Friday, May 16, 2014
After Wopper Barraza's fourth drunk driving violation, the judge orders his immediate deportation. "But I haven't been there since I was a little kid," says Wopper, whose parents brought him to California when he was three years old. Now he has to move back to Michoacán. When he learns that his longtime girlfriend is pregnant, the future looks even more uncertain. Wopper's story unfolds as life in a rural village takes him in new and unexpected directions.
This immigrant saga in reverse is a story of young people who must live with the reality of their parents' dream. We know this story from the headlines, but up to now it has been unexplored literary territory.
Monday, May 12, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Making Hispanics: How Activists, Bureaucrats, and Media Constructed a New American by G. Cristina Mora
How did Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Cubans become known as “Hispanics” and “Latinos” in the United States? How did several distinct cultures and nationalities become portrayed as one? Cristina Mora answers both these questions and details the scope of this phenomenon in Making Hispanics. She uses an organizational lens and traces how activists, bureaucrats, and media executives in the 1970s and '80s created a new identity category—and by doing so, permanently changed the racial and political landscape of the nation. Some argue that these cultures are fundamentally similar and that the Spanish language is a natural basis for a unified Hispanic identity. But Mora shows very clearly that the idea of ethnic grouping was historically constructed and institutionalized in the United States. During the 1960 census, reports classified Latin American immigrants as “white,” grouping them with European Americans. Not only was this decision controversial, but also Latino activists claimed that this classification hindered their ability to portray their constituents as underrepresented minorities. Therefore, they called for a separate classification: Hispanic. Once these populations could be quantified, businesses saw opportunities and the media responded. Spanish-language television began to expand its reach to serve the now large, and newly unified, Hispanic community with news and entertainment programming.
Through archival research, oral histories, and interviews, Mora reveals the broad, national-level process that led to the emergence of Hispanicity in America.
Saturday, May 3, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Immigration and the Next America: Renewing the Soul of Our Nation by Archbishop José Gomez
Archbishop José Gomez has written a personal, passionate and practical contribution to the national debate about immigration - pointing the way toward a recovery of America's highest ideals.
"Immigration is a human rights test of our generation. It's also a defining historical moment for America. The meaning of this hour is that we need to renew our country in the image of her founding promises of universal rights rooted in God. Immigration is about more than immigration. It's about renewing the soul of America." —Archbishop José H. Gomez Archbishop
José H. Gomez is one of the leading moral voices in the American Catholic Church. He is the Archbishop of Los Angeles, the nation's largest Catholic community and the Chairman of the United States Catholic Bishops' Committee on Migration and a papal appointee to the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. Archbishop Gomez is a native of Monterrey, Mexico and a naturalized U.S. citizen.
Monday, April 28, 2014
FROM THE BOOKSHLEVES: Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists (by Jeffrey Kahn, University of Michigan Press, 2013)
Since 9/11, migration-related security measures, including a growing reliance on watch-lists, have limited the right to travel. Jeffrey Kahn’s book, Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists, examines the legal and policy questions raised by prohibitions on travel by U.S. citizens. Click here for a link to the review.
Tuesday, April 22, 2014
REVIEW ESSAY J. Angelo Corlett & Kimberly Unger, "The Collateral Damage of Opening Floodgates: Problems with Kevin R. Johnson's Arguments for U.S. Immigration Reform"
Here is a review essay of my book Opening the Floodgates: Why America Needs to Rethink Its Borders and Immigration Laws (2009) by J. Angelo Corlett and Kimberly Unger "The Collateral Damage of Opening Floodgates: Problems with Kevin R. Johnson's Arguments for U.S. Immigration Reform.”
Monday, April 21, 2014
In 1976, when Paul Hsu decided to bid farewell to his native Taiwan and emigrated to the U.S., he was in search of a better education and more promising career prospects. What he found was the land of opportunity. Now a business owner, engineer, presidential appointee, and devoted husband and father, Paul is a proud American who’s aspirations and drive to make a better life for himself, his family and the people around him would not have come to fruition were it not for that fateful choice he made almost 40 years ago.
