Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Bisom-Rapp on lifetime disadvantage for working women

Bisom_rapp_book_cover-1_240Congratulations to our friend Susan Bisom-Rapp (Thomas Jefferson) whose book (with Malcolm Sargeant, Middlesex Univ., London), Lifetime Disadvantage, Discrimination and the Gendered Work Force is available to pre-order from Cambridge University Press. It will be out September 30. From the press release:

In many countries, including the United States, women are significantly more likely to fall into poverty in retirement than are men. Understanding why this is so and what can be done about it is the aim of this new book.

"Susan Bisom-Rapp's scholarship tackles some of the most pressing real world challenges facing the modern workplace," said Thomas Jefferson School of Law Dean and President Thomas F. Guernsey. "I am delighted about the publication of her latest book."

Beginning in girlhood and ending in advanced age, "Lifetime Disadvantage, Discrimination and the Gendered Workforce" examines each stage of the lifecycle and considers how law attempts to address the problems that inhibit women's labor force participation. Using their model of lifetime disadvantage, Professor Bisom-Rapp and her British co-author Malcolm Sargeant show how the law adopts a piecemeal and disjointed approach to resolving challenges with adverse effects that cumulate over time.

"The problem unfolds over the working lives of women," said Bisom-Rapp. "Women's experiences with education, stereotyping, characteristics other than gender like race and age, caregiving, glass ceilings, occupational segregation, pay inequality, part-time work, and career breaks over a lifetime make it difficult to amass the resources necessary for a dignified retirement."

In order to achieve true gender equality, Bisom-Rapp and her co-author recommend a more holistic approach. Employing the concept of resiliency from vulnerability theory, the authors advocate changes to workplace law and policy, which acknowledge yet transcend gender, improving conditions for women as well as men.

"One must know the end goal – decent work and dignified retirement – and monitor progress towards it in order effectively address the problem," noted Bisom-Rapp.

The book is the culmination of nearly a decade of collaboration between Professor Bisom-Rapp and Professor Sargeant, who teaches at Middlesex University Business School in London. Beginning with a project that examined the plight of older workers during the global economic crisis, they have been struck by differences in workplace law and protections in their respective countries; the United Kingdom is far more protective.

Equally noticeable, however, are similarities in outcomes, including women's economic disadvantages in retirement. By examining why more protective law in one country coexists with comparable outcomes to the other country, the book reveals lessons for understanding a problem that is global in nature. At a time in which an aging population makes a retirement crisis a distinct possibility, and employment has become increasingly insecure, they recommend a regulatory approach that would enhance work life and retirement for all.

Susan and Malcolm have published a few articles related to these topics in the last few years in the Employee Rights Employment Policy Journal, the Elder Law Journal, and the Loyola University Chicago Law Journal. I can't wait to read more of their work.

MM 

September 21, 2016 in Books, Employment Common Law, Employment Discrimination, International & Comparative L.E.L., Labor Law, Pension and Benefits, Scholarship, Wage & Hour, Worklife Issues | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Co-Authoring with Non-American Profs & Practitioners

TransnationalI just uploaded my most recent article, Transnational Employment Trends in Four Pacific Rim Countries, 34 UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal ___ (forthcoming 2017) (co-authored with Lia Alizia, Masako Banno, Maria Jockel, Melissa Pang, and Catherine Tso). I mention this not because this is a groundbreaking work of legal scholarship, but instead to encourage others to consider co-authoring scholarship with non-American  faculty members and practitioners. This article, for example, had its genesis in a panel I served on at a LawAsia Employment Conference. I find it rewarding to bring together a disparate group of folks to pool their interest and expertise in topics related to labor/employment law, and a huge side benefit is creating relationships that can far outlast a specific project.

rb

September 20, 2016 in Employment Common Law, International & Comparative L.E.L., Workplace Trends | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

New Book: Invisible Labor

51gF-gQv01L._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_Congratulations to Miriam Cherry (Saint Louis), Marion Crain (Washington University) and Winifred Poster (Washington University, Sociology) whose book Invisible Labor has just hit the shelves. The book is a collection of chapters by authors from, primarily, sociology and law, exploring types of labor that are unpaid and unseen. From the synopsis:

Across the world, workers labor without pay for the benefit of profitable businesses—and it's legal. Labor trends like outsourcing and technology hide some workers, and branding and employer mandates erase others. Invisible workers who remain under-protected by wage laws include retail workers who function as walking billboards and take payment in clothing discounts or prestige; waitstaff at “breastaurants” who conform their bodies to a business model; and inventory stockers at grocery stores who go hungry to complete their shifts. Invisible Labor gathers essays by prominent sociologists and legal scholars to illuminate how and why such labor has been hidden from view.

