Monday, January 13, 2014
The International Law Section, under the leadership of Professor Stephanie Farrior (Vermont) put on a very informative program at the annual meeting of the American Association of Law Schools (AALS) last weekend. Despite the winter weather, all four invited panelists made their presentations on international law-making at the United Nations (UN).
Mahnoush Arsanjani of the UN's Office of Legal Affairs led off the panel with an overview of UN law-making. She addressed the somewhat ambiguous legal status of drafts by the International Law Commission and how other expert groups and international tribunals are helping to fill gaps in international law. She also discussed the evolution of UN Security Council Resolutions which originally targeted single states, but which have progressed to addressing issue areas such as terrorism and which tend to have a more legislative aspect to them today. Finally, she talked about the fact that while the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is not expressly given power to make law in the UN Charter, it's decisions have contributed to the progressive development of international law.
Pablo Castillo-Diaz from UN Women picked up on the idea that the UNSC is addressing issue areas and pointed out that the UNSC has adopted more resolutions addressing women's issues (7) than it has in any other issue area. The best known is UNSC Res. 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security. He raised questions regarding whether the resolutions have been useful and whether a certain level of fatigue had set in. He suggested that while the resolutions have helped to bring attention to women's issues, there has been a lack of funding and enforcement at times. He concluded that the resolutions have changed the normative landscape and practices at the UN and have resulted in some tangible actions, such as rape prosecutions, increased funding for peacebuilding efforts and more women serving on important commissions at the UN. However, he also pointed out areas where much more work needs to be done.
Kimberly Prost, UN Ombudsperson for the Al Qaeda Sanctions Committee was the third speaker and spoke of the three "T's" where law-making is happening at the UN: Tribunals, Terrorism and Targeted Sanctions. She pointed to the creation of international criminal tribunals as one example. Some of the tribunals were created by UNSC resolutions that were legislative in character and the resulting judgments of those tribunals have contributed to the development of international criminal law. She called UNSC Res. 1373 following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 a "remarkable precedent" because the UNSC legislated national law as well as international law by mandating that every Member States create an offense for terrorist financing. Finally, she described the evolution of targeted sanctions by the UN, which she described as a good concept, but one that initially lacked checks and balances. Her Ombudsperson office was created to address that deficiency. She ultimately concluded that much law making at the UN is created during crises and driven by necessity rather than being methodical and well thought out.
Kristen Boon, a law professor from Seton Hall who won a call for papers, was the final speaker on the panel. She has examined UNSC law-making especially as it relates to the use of sanctions to bolster peace agreements and create new norms. She also described the evolution of UNSC resolutions, which have become more detailed over time. She stated that some of the new norms from these resolutions have been adopted into national constitutions as part of the nation-building process (using Liberia as an example). She suggested that students of international law should understand that UNSC resolutions are unlike statutes in at least three ways - they are often not drafted by lawyers, there is often little legislative history and the final language is often vague as a result of compromises in the negotiation process, which allows states to interpret the language differently.
We were glad to see a good audience turnout for the event despite the weather and the early hour. We hope to see all of you and more at the International Law program at next year's annual AALS meeting in Washington, DC.
An independent United Nations human rights expert today urged the Kenyan Government to protect the rights of the Sengwer indigenous people who have lived in the Embobut Forest for centuries and are now facing eviction. “Indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly relocated from their lands or territories,” said the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, James Anaya. “No relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after agreement of fair and just compensation and, where possible, the option of return,” he added in a news release.
The Sengwer people, also known as the Cherangany indigenous people, have lived, hunted and gathered in the Embobut Forest area in Kenya’s Rift Valley for hundreds of years. Today, many of them still live in or near the Forest and continue to engage in cultural and subsistence practices in the area. According to reports, police forces have been amassing in the area in preparation for evictions ordered by the Government in pursuit of its forest and water conservation objectives. Since the 1970s, Kenyan authorities have made repeated efforts to forcibly evict the Sengwer from the forest for resettlement in other areas.
