Understanding the Economic Impact of the H-1B Program on the U.S. by John Bound(University of Michigan; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)), Gaurav Khanna(University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - Department of Economics), Nicolas Morales(University of Michigan at Ann Arbor), October 15, 2016 Sloan Foundation Economics Research Paper No. 2883348 Abstract: Over the 1990s, the share of foreigners entering the US high-skill workforce grew rapidly. This migration potentially had a significant effect on US workers, consumers and firms. To study these effects, we construct a general equilibrium model of the US economy and calibrate it using data from 1994 to 2001. Built into the model are positive effects high skilled immigrants have on innovation. Counterfactual simulations based on our model suggest that immigration increased the overall welfare of US natives, and had significant distributional consequences. In the absence of immigration, wages for US computer scientists would have been 2.6% to 5.1% higher and employment in computer science for US workers would have been 6.1% to 10.8% higher in 2001. On the other hand, complements in production benefited substantially from immigration, and immigration also lowered prices and raised the output of IT goods by between 1.9% and 2.5%, thus benefiting consumers. Finally, firms in the IT sector also earned substantially higher profits due to immigration.
Sarah Lopez is a professor in the University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture. Her work focuses on architectural history within the context of migration.
Of late, Lopez has been examining the architecture of immigrant detention facilities in Texas. It's not an easy project. As Lopez told the Texas Observer, “Studying the architecture of detention is hard... Unless you’re incarcerated or detained, or a warden or a food provider or medical assistant, basically, they don’t want you there.”
Lopez and her UT students participated in a nationwide project of the Humanities Action Lab called States of Incarceration. For their part of this project, they:
mapped the locations of detention centers throughout the state and used Google Earth to create silhouettes of each building’s footprint. The researchers even gained hard-won access to one county-run detention center and built a 3-D model from sketches. Their work marks an important step forward in understanding the physical reality of a clandestine and growing carceral system that prefers to exist just out of reach of the American imagination.
Check out this drawing of the La Salle Detention Center by Katie Slusher:
Her drawing is accompanying by these notes:
This layout is drafted from quick sketches and notations created during a tour of La Salle detention center. From an architectural point of view, the detainee living quarters, medical ward, segregation units, and outdoor space were particularly arresting. Aside from outdoor recreation time and voluntary work shifts (for which detainees earn 1 dollar per day), the remainder of a detainee’s average day is spent in a group cell. People with gang affiliations and/or individuals with disabilities are typically placed in smaller capacity or single occupancy rooms. The group cell has exposed bathrooms. Up to 48 men witness each-others’ every move throughout the day. The medical facilities within the detention center contain quarantine cells and a suicide watch room. The suicide watch room is particularly depressing, simply because such a room is necessary. Although used to detain migrants, La Salle has segregation units otherwise known as solitary confinement. Outdoor time for detainees in solitary is restricted to one of the three roof-less rooms extending off the segregation unit cellblock. The segregation unit is equal in size and quality of construction to the suicide watch room, and it is not unlikely that a person may be moved from one to the other.
For all detainees, time spent outside is limited to the federally mandated minimum of one hour per day. Massive barbed wire walls enclose the otherwise barren space.
An excellent project, and a great teaching resource for those of us who are geographically removed from immigration detention facilities.
Sat tuned for "Campito Kids", a short film, is the story of a migrant family as they struggle to overcome cultural barriers and adjust to their ever-shifting lives. It is based on the filmmaker's experiences and years of observations.
Campito Kids by Antonio De Loera-Brust was shot entirely in Yolo County, California in migrant camps.
"Survival for Venezuelans . . . is becoming a matter of flight. About 10,000 Venezuelans are streaming into Brazil every month in search of food and medicine, authorities say, camping out on the streets and swamping government services in Amazon frontier towns ill-prepared to receive them.
Oil-rich Venezuela has been an immigrant destination for much of its history. Now it is a place to flee. Chronic food shortages, rampant violence and the erratic and often paranoid behavior of President Nicolás Maduro have turned the country’s border crossings and beaches into escape valves."
In a post on The Conversation, I analyze the Trump administration's likely approach to crime-based removals: "In 2017, the Trump administration will likely continue and expand the Obama administration’s focus on removing immigrants convicted of crimes." Click here to read more.
Not surprisingly, the incoming Trump administration has building a wall on the US/Mexico border on the mind. Reuters reports that in a request for documents and analysis, President-elect Donald Trump's transition team asked the Department of Homeland Security last month to assess all assets available for border wall and barrier construction. The team also asked about the department's capacity for expanding immigrant detention and about an aerial surveillance program that was scaled back by the Obama administration but remains popular with immigration hardliners. And it asked whether federal workers have altered biographic information kept by the department about immigrants out of concern for their civil liberties.
The requests were made in a Dec. 5 meeting between Trump's transition team and Department of Homeland Security officials. The document offers a glimpse into the president-elect's strategy for securing the U.S. borders and reversing polices put in place by the Obama administration.
The deportees, flown to the capitol city of Bamako, did not travel on Malian passports but European travel permits (fancily called "laissez-passer").