The collection brings together what previously seemed like disparate issues to show common threads among the ways labor can be invisible, and the breadth of contributions is impressive. I had the chance to attend a symposium set up by the editors to flesh out these ideas a couple of years ago and found the topics fascinating then. I can't wait to read the book!

MM

July 19, 2016 in Books, Disability, Employment Common Law, Employment Discrimination, International & Comparative L.E.L., Scholarship, Wage & Hour, Worklife Issues, Workplace Trends | Permalink | Comments (1)

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Call for Papers: Marco Biagi Conference 2017

    Here's the call for papers for the 15th International Conference in Commemoration of Professor Marco Biagi (Modena, Italy, March 20-21, 2017). The conference theme is Digital and Smart Work. From the call:

Focusing on the implications for employment, digitalization may be provisionally defined as encompassing work operations and processes brokered, organized or performed within digital platforms or by means of digital devices. In this perspective, digitalization cuts across different forms of employment (standard and non-standard), work organization (in-house performance and ICT-based mobile work), categories of workers (skilled and unskilled) and productive processes (material and immaterial). . . . .

[T]he conference will seek contributions from the international scholarly community on the following tracks:
1. Digitalization and management practices.
2. Digitalization, productivity and the labour market.
3. Digitalization, employment rights and collective representation.

To contribute a paper, submit an expression of interest by July 1, 2016. For details, see the Conference call for papers ( Download Call for papers Marco Biagi Conference 2017_Def1)  as well as here for past Marco Biagi conferences.

 

--Sachin Pandya

 

H/t: Susan Bisom-Rapp

May 25, 2016 in Conferences & Colloquia, International & Comparative L.E.L. | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, May 2, 2016

Workers' Rights and Protection - an International Perspective

InternationalToday's panels at the ABA International LEL Committee conference in Hong Kong have featured a plethora of folks advocating for workers' rights all over the world, including:

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rb

May 2, 2016 in International & Comparative L.E.L. | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, May 1, 2016

Hong Kong, LEL, and the Rule of Law

HkI'm in Hong Kong this week (with Marley Weiss) for the ABA International Labor/Employment Law Conference. It's early in the conference yet, but I have been struck by how much of the discussion so far has focused on how  labor/employment law in Southeast Asia is predicted on the existence, or lack thereof, of the rule of law.

As just one example, Beijing would say that PRC has the rule of law, but would define "rule of law" very differently than we would -- in China, law exists to facilitate the Communist Party's social and political control of the country. Labor/employment "law" fits within this framework.

Hong Kong is different. Because it was a British colony until 1999, the rule of law here is firmly entrenched -- and Hong Kong provides a potent counter-example to the PRC's public position that "Western" rule of law principles are incompatible with Chinese cultural norms. But notwithstanding Beijing's technical sovereignty over Hong Kong, Beijing not only tolerates Hong Kong's relative autonomy and the continued rule of law, but actively encourages rule of law initiatives in the territory, and encourages Chinese companies to do business here. Hong Kong is a key intermediary between PRC and the West not so much because of its physical location and port facilities, but because Western companies are much more willing to contract here with Chinese companies because contracts are enforceable by an independent judiciary.

rb

May 1, 2016 in International & Comparative L.E.L. | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, March 23, 2016

Conference Announcement: Philosophical Foundations of Labour Law

FoundationsGillian Lester (Columbia) writes to tell us of the upcoming conference Philosophical Foundations of Labour Law, which will be held June 16-17, 2016 at the UCL Faculty of Laws, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1. This conference brings together leading labour law scholars (and, I'm excited to say, a terrific mix of established and emerging scholars!) from around the world to explore the broad themes of:

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  • Equality
  • Dignity
  • Exploitation
  • Domination
  • Liberty

A complete list of speakers is provided after the page break. The size of the event is strictly limited to 65 people to encourage discussion. Registration is required. Doctoral students with an interest in this topic are particularly welcome to attend. Doctoral students should write to the conference administrator Lisa Penfold to learn about available discounts. The conference has been convened by Dr. Virginia Mantouvalou (UCL), Professor Hugh Collins (Oxford), and Professor Gillian Lester (Columbia Law School).

rb

Continue reading

March 23, 2016 in International & Comparative L.E.L., Scholarship | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, March 2, 2016

ILO Job Openings

ILOColin Fenwick (Head of the Labour Law and Reform Unit, Governance and Tripartism Department, International Labour Office) writes to note that:

On behalf of the ILO, please note that two (2) positions in the field of labour law and international labour law were recently advertised. One is in Geneva, and the other in Santiago de Chile. The closing date for applications is 31 March. Further details can be found here: https://erecruit.ilo.org/public/

-JH

March 2, 2016 in International & Comparative L.E.L. | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, December 18, 2015

Transnational labourCongratulations to Adelle Blackett (McGill) and Anne Trebilcock (University of Paris and Georg-August University, German), editors, on the publication by Edward Elgar Publishing of Research Handbook on Transnational Labour Law. Here's the publisher's description:

The editors’ substantive introduction and the specially commissioned chapters in the Handbook explore the emergence of transnational labour law as a field, along with its contested contours. The expansion of traditional legal methods, such as treaties, is juxtaposed with the proliferation of contemporary alternatives such as indicators, framework agreements and consumer-led initiatives. Key international and regional institutions are studied for their coverage of such classic topics as freedom of association, equality, and sectoral labour standard-setting, as well as for the space they provide for dialogue. The volume underscores transnational labour law’s capacity to build bridges, including on migration, climate change and development.

And here's a more-detailed description of the Handbook, with a special price discount.

rb

December 18, 2015 in Book Club, International & Comparative L.E.L., Labor Law | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, December 17, 2015

SEALS 2016 Call for Papers: New and Existing Voices in Labor and Employment Law

Seals logoFriend of the blog and Southeastern Association of Law Schools Labor and Employment Law Workshop organizer extraordinaire Michael Green (Texas A & M) sends along this call for papers for the 2016 SEALS annual conference:

The Southeastern Association of Law Schools(SEALS) is pleased to host the fourth annual “New Voices in Labor and Employment Law” program during the 2016 SEALS Annual Meeting in Amelia Island, Florida. This year we have extended the program to also include “Existing Voices in Labor and Employment Law.” The purpose of this works-in-progress program is to give junior and existing scholars feedback on papers from senior scholars before the upcoming submission cycle.  We are seeking submissions from labor and employment law scholars with five or fewer years of full-time teaching experience (not counting the 2015-16 academic year) and will also consider drafts from existing labor and employment scholars regardless of experience.

Submissions should be drafts of papers relating to labor and employment law that will be near completion by the time of the SEALS meeting held August 3-9, 2016.  To be considered for participation in the program, please send an email to Professor Michael Z. Green, Texas A&M University School of Law, at mzgreen@law.tamu.edu and arguthrie@law.tamu.edu by 5:00 p.m. E.S.T., Monday, January 11, 2016. In your email, please include the title of your paper, a short description of the context (e.g., “Disparate Impact after Dukes”), and a full abstract. Full-time faculty members of SEALS member or affiliate member schools, who have been teaching labor and employment law courses for five or fewer years as of July 1, 2015, will be given a preference in the selection of those contacted to submit final papers but we hope that labor and employment scholars with even more experience will submit papers as well. 

To ensure enough time for adequate feedback, space will be limited to 6 participants; additional registrants will be placed on a waiting list and invited to participate on a space available basis. Those individuals accepted into the program must submit a complete draft by 5:00 p.m. E.S.T., Friday, June 10, 2016. Please submit your drafts electronically to the email addresses above. The draft should be accompanied by a cover letter with the author’s name, contact information, and confirmation that the submission meets the criteria in this call for papers.