“Any removal of Sengwer people from their traditional lands should not take place without adequate consultations and agreement with them, under just terms that are fully protective of their rights,” Mr. Anaya stressed. He urged the Government to ensure that the human rights of the Sengwer indigenous people are fully respected, in strict compliance with international standards, including the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
Independent experts, or special rapporteurs, are appointed by the Geneva-based UN Human Rights Council to examine and report back on a country situation or a specific human rights theme. The positions are honorary and the experts are not UN staff, nor are they paid for their work.
(UN press release)
Saturday, January 11, 2014
Professor Jordan Paust Says U.S. No Longer Has Any Excuse for Not Joining the International Criminal Court
More than fourteen years after its creation and twelve years after it began to function, the International Criminal Court (ICC) still does not have direct support from the United States as a party to the Rome Statute that created the court. Professor Jordan Paust of the University of Houston Law Center notes in a new article that excuses for not ratifying the Rome Statute of the ICC are no longer valid given these developments:
- the articulation of core crimes prosecutable before the ICC in Articles 6-8 of the Rome Statute and creation of the Elements of Crimes,
- the ten-year record of ICC practice,
- the creation of the Kampala definition of aggression that requires a manifest violation of the U.N. Charter, and
- creation of an opt out provision with respect to the crime of aggression that the U.S. can take advantage of.
With these developments, prior excuses for not joining the court are no longer valid. Professor Paust also notes that because there are now 121 parties to the Rome Statute, and because Article 12(2)(a) assures that there is no immunity of U.S. nationals from ICC jurisdiction over crimes covered in Articles 6-8 that occur at least partly in the territory of one or more of those 121 countries, a desire to protect U.S. nationals from ICC prosecution is not a valid reason for not becoming a party to the treaty. There are no longer any meaningful excuses for the United States not to be a party to the Rome Statute.
His paper appears in 12 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 563 (2013) and you can download a copy here from SSRN.
Wednesday, January 8, 2014
On Monday, Russia requested consulations with the European Union (EU) at the World Trade Organization, the first step in the dispute resolution process. Russia alleges that several EU administrative procedures, methodologies or practices for the calculation of the dumping margin in anti-dumping investigations and reviews do not conform to WTO rules. Russia's request for consultations includes several products including ammonium nitrate, certain welded tubes and pipes of iron or non-alloy steel, and certain seamless steel pipes of iron or steel. If the consultations do not resolve the dispute within 60 days, Russia may request the establishment of a dispute resolution panel. The matter has been assigned case number WT/DS474/1.
This is the first dispute originated by Russia at the Dispute Settlement Mechanism of the WTO since it became a full member on 22 August 2012. Russia is already a respondent on two disputes: DS462, initiated by the European Union, and DS463, initiated by Japan, both on recycling fees for motor vehicles.
Monday, January 6, 2014
Special Court for Sierra Leone Closes and is Replaced by the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone
On the last day of 2013, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon congratulated the staff of the United Nations-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) on their important achievements over the past 11 years in ensuring accountability for crimes committed during the country’s decade-long civil war. The court closed down its operations on December 31, 2013.
The SCSL, an independent tribunal set up jointly by the Government of Sierra Leone and the UN, was mandated to try those who bear the greatest responsibility for serious violations of international humanitarian law and Sierra Leonean law committed in the country since 1996. Based in the capital city of Freetown, the Special Court carried out numerous trials since its establishment in 2002, including those of various leaders in the country as well as of former Liberian President Charles Taylor. The trials saw first-ever convictions for attacks against UN peacekeepers, forced marriage as a crime against humanity, and for the use of child soldiers.
“The United Nations is proud of its partnership with the Government of Sierra Leone in establishing the Special Court, which ensured accountability for the unspeakable crimes committed during Sierra Leone’s over a decade-long civil war, and thereby greatly contributed towards establishing peace and stability and in laying the ground for Sierra Leone’s long-term development,” said a statement issued by the spokesperson for the Secretary-General. “Of the impressive legacy and the many lessons that the work of the Special Court leaves behind as we move forward in truly establishing an age of accountability, one lesson stands out above all: justice is an indispensable element for peace to be sustainable in post-conflict societies,” it added.