Mali has an agreement with the EU under which Mali is supposed to assist in "identifying irregular Malian migrants in Europe and providing them with the documents needed to return to their country of origin." In return, Mali has received significant financial benefits in the neighborhood of $150 million.
Mali has warned airlines not to let people using traveling under European travel permits to fly to Mali.
"My father was like so many immigrants of his generation from Mexico: Coming north, without proper papers, looking for work and a better life for their families. Over the years, my father and people like him were demonized by those who felt they were ruining California and praised by others who believed their work ethic and labor were a boon to the state."
The Immigration Section program is on Thursday, January 5, 1:30-3:15 p.m. It is entitled, “Asylum from Persecution by Non-State Actors: Upholding and Updating Refugee Protection.” Moderated by Jennifer Moore, the panel features presentations by Susan Akram, Shalini Ray, and Shana Tabak. The Immigration section business meeting will be held immediately after the panel discussion.
Other immigration-themed programs include:
Wednesday, January 4
8:30 - 10:15 a.m. AALS Discussion Group The Central American Refugee Crisis: A Discussion of the Current Response and Evaluation of U.S. Legal Obligations under Domestic and International Law
10:30 am - 12:15 pm Admiralty and Maritime Law, Co-Sponsored by Immigration Law, Insurance Law, International Human Rights, International Law and National Security Law For Those in Peril on the Sea: Maritime Law, Criminal Law, and Human Rights in the Migrant and Refugee Crisis
1:00 pm - 5:00 pm Immigration Law Field Trip to Angel Island Museum Angel Island Museum, Angel Island, San Francisco
Thursday, January 5:
8:30 am - 10:15 am AALS Hot Topic Program Federal Power Over Immigration
8:30 am - 10:15 am Labor Relations and Employment Law, Co-Sponsored by Immigration Law, Business Associations, and Contracts Classifying Workers in the "Sharing" and "Gig” Economy
6:30 pm – 9 pm AALS Law and Film Series – The Feature Film Selection: La Jaula de Oro/ The Golden Dream (Sponsored by William S. Hein, Co., Inc.)
Friday, January 6:
1:30 pm - 3:15 pm AALS Academy Program Does Anyone’s Law Matter at the Border? Shootings, Searches, Walls, and the U.S. Constitution
1:30 pm - 3:15 pm Law and Mental Disability, Co-Sponsored by Criminal Justice, Immigration Law, Disability Law, Law and the Social Sciences, and Law, Medicine and Health Care Competence Revisited: The Changing Role of Mental Capacity in Criminal and Immigration Proceedings
Last night, Kathy Griffin and Anderson Cooper talked about their favorite shows to binge watch on New Years Day, when they're inevitably recovering from their evening amusing us masses with their uniquely wonderful New Year's Eve countdown show on CNN.
"So what it is it's where you have 90 days to bring someone from another country... and then you have 90 days to marry them or else they don't get their citizenship. ... It's called a K1 visa. And there's a lot of couples that, I'm going to be honest, you're not even pulling for, at all. Like the whole time you're like go back to your country no matter how horrible it seemed."
Okay, so her law isn't quite right. But it could be interesting. Here's the official promo:
Hm. I think I'll take a hard pass. But maybe it's just the thing for your NYE recovery efforts.
Mohammed Aqrawi served as an interpreter for U.S. armed forces in Iraq, translating Arabic and Kurdish into English. He survived 27 IED attacks and 11 car bombs during his time as a translator.
Despite his record of service, Aqrawi spent some seven years in immigration limbo. He applied for a special immigrant visa in 2009, and only just received final approval this month. He landed in his new home, Minnesota, on Christmas.
Public Forum:The opening workshop sessions (see forum flyer attached) on January 12, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:45 p.m., are open to the public. An introductory panel will discuss challenges to deeper cross-disciplinary collaboration on asylum representation. Late morning and early afternoon panels on country conditions in the Northern Triangle will present field research on a wide range of relevant issues, including gangs and insecurity; state and community responses to violence; state capacity; returned migrants and reintegration; family violence; gender-based violence; forced recruitment; and religion and political opinion-based persecution.
Please note that space is limited and that available lunch vouchers will be distributed to guests who RSVP on a first-come, first-served basis.