Submissions are limited to a maximum 40,000 word limit (including footnotes). Papers can be committed for publication prior to their submission as long as they are not actually scheduled to be printed prior to August 9, 2016. Each professor may submit only one paper for consideration. No papers will be accepted after the deadline and the submission of an incomplete draft may limit participation in this workshop.  Paper commentators may include Professors Brad Areheart (Tennessee), Anthony Baldwin (Mercer), Richard Bales (Ohio Northern), Scott Bauries (Kentucky), Theresa Beiner (Arkansas-Little Rock), Miriam Cherry (St. Louis), Brian Clarke (Charlotte), Michael Green (Texas A&M), Wendy Greene (Samford), Stacy Hawkins (Rutgers Camden), Jeff Hirsch (North Carolina), Nancy Levit (Missouri-Kansas City), Natasha Martin (Seattle), Marcia McCormick (St. Louis), Angela Onwuachi-Willig (Iowa), Elizabeth Pendo (St. Louis), Nicole Porter (Toledo), Jessica Roberts (Houston), Veronica Root (Notre Dame), Ani Satz (Emory), Paul Secunda (Marquette), Kerri Stone (Florida International), Michael Waterstone (Loyola), and others to be determined. 

Please be aware that selected participants and commentators are responsible for their own travel and lodging expenses related to attending the SEALS Annual Meeting, including the SEALS registration fee. Any inquiries about the SEALS New and Existing Voices in Labor and Employment Law Program should be submitted to Professor Michael Green at the email above.

 SEALS is a great conference because it is not overly formal, and people are quite approachable. Also, like many workshops in the labor and employment community, the commentators are usually supportive and really engaged. I always leave with more energy than I had when I arrived. We'll keep you posted on other programming as it's set.

MM

December 17, 2015 in Conferences & Colloquia, Disability, Employment Common Law, Employment Discrimination, Faculty Presentations, International & Comparative L.E.L., Labor Law, Labor/Employment History, Pension and Benefits, Public Employment Law, Religion, Scholarship, Wage & Hour | Permalink | Comments (0)

Saturday, August 29, 2015

New Book: Comparative Labor Law

ComparativeCongratulations to Matt Finkin (Illinois) and Guy Mundlak (Tel Aviv) on the publication by Elgar of their book Comparative Labor Law. Here are the publisher's notes and the list of contributors:

Economic pressure, as well as transnational and domestic corporate policies, has placed labor law under severe stress. National responses are so deeply embedded in institutions reflecting local traditions that meaningful comparison is daunting. This book assembles a team of experts from many countries that draw on a rich variety of comparative methods to capture changes and emerging trends across nations and regions.

The chapters in this Research Handbook mingle subjects of long-standing comparative concern with matters that have pressed to the fore in recent years. Subjects like “soft law” and emerging geographic zones are placed in a new light and their burgeoning significance explored. Thematic and regional comparisons capture the challenges of a globally comparative perspective on labor law.

The fresh and thoughtful comparative analysis in this Handbook makes it a critical resource for scholars and students of labor law.

K. Banks, A. Bogg, S. Bonfanti, S. Butterworth, S. Cooney, L. Corazza, N. Countouris, G. Davidov, D. du Toit, K.D. Ewing, M. Finkin, R. Fragale, M. Freedland, N. Garoupa, S. Giubboni, F. Hendrickx, J. Howe, A. Hyde, E. Kovacs, R. Krause, N. Lyutov, E. Menegatti, L. Mitrus, G. Mundlak, R. Nunin, M. Pittard, O. Razzolini, K. Rittich, R. Ronnie, E. Sánchez, K. Sankaran, M. Schlachter, A. Seifert, A. Stewart, H. Takeuchi-Okuno, A. Topo

Hat tip: Howard Fenton.

rb

August 29, 2015 in Book Club, International & Comparative L.E.L. | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