The SCSL will be succeeded on 1 January 2014 by the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone, which will deal with matters arising from the ongoing legal obligations of the tribunal which could include the review of applications by convicts for early release or the judicial review of their convictions. Judges may also be called on to preside over any contempt of court proceedings.
At a formal ceremony held in Freetown earlier this month, Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and UN Legal Counsel Miguel de Serpa Soares hailed the closing of the SCSL as “a landmark, not only for the Special Court, but also for international criminal justice in general.” He said that the Special Court’s legacy would benefit both national courts in the region and around the world in dealing with vital issues, and paid tribute to the witnesses who stepped forward and allowed the Court “to inscribe their experiences in the history of this country.”
(adapted from a UN press release)
The United Nations peacekeeping mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has voiced grave concern over mounting evidence of gross human rights abuses in the strife-torn country, including extra-judicial killings of civilians and captured soldiers, massive displacements and arbitrary detentions, often on ethnic grounds. “I condemn in the strongest possible terms the atrocities committed against innocent civilians of different communities by elements from both sides during the crisis,” Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s Special Representative and head of UNMISS, Hilde Johnson, said. “There is no excuse for these terrible acts of violence. All perpetrators must be held accountable.”
UNMISS cited the discovery of large numbers of bodies in Juba, the capital, and the Upper Nile and Jonglei state capitals of Malakal and Bor. The conflict erupted in the world’s youngest country, which only gained independence in 2011 after seceding from Sudan, when President Salva Kiir said soldiers loyal to former deputy president Riek Machar, dismissed in July, launched an attempted coup. Mr. Kiir belongs to the Dinka ethnic group and Mr. Machar to the Lou Nuer, and UNMISS said it sees evidence of the apparent targeting of South Sudanese citizens on ethnic grounds. “This can lead to a perpetual cycle of violence that can destroy the fabric of the new nation,” it warned in a statement.
The Mission has several times previously called for an end to the serious human rights violations. “Available evidence indicates that atrocities are continuing to occur in various parts of South Sudan,” it said. “Many of these violations appear to be ethnically targeted. Most of the more brutal atrocities are reported to have been carried out by people wearing uniformUNMISS has been collecting information every day since the crisis began and pledged to continue “this priority task of investigating all reports of serious human rights violations and collecting evidence and eyewitness testimony in order to document such allegations.”It reminded all parties of their obligation to protect civilians and act in accordance with human rights and humanitarian law, and called on key leaders to send strong public messages to their respective constituencies insisting that the violence must stop, and that anyone disobeying these orders will be punished severely.
Ms. Johnson welcomed last week's decision of the African Union’s Peace and Security Council to establish a commission to investigate human rights violations and other abuses and recommend ways and means to ensure accountability, reconciliation and healing among all communities“The UN stands together with all the people of South Sudan and demands that all parties halt the violence with immediate effect,” UNMISS stated, calling on all sides to open talks for a peaceful resolution of their differences. “The leaders of all sides have a historic responsibility to the future and people of this young country.”
(Adapted from a UN press release)
The Supreme Court of Nepal has ruled against granting amnesty for serious human rights violations committed during a decade-long civil war.
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay welcomed the decision and called upon the Nepalese government to implement the decision "in the spirit of working towards genuine and lasting peace, and to respect the demand of the Nepalese people for justice."
The 2006 peace accord that ended the conflict in Nepal had agreed to establish a truth and reconciliation commission to investigate human rights violations that occurred from 1996 to 2006, during which at least 13,000 people were killed and 1,300 went missing. In March 2013, the Nepalese Government passed an Ordinance to establish the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and sought to provide it with the power to grant amnesties for serious human rights violations.
The Nepal Supreme Court ruled last week that the provisions of the Ordinance concerning amnesties, limitations on criminal prosecution and a 35-day limit for filing cases contravene fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution of Nepal, its justice system and international law. It also ordered the Commission to meet international standards, including with regard to guarantees of autonomy and impartiality, and ensure the involvement and protection of victims and witnesses.