9:00am – 9:15am Welcome and Introductions
9:15am – 10:45am Challenges to Deeper Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration on Asylum Representation Lenni Benson, New York Law School; Elizabeth Keyes, University of Baltimore Law School; Kimberly Gauderman, University of New Mexico; Cristina Muñiz de la Peña, Terra Firma; Blaine Bookey, UC Hastings Center for Gender & Refugee Studies; Ian Philabaum, Innovation Law Lab Moderator: Jayesh Rathod, American University
11:00am – 12:15pm Country Conditions in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras: The State of Research (Part 1) José Miguel Cruz, Florida International University; Alex Segovia, INCIDE; Ricardo Barrientos, Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales; Mauricio Gaborit, Universidad Ceontramericana “José Simeón Cañas” Moderator: Clare Seelke, Congressional Research Service
12:15pm – 1:30pm Lunch Presentation - A Flawed System: Structural Challenges Facing Central American Asylum Seekers Stephen Manning, Immigrant Law Group PC
1:30pm – 2:45pm Country Conditions in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras: The State of Research (Part 2) Elizabeth Kennedy, San Diego State University; Steven Dudley, American University; Cecilia Menjívar, University of Kansas; Robert Brenneman, St. Michael’s College Moderator: Eric Hershberg, American University
What difference does law make in immigration policymaking? Since the 1970s, networks of progressive attorneys in both the US and France have attempted to use litigation to assert rights for non-citizens. Yet judicial engagement - while numerically voluminous - remains doctrinally curtailed. This study offers new insights into the constitutive role of law in immigration policymaking by focusing on the legal frames, narratives, and performances forged through action in court. Challenging the conventional wisdom that 'cause litigation' has little long-term impact on policymaking unless it produces broad rights-protective principles, this book shows that legal contestation can have important radiating effects on policy by reshaping how political actors approach immigration issues. Based on extensive fieldwork in the United States and France, this book explores the paths by which litigation has effected policy change in two paradigmatically different national contexts.
"As Professor Kawar points out, she is not the first to address this question. A considerable amount research has investigated the efficacy of shaping migration policy through legal interventions. That is, can the courts be a useful venue for constraining restrictionist immigration policies? In Professor Kawar’s assessment, the conventional wisdom resulting from this body of work is that the law has little impact on immigration policy matters (p. 153). In CONTESTING IMMIGRATION POLICY IN COURT, Professor Kawar makes a compelling and provocative argument for why this view is premature, or at the very least, incomplete. Her main thesis is that prior research in this area has focused too narrowly on official case dispositions and the degree to which these legal rules limit immigration policies. As a result, “we neglect to consider how the process of contesting immigration policy in court may constitute the very terms of immigration politics” (p. 10). This book seeks to address this oversight. "
"Although less than 8 percent of the noncitizen population in the United States is black, more than 20 percent of immigrants in deportation proceedings on criminal grounds are black," notes P.R. Lockhart, writing for Mother Jones in Black Immigrants Brace for Dual Hardships Under Trump. That disparity results from the fact that black immigrants in the U.S., like African Americans, are more likely to have criminal convictions.
Jonathan Jayes-Green, a founder and coordinator of the UndocuBlack Network, a group that advocates for the black undocumented community, told Lockhart: "I think our communities were already in a state of emergency under a Democratic president... so as we think about the next administration, our community has gone into a sort of crisis control."
Immigrants (We Get The Job Done) is a track on the new Hamilton Mixtape. It's inspired by a line in the Hamilton musical uttered by Daveed Diggs as the Marquis de Lafayette and Lin-Manuel Miranda as Alexander Hamilton during the number Yorktown (The World Turned Upside Down).
The Mixtape song features verses by K'naan, Snow Tha Product, Riz MC, and Residente. It is equal measures hopeful, desperate, and angry.
Check out these K'naan lines: "Man, I was brave, sailing on graves / Don’t think I didn’t notice those tombstones disguised as waves."
And these from Snow Tha Product: "It’s a hard line when you’re an import / Baby boy, it's hard times / When you ain't sent for."
Or these from Riz MC: "Who these fugees what did they do for me / But contribute new dreams / Taxes and tools, swagger and food to eat."
Click here for the full lyrics. It's good to read them while listening to the music.
In recent years, a number of states have enacted laws making undocumented immigrants eligible for driver's licenses. The San Jose Mercury News reports that "Two years after the implementation of [California's] AB 60 on Jan. 1, 2015, an estimated 806,000 undocumented residents have received driver’s licenses, according to Department of Motor Vehicles statistics this month. About 14,000 of these licenses were issued in November alone, the DMV said." To qualify for a driver’s license under AB 60, applicants must prove their identity and residency in California; pass the written exam and a driving test; submit thumbprints and show proof of insurance, among other requirements. AB 60 licenses are marked with the words, “federal limits apply.” They have language on them indicating that the card is for driving purposes only and may not be used for identification.
“It’s a stark reminder that the migrants lost in the Mediterranean are not the only ones who face death to escape war, tyranny and economic despair. Along the southwestern border of the United States an ocean of arid land claims lives as surely as the sea between Europe and Africa. Often just as anonymously and leaving families forever wondering about missing loved ones. Ricky Carioti captured the discovery of a skull in a way akin to a macabre Renaissance painting, disturbing and troubling, a reminder that death awaits.” — Mark Miller
“I had seen many heartbreaking images of refugees crammed in boats, dying, trying to escape the horrors happening in Syria — but none moved me quite the way this photo did. The photo of Eritrean refugees swimming to a rescue boat off the coast of Libya made the crisis very real for me. Photographer Emilio Morenatti captured their desperation and struggle as they swam for their lives. At that moment, it felt as if they were swimming to me.” — Dee Swann
"No doubt automation and globalization have also affected wages, but mass immigration accelerates these trends with surplus labor, which of course decreases wages. Little wonder, then, that these Americans voted for the candidate who promised higher wages and less immigration instead of all the candidates — Republicans and Democrats alike — who promised essentially more of the same on immigration."