In Guardians of the Dream, Paul recounts his journey as a newly arrived immigrant with $500 to his name to founder and chief executive of a 450-employee company with annual revenues of $60 million. In addition, the new book captures his insights on the invaluable role today’s immigrants play in keeping America atop the global marketplace.
A refutation of the cynical pronouncements that America and its ideals are in decline, as well as a reaffirmation of the unifying principles that served to shape the most powerful democracy and economy in the world, Guardians of the Dream is testament that the American Dream—in large part because of its tradition of immigrants—is alive and as strong as ever.
Wednesday, April 9, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Becoming American Why Immigration Is Good for Our Nation's Future by Fariborz Ghadar
Becoming American Why Immigration Is Good for Our Nation's Future by Fariborz Ghadar
For policy makers, business leaders, and American citizens, immigration reform is one of the defining issues of our time. In turns both personal and analytical, remaining factual and well-argued throughout, Fariborz Ghadar’s Becoming American makes the case for common sense immigration policies and practices that will not only help strengthen America’s economy and role as world leader, but will also help millions of prospective immigrants and their families start making more out of their lives today, and for generations to come. The author is an Iranian immigrant who fled his homeland decades ago in search of a more stable and successful future. Weaving his personal story into that of the millions of immigrants facing unnecessary hurdles at the global level, he demonstrates the need for our governments and leaders to make policy decisions intelligently – not just based on current circumstances – but with an eye toward a future brighter than our current state of dysfunction, uncertainty, and regrettable bigotry towards those with funny names. Based on our nation’s undeniable history as a nation of immigrants, we cannot fail to address the impact that immigration will have on our future if we want to accurately plan for a thriving, diverse and better tomorrow. Becoming American understand helps readers not only the mindset of America’s immigrant populations, but makes the case for America once more as a place for the world’s hardest workers, loftiest dreamers, and most prosperous people.
Fariborz Ghadar is the founding director of The Center for Global Business Studies at Penn State University, and a Distinguished Scholar and Senior Adviser at the Center for Strategic & International Studies.
Friday, April 4, 2014
From the Bookshelves: To March for Others: The Black Freedom Struggle and the United Farm Workers by Lauren Araiza
In 1966, members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, an African American civil rights group with Southern roots, joined Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers union on its 250-mile march from Delano to Sacramento, California, to protest the exploitation of agricultural workers. SNCC was not the only black organization to support the UFW: later on, the NAACP, the National Urban League, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the Black Panther Party backed UFW strikes and boycotts against California agribusiness throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s. To March for Others explores the reasons why black activists, who were committed to their own fight for equality during this period, crossed racial, socioeconomic, geographic, and ideological divides to align themselves with a union of predominantly Mexican American farm workers in rural California.
Lauren Araiza considers the history, ideology, and political engagement of these five civil rights organizations, representing a broad spectrum of African American activism, and compares their attitudes and approaches to multiracial coalitions. Through their various relationships with the UFW, Araiza examines the dynamics of race, class, labor, and politics in twentieth-century freedom movements. The lessons in this eloquent and provocative study apply to a broader understanding of political and ethnic coalition building in the contemporary United States.
Lauren Araiza is Associate Professor of History at Denison University.
Thursday, April 3, 2014
From the Bookshelves: The Dangerous Divide: Peril and Promise on the US-Mexico Border by Peter Eichstaedt
The Dangerous Divide Peril and Promise on the US-Mexico Border By Peter Eichstaedt
How do we balance border security and America’s need for a vital workforce while continuing to provide access to the American dream? Since the attacks of 9/11, the United States has steadily ramped up security along the U.S.-Mexico border, transforming America’s legendary Southwest into a frontier of fear. Veteran journalist Peter Eichstaedt roams this fabled region from Tucson, Arizona, to El Paso, Texas, meeting with migrants, border security advocates, and communities ravaged by cross-border crime. He rides with the border patrol and reveals the tragic situation that has evolved along the border. Eichstaedt finds that despite tens of thousands of border agents and the expenditure of billions of dollars, an estimated one million Mexicans and Central Americans continue to cross the border each year. These migrants fill jobs that have become the underpinnings of the U.S. economy. Rather than building more and better barricades, Eichstaedt argues that the United States must reform its immigration and drug laws and acknowledge that costly, counterproductive, and antiquated policies have created deadly circumstances on both sides of the border. Recognizing the truth of America’s long and tortured relations with Mexico must be followed by legitimizing the contributions made by migrants to the American way of life.
