising potential is routinely overestimated. An institution with thousands of alumni who have not been accustomed to giving will not become an institution with thousands of donors without a better pitch than its own imperilment. Contributions follow success. There are lawyers who appreciate what their teachers enabled them to do, but, contrary to what legal training might suggest, it is not generally possible to persuade someone they ought to feel generous.

Thus we come to this. Law schools must cut. I embrace radical transparency in making that declaration. What we see when we pull back the curtains is not necessarily pretty. The great and powerful Wizard of Oz asked us not to pay attention to the little man back there.

The challenge for us legal educators is to continue inspiring people to care about the law: students, benefactors, the bench and the bar, even the public at large. Inspiration will require innovation. It's time to step out from behind the curtains.

March 9, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, March 6, 2014

March Madness


The US News Law School Rankings will soon be released, and I am surprised there is not a betting pool on the outcome.

For many years, applicants have relied heavily on the rankings when they were choosing between law schools. These choices were often made with disregard to the individual student’s cost of attendance. That is, a student would attend the school ranked 75th, rather than a school ranked 125th, even though the tuition at the 75th ranked school might be significantly higher.

A positive change that seems to be occurring is that the many law schools and students realize that educational cost can have a bigger impact on long-term career choices than the rankings. Students with lower debt leaving law school have many more options in the job market. Conversely, a student with large debt must find a job with a large enough salary to pay that debt and have enough left over to live on.

There is little doubt that the top students at top law schools have a better chance of being hired by the top 250 law firms. The NLJ grid found at the link below, therefore, is not surprising:

Each of the schools listed on the NLJ chart would be considered an elite law school. It is important to note that even at Berkeley and Cornell 55% of the graduates are hired in jobs other than big law jobs, or are unemployed and still looking.

The question applicants need to ask if they are not going to an elite school is what is the cost versus benefit of my education? I assert that there is very little real difference between, for example, a law school ranked 75th and one ranked 125th.

I admit it is true that the 75th ranked school will have better median LSAT and GPA profiles than the 125th ranked school. Because of that fact, some would argue that the applicant will be in class with “better” students at the 75th ranked school. I disagree with that position, because I am not convinced that a student with a 157 LSAT is truly “better” than a student with a 154.  Furthermore a student with a 157 LSAT at a school with a 157 median is less likely to earn a high dollar scholarship than a student with a 157 LSAT at a school with a 154 median. If the LSAT numbers have some value as predictors of first-year success, the student would arguably be better off at the lower ranked school, where she is predicted to be at the top of the class, rather than at the higher ranked school where she is predicted to be in the middle. That is especially true, if her cost of education is greatly reduced by being at the lower ranked school. The rankings give applicants the sense that they are making a rational decision by picking a school higher up on a list, even if that decision is economically irrational.

Wouldn’t it be nice if a magazine like Consumer Reports could create a reliable and useful ranking system for law schools.  Until then, we will have to endure the impacts of March Madness in legal education.


March 6, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, March 2, 2014

Dean Frank Wu on The Problems of Legal Education

This essay is by Dean Frank H. Wu, who is Chancellor & Dean of University of California Hastings College of the Law. This blog entry appeared originally at Above The Law

Legal education does not suffer from a problem. It suffers from multiple problems.

In law school, before students learn anything else, they must understand the importance of issue spotting. One cannot analyze a case or a line of cases, without being able to see the multiple potential issues that are raised and then recognizing which warrant consideration. In actual practice, this skill remains a pre-requisite for offering an opinion or fashioning an argument. It becomes a matter of course.

Legal education faces at least three problems. They are related but not the same. What might help with respect to one problem might hurt with respect to another problem….

First, there is a glut of lawyers on the market. There are simply too many people out there who hold JDs and wish to work as lawyers. The oversupply may be overstated, but the number of seats in law school should be — and is being — reduced.

This particular issue extends beyond law school; there are too many lawyers at virtually every level, including the most prestigious. Even if this surplus is temporary, its negative consequences may be so significant as to outweigh everything else. (There is the irony, for another day, of a lack of lawyers available to represent ordinary people.)

There are various possible remedies. Some lawyers will, as they always have, perform other types of work. That encompasses occupations that are as fulfilling, intellectually and materially, as the role of an attorney; it does not mean dispensing fancy coffee. Other lawyers might migrate overseas, where demand is relatively strong and likely to remain so.

Second, legal education costs too much. (I’ll discuss the hyperinflation of tuition further later.)

Third, the skills that are imparted through the traditional program of training are not suited to the demands of employers, and, ultimately, clients.

The Dean of Georgetown, William Treanor, gave a talk recently for the Lawyers Club of San Francisco. He observed that the possibility of a shortened curriculum, meant to address the second problem (high cost), would worsen the third problem (inadequate skills). There is another means of changing the cost-benefit calculation: instead of decreasing the former, increase the latter. (Incidentally, for economies as a whole, deflation presents worse risks than inflation.)

In the background, however, there is a problem bigger than all of the ones mentioned above. We are living through a period of profound economic restructuring in general. It isn’t merely the pervasive effects of globalization and the speed of technological advance; it’s the constancy of change and the volatility of society. Almost all of us are unsettled by uncertainty, even if we would like to be avant-garde. For those of us who have felt assured of the American Dream, it is about as demoralizing as it could be to realize that our reasonable expectations might not be matched by economic realities — never mind unreasonable expectations that are held dear.

The only hope, for institutions as well as individuals, is to adapt. That has always been true. It hasn’t always been acknowledged. We do not live in the best of all possible worlds; that is yet to come.

March 2, 2014 | Permalink | Comments (0)