LawAsia Employment Conference 2015

LawasiaOn the heels of Jeff's announcement of international labor conferences, Bernard Banks (Keily Thompson, New Zealand) writes to tell us of the LawAsia Employment Conference that will be held in Hanoi on 14 -15 August 2015. Here are the details:

The theme of the Hanoi conference  is: Free Trade Agreements and Trans National Employment –Legal Implications, and following the formal opening and keynote address there will be seven business sessions provisionally entitled: employment impacts of  FTAs –a regional overview;  immigration issues in trans  national employment;  minimum terms and conditions –employment obligations in host countries; liability for workplace injuries to trans national employees –issues and case studies;  cross border taxation issues for employers and employees; liability for actions  in host countries – employee obligations and employer liability;  and a concluding panel discussion and forum including an international round up of FTA employment  issues and contributions from delegates. We are in close liaison with the Vietnam Bar Federation which has  a co-hosting role.

rb

May 26, 2015 in Conferences & Colloquia, International & Comparative L.E.L., Scholarship | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, April 30, 2015

Call for Papers: Marco Biagi Foundation

Susan Bisom-Rapp (Thomas Jefferson) sends along the annual call for papers for the 14thInternational Conference in Commemoration of Professor Marco Biagi and the Fifth Young Scholars’ Workshop in Labour Relations.  The theme of the 2016 conference is Well Being At and Through Work, a topic that could not be more timely given the lingering effects of the global economic crisis on working people.  In addition, in connection with the Young Scholars’ Workshop, this year the Foundation is awarding a Marco Biagi Prize, which will allow the author of the best paper to take up a three-month residence at the Foundation and comes with a prize of 3500 euros. 

For more details, see the Conference call for papers, Download Marco Biagi Conference 2016, and the Young Scholars call for papers,  Download Call YSW 2016.

MM

April 30, 2015 in Conferences & Colloquia, Faculty Presentations, International & Comparative L.E.L., Scholarship | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Tenth Annual Colloquium Registration Open

WPBDeborah Widiss (Indiana) has good news to share:

The annual Colloquium on Scholarship in Employment and Labor Law (COSELL) will be held at Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Sept. 11-12, 2015, in Bloomington, Indiana. This conference, now in its tenth year, brings together labor and employment law professors from across the country. It offers participants the opportunity to present works-in-progress to a friendly and knowledgeable audience.

 Registration is now open at: http://www.law.indiana.edu/cosell.

 If you’re planning to come, please go ahead and register now; you can fill in details about the project you will present later in the summer.

 The conference is free, and we will provide all meals during the conference. Travel & hotel information is found on the website.

 Please feel free to contact any of us with questions.

 We will look forward to hosting you in Bloomington!

MM

April 28, 2015 in About This Blog, Conferences & Colloquia, Disability, Employment Common Law, Employment Discrimination, Faculty News, Faculty Presentations, International & Comparative L.E.L., Labor Law, Labor/Employment History, Pension and Benefits, Public Employment Law, Religion, Scholarship, Teaching, Wage & Hour, Worklife Issues, Workplace Safety, Workplace Trends | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Senior Fullbright Scholar award for Secunda

SecundaCongratulations to blogger emeritus and our friend Paul Secunda (Marquette), who has been awarded a Senior Fullbright Scholar award for this fall. He will be teaching and conducting research on the national pension program in Australia. Paul will become a senior fellow at the Melbourne University Law School, teaching courses and conducting  research on the Australian Superannuation workplace pension system, which is widely considered to be a global benchmark for workplace pension programs. You can get more detail from Marquette's press release.  Great work, and wonderful news, Paul!

MM

March 31, 2015 in Faculty News, International & Comparative L.E.L., Pension and Benefits, Scholarship, Teaching | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Thirteenth Annual Biagi Conference

    The Thirteenth International Conference in Commemoration of Professor Marco Biagi will take place on March 19 – 20, 2015.  This year’s conference theme is Employment Relations and Transformation of the Enterprise in the Global Economy.”  This annual conference is organized by the Marco Biagi Foundation at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.    The Conference will be preceded on March 18th by the Young Scholars’ Workshop in Labour Relations, also organized and hosted  by the Marco Biagi Foundation.  The Conference and Workshop programs are here.