"The Supreme Court's decision to block amnesties is the first step towards ensuring the Truth and Reconciliation Commission will not be used to avoid or delay criminal investigations and prosecutions of conflict-related cases," said the High Commissioner in the statement.
Ms. Pillay also stressed that further work is needed to reinforce criminal justice in Nepal as many serious human rights violations, including torture, sexual violence and enforced disappearances are still not properly sanctioned by domestic law. The senior official said that her office (OHCHR) stands ready to provide support and advice to the Government throughout this process.
(adapted from a UN press release) (mew)
The U.S. Department of State has announced amendments to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to revise five more categories on the U.S. munitions list (USML) and to provide other changes. Click here to read the Federal Register notice.
Thursday, December 26, 2013
On December 17, Timor-Leste brought suit against Australia at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) alleging that Australia has unlawfully seized and detained documents, data and other property that is subject to the protection of Timor-Leste under international law. More specifically, Timor-Leste alleges that Australian agents seized documentation and other property from the residence of legal advisor to Timor-Leste in Canberra, Australia that related to a pending arbitration under the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty between Timor-Leste and Australia. Timor-Leste requests that the documents and other property be returned and any copies destroyed and that Australia be ordered not to use any information obtained against Timor-Leste in the pending arbitration. In an increasingly common move, Timor-Leste requested the indication of provisional measures. Australia addressed an urgent communication to the Court on Dec. 20, requesting that the ICJ handle the matter with urgency. In response, the ICJ has announced it will hold hearings on the request for provisional measures on Jan. 20-22, 2014.
The application by Timor-Leste is not yet available on the ICJ website. As a result, the legal basis for Timor-Leste's claims are not entirely clear. Judging from the ICJ Press Release, it does not appear that Timor-Leste has referred to a particular treaty for the basis of its claim. There is no mention, for example, of the Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic and Consular Relations, suggesting that Timor-Leste does not claim the documents are protected by those treaties. It may be claiming instead that there is a general principle of international law that protects privileged communications between attorneys and and their clients as was found by the European Court of Justice in the AM&S case. More information regarding that case may be found here.
Tuesday, December 24, 2013
Sunday, December 22, 2013
The national legislature of Nigeria has passed new lew legislation that purports to ban same-sex marriage. But reports about the legislation state that it would do much more than that: it would, if signed into law by Nigeria's President, be one of the harshest anti-gay laws in the world. Even holding hands in public may be punishable by five years in prison, and failing to report someone who is gay would also be illegal. Human rights activists and international law advocates around the world express shock as they are learning about the legislation. Click here to read more.
Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed has been appointed as Prime Minister of Somalia, following a vote in the Federal Parliament.
Nicholas Kay, Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General, said that Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed takes office as Somalia approaches 2014, which will be a pivotal year in Somalia's progress towards peace and prosperity. Mr. Kay said that the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia(UNSOM), which he heads, will continue to support the Federal Government in its peace- and State-building efforts. He also noted outgoing Prime Minister Abdi Farah Shirdon Saaid's commitment to the Provisional Federal Constitution and the constructive manner in which he has handed over his responsibilities to his successor. Kay urged Parliament, the Government and the Presidency to continue working together constructively in full respect of the Provisional Federal Constitution.
(mew)(adapted from a UN press release)
Thursday, December 12, 2013
For those of you attending the annual meeting of the American Association of Law Schools (AALS) in New York City next month, please considering attending the program sponsored by the AALS Section on International Law:
INTERNATIONAL LAW-MAKING AND THE UNITED NATIONS
Friday, January 3, 2014, 8:30-10:15 am
This panel will explore contemporary developments, processes and controversies in international law-making by the United Nations. Speakers with experience in a range of U.N. bodies will share their observations, insights and analysis.
MAHNOUSH ARSANJANI, who served in the UN Office of Legal Affairs (OLA) for over three decades, most recently as Director of the Codification Division. She also served as Secretary of the International Law Commission (ILC) and Secretary of the Committee of the Whole, Rome Conference on the Establishment of the International Criminal Court.
KRISTEN BOON, Professor of Law Seton Hall Law School. Her scholarship has focused on the legal framework applicable to the law-making activities of IOs including the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in transitional situations such as Kosovo and Iraq. Past UN experience includes International Law Commission sessions (for Codification Division of OLA), Rome Conference on the International Criminal Court, UN Mission in Kosovo, UNHCR Secretariat in Geneva, UNHCR liaison office in New York.
PABLO CASTILLO DÍAZ, specialist at UN Women on sexual violence in conflict and gender-based violence in emergencies; work focuses on women’s rights protection in conflict and post-conflict situations, with special attention to training for UN peacekeepers and support to documentation and investigations of crimes of sexual violence. Sample publication in collaboration with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), developed pursuant to UN Security Council request, here.
KIMBERLY PROST, U.N. Security Council Ombudsperson for the Al Qaida Sanctions Committee, and Head of Legal Advisory Section, Division for Treaty Affairs, UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Previously a judge of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
Business Meeting at Program Conclusion
The United Nations human rights chief today voiced her disappointment at the re-criminalization of consensual same-sex relationships in India, calling it “a significant step backwards” for the country. In a decision announced yesterday, the Supreme Court upheld a colonial-era law, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides for the punishment of those found guilty of “unnatural offences.”
“Criminalising private, consensual same-sex sexual conduct violates the rights to privacy and to non-discrimination enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which India has ratified,” said UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay. The Supreme Court’s decision, she added in a news release, represents “a significant step backwards for India and a blow for human rights.”
In 2009, the Delhi High Court struck down Section 377 in so far as it applied to sexual conduct between consenting adults in private, on the basis that criminalising such conduct is incompatible with the fundamental principles of equality, dignity and non-discrimination enshrined in the Indian Constitution. The matter was referred to the Supreme Court on appeal.
India’s top court yesterday declared Section 377 to be constitutionally valid, thereby overturning the 2009 High Court decision and re-instating the law.
“The Supreme Court of India has a long and proud history of defending and expanding protection of human rights. This decision is a regrettable departure from that tradition,” Ms. Pillay said. She hoped that the Supreme Court might exercise its review procedure, in effect agreeing to rehear the case before a larger panel of judges, stating that such a review would provide an opportunity for judges to reconsider whether the decision took sufficient account of all relevant arguments.
More broadly, Ms. Pillay encouraged the Indian Parliament to take definitive action to decriminalise same-sex sexual conduct. She stressed the need to ensure effective protection for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex individuals from violence and discrimination.
(UN Press Release)
U.S. State Department Special Advisor for International Rights of Persons with Disabilities Judith Heumann and Senior Advisor and former Olympic athlete Michelle Kwan will participate in a Google+ Hangout on “Going For Gold: Advancing International Disability Rights” at the Department of State at 1:00 p.m. (EST) today, Thursday, December 5.
The Hangout will feature several U.S. Paralympic athletes, who will speak about the opportunities offered by international training and competition for Paralympians, as well as some of the challenges they face. The Hangout can be viewed live on the U.S. Department of State’s Google+ page and You Tube Channel. During the Hangout, live-captioning will be available here.
Wednesday, December 11, 2013
A United Nations human rights expert and the World Medical Association (WMA) has urged the Turkish parliament to reconsider a draft law that would criminalize the provision of medical care by qualified independent practitioners during emergencies after the arrival of a state ambulance. “If adopted, Article 33 will have a chilling effect on the availability and accessibility of emergency medical care in a country prone to natural disasters and a democracy that is not immune from demonstrations,” UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, Anand Grover, said in a news release. “Enacting laws and policies criminalizing provision of medical care to people challenging State authorities, such as political protestors, will certainly deter healthcare workers from providing services due to fear of prosecution,” he warned. Both Mr. Grover and the WMA have written individually to the Turkish Government expressing their grave concern about the requirements of Article 33 of the draft health bill, and called on parliamentarians to “scrap it.”
WMA Secretary General Otmar Kloiber pointed out that “in times of urgency, from earthquakes to floods to protests and demonstrations, the international standards for emergency medical care are based on the medical need of the wounded and sick rather than the presence of official medical transport.”