 

--Sachin Pandya

 

Hat tip:  Susan Bisom-Rapp.  Susan is both a Conference and Workshop participant and serves on the Marco Biagi Foundation’s scientific committee and international council.  She tells us that this will be her ninth consecutive year attending the event.

January 28, 2015 in Conferences & Colloquia, International & Comparative L.E.L. | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Farm Labor in Mexico

    The Los Angeles Times has published a series of stories—“Product of Mexico,” by reporter Richard Marosi, with photos and video by Don Bartletti—on the harsh conditions faced by farm laborers in Mexico who work to supply tomatoes, cucumbers, and other fruits and vegetables for sale in US stores.  Parts one and two of this four-part series are here and here

    Marosi and Barletti spent eighteen months traveling across nine Mexican states.  They observed conditions at thirty farm labor camps, and interviewed “hundreds” of workers.  They found that many farm labors “are essentially trapped for months at a time in rat-infested camps, often without beds and sometimes without functioning toilets or a reliable water supply.”  Some growers withhold weekly wages (in violation of Mexican law) “to prevent workers from leaving during peak harvest periods.”  And farm workers “often go deep in debt paying inflated prices for necessities at company stores.” Some go hungry.  Others face the threat of violence. 

    They also conclude that although many US companies have “social responsibility guidelines” that preclude buying goods from suppliers that do not comply with minimum labor standards, those commitments are poorly enforced.  That’s consistent with the general conclusion of some (e.g., Locke 2013) that, given complex cross-national supply chains, such private voluntary agreements are quite limited in their ability to ensure minimum labor standards.

 

--Sachin Pandya

December 10, 2014 in International & Comparative L.E.L., Wage & Hour | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Saturday, December 6, 2014

Zero-Hour Contracts: The Newest Way Workers Are Getting Screwed

0A zero-hour contract is a "contract" of employment creating an on-call arrangement between employer and employee and in which the employer asserts it has no obligation to provide any work for the employee. It's become common in the United Kingdom, and apparently is being "offered" to employees by many American-owned companies including McDonald's and Burger King. In many ways, it's similar to just-in-time scheduling that has become increasingly common in the U.S. retail/fast-food economy, except that in some weeks an employee many receive zero work hours.

Ewan McGaughey (King's College London) has just posted on SSRN his essay Are Zero Hours Contracts Lawful? Here's the abstract:

Are zero hours contracts lawful? This note responds to the DBIS consultation on banning exclusivity clauses (August 2014). It asks the following: what is a zero hours contract? To what extent are zero hours contracts legal? Why have zero hours contracts spread? And finally, what is the right thing to do?

Lovely.

rb

December 6, 2014 in International & Comparative L.E.L., Scholarship, Wage & Hour, Workplace Trends | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

LawAsia Employment Conference

LaBernard Banks (Kiely Thompson Caisley - New Zealand) informs us that the annual LawAsia Employment Conference (which he chairs) will be held May 15-16, 2015 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. If you are interested in presenting, contact Bernard. I attended this last year, and through the conference ended up collaborating with labor/employment practitioners from all over the world on an article (forthcoming Arizona J. Int'l & Comparative L.) on labor outsourcing. The conference is a great opportunity to see labor/employment issues from myriad perspectives, and to meet labor/employment folks from everywhere. If you're interested, let me know and I'll be happy talk with you.

rb

December 6, 2014 in Conferences & Colloquia, International & Comparative L.E.L. | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, December 1, 2014

AALS workplace sections joint newsletter

Aals Thanks to Monique Lillard (Idaho), chair of the AALS Labor Relations and Employment section and Natasha Martin (Seattle), chair of the AALS Employment Discrimination section for sending along the joint newsletter of the two sections for posting. Download it while it's hot:  Download Joint Newsletter for AALS Sections

MM

December 1, 2014 in Disability, Employment Common Law, Employment Discrimination, Faculty News, International & Comparative L.E.L., Labor and Employment News, Labor Law, Public Employment Law, Scholarship, Teaching, Wage & Hour | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)