The two experts noted that international medical and human rights standards make it clear that it is a humanitarian duty of doctors, nurses, paramedics, and other health workers to give emergency care to those in need. “They must be able to carry out their professional responsibilities without interference or fear of reprisal,” they said.
(adapted from a UN press release)
Analysis of the decision can be found here on our sister blog, the Constitutional Law Prof Blog.
Photos and stories of protests across India can be found here.
Tuesday, December 10, 2013
Today, Tuesday, December 10, is Human Rights Day. It is the anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and an annual commemoration of those who strive for human rights - for themselves and for others. Given the recent passing of Nelson Mandela, it seems especially appropriate to take time this year to acknowledge those persons who have fought and continue to fight for human rights.
This year is the 20th anniversary of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, which created a common plan for strengthening human rights work around the world. It also called for the establishment of the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, which the UN General Assembly immediately acted upon. The first High Commissioner was installed in 1994. This year’s Human Rights Day theme is “20 Years Working for Your Rights.”
There are many actions you can take to support human rights. My local United Nations Association Chapter presents an annual Human Rights Day Award to a person or organization that has done significant work to advance human rights. This year, the award is being presented to the Marion Medical Mission and its founders for their work constructing tens of thousands of shallow wells to provide access to clean drinking water to persons in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia. You could also advocate for the adoption of human rights treaties, such as the Disabilities Treaty or the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, and the strengthening of bodies to implement human rights. Or you could simply say thank you to someone in your community who works to advance human rights.
Monday, December 9, 2013
The U.S. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments on December 11, 2013 in a case concerning international child abduction. The issue is whether the one-year filing deadline for a petition under the Hague Convention to return an abducted child is tolled when the abducting parent conceals the whereabouts of the child from the other parent.
Corruption is a barrier to achieving universally accepted development goals, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today said, calling on Governments, the private sector and civil society to take a collective stand against this social, political and economic disease affecting all countries. “To achieve an equitable, inclusive and more prosperous future for all, we must foster a culture of integrity, transparency, accountability and good governance,” Mr. Ban said in his message for International Anti-Corruption Day.
He stressed that corruption prevents achievement of the global anti-poverty targets known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and needs to be taken into account in defining and implementing a robust post-2015 development agenda. “Good governance is critical for sustainable development,” Mr. Ban noted, adding that corruption suppresses economic growth by driving up costs, breaches human rights, increases inequality, and undermines the sustainable management of natural resources.
Corruption has a devastating impact across the world. The World Bank estimates that every year between $20 billion and $40 billion are lost from developing countries due to corruption and bribery, but the scourge also impacts developed economies.
The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) today launched the ‘Zero Corruption – 100% Development’ campaign, designed by young people for young people to raise awareness about corruption.
The campaign focuses on the corrosive effects of corruption on development, highlighting that this crime undermines democracy and the rule of law, leads to human rights violations, distorts markets, erodes quality of life and allows organized crime and other threats to security to flourish, according to the joint campaign website.
To highlight the impact of corruption in the world of sport and business, the UN Global Compact, in collaboration with UNDP, today launched a Call to Action to mobilize private and public partners to engage in transparent procurement.
The UN has also developed guidelines to help businesses fight corruption in sport sponsorship and hospitality, Mr. Ban noted in his message.
The first global legally binding international anti-corruption instrument was the UN Convention against Corruption, which today marks its tenth anniversary. It was adopted by the General Assembly in 2003, the same year that the body designated 9 December as International Anti-Corruption Day to raise awareness of both corruption and the role of the Convention in combating and preventing it.
“The Convention is countering corruption in the areas of development, the environment, in the private sector, during major public events, match-fixing, asset recovery, and in many other areas of our lives,” said Yury Fedotov, the Executive Director of UNODC, which houses the Convention’s Secretariat.
At least 171 of the UN’s 193 Member States have so far ratified the Convention. It includes a review mechanism enabling countries to review their peers in a partnership process. In its fourth year, the review mechanism has helped 35 States to improve their anti-corruption laws, and led to the training of 1,400 experts, noted Mr. Fedotov.
(Excerpt from a U.N. press release)