Thursday, March 27, 2014
Fifteen journalists have been selected for a fellowship program that will focus on challenges faced by children in immigrant families and how government policy impacts their lives. The Institute for Justice and Journalism will conduct its annual “Immigration in the Heartland” program at the University of Oklahoma April 27-30. The training places special emphasis on the issues developing as more immigrants settle in small towns and suburbs rather than the large cities that have been traditional immigration gateways. This year’s program will feature discussions with experts and data journalism workshops. Among the featured speakers are Sonia Nazario, author of “Enrique’s Journey,” who will discuss the increase in child migrants, and sociologist Joanna Dreby, who will talk about the differences between immigrant children growing up in rural versus urban environments.
Sunday, March 23, 2014
Many low-income countries and development organizations are calling for greater liberalization of labor immigration policies in high-income countries. At the same time, human rights organizations and migrant rights advocates demand more equal rights for migrant workers. The Price of Rights shows why you cannot always have both.
Examining labor immigration policies in over forty countries, as well as policy drivers in major migrant-receiving and migrant-sending states, Martin Ruhs finds that there are trade-offs in the policies of high-income countries between openness to admitting migrant workers and some of the rights granted to migrants after admission. Insisting on greater equality of rights for migrant workers can come at the price of more restrictive admission policies, especially for lower-skilled workers. Ruhs advocates the liberalization of international labor migration through temporary migration programs that protect a universal set of core rights and account for the interests of nation-states by restricting a few specific rights that create net costs for receiving countries.
The Price of Rights analyzes how high-income countries restrict the rights of migrant workers as part of their labor immigration policies and discusses the implications for global debates about regulating labor migration and protecting migrants. It comprehensively looks at the tensions between human rights and citizenship rights, the agency and interests of migrants and states, and the determinants and ethics of labor immigration policy.
Saturday, March 22, 2014
The Crusades of Cesar Chavez by Miriam Pawel
Cesar Chavez founded a labor union, launched a movement, and inspired a generation. He rose from migrant worker to national icon, becoming one of the great charismatic leaders of the 20th century. Two decades after his death, Chavez remains the most significant Latino leader in US history. Yet his life story has been told only in hagiography—until now.
In the first comprehensive biography of Chavez, Miriam Pawel offers a searching yet empathetic portrayal. Chavez emerges here as a visionary figure with tragic flaws; a brilliant strategist who sometimes stumbled; and a canny, streetwise organizer whose pragmatism was often at odds with his elusive, soaring dreams. He was an experimental thinker with eclectic passions—an avid, self-educated historian and a disciple of Gandhian non-violent protest.
Drawing on thousands of documents and scores of interviews, this superbly written life deepens our understanding of one of Chavez’s most salient qualities: his profound humanity. Pawel traces Chavez’s remarkable career as he conceived strategies that empowered the poor and vanquished California’s powerful agriculture industry, and his later shift from inspirational leadership to a cult of personality, with tragic consequences for the union he had built. The Crusades of Cesar Chavez reveals how this most unlikely American hero ignited one of the great social movements of our time.
Miriam Pawel is an award-winning reporter and editor who spent twenty-five years working for Newsday and the Los Angeles Times.
This book review in the Los Angeles Times highlights the book's look at Chavez's treatment of undocumented immigrants:
"Pawel does not shy away from the more disturbing sides of Chavez and the UFW. Chavez railed against illegal immigration, encouraging deportations — even though in parts of California most farm workers were undocumented, and many were willing to organize and become part of the UFW.
Cesar's cousin, Manuel Chavez, working for Chavez and the UFW, hired thugs to beat up migrants at the border in Arizona and bribed local police to let the vigilantes do their work, a project, as Pawel notes, decidedly at odds with Cesar's `steadfast commitment to nonviolence.'"
The Crusades of Cesar Chavez is likely to contrast sharply with the soon-to-be-released film Cesar Chavez.
Friday, March 21, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Living the Dream: New Immigration Policies and the Lives of Undocumented Latino Youth
Living the Dream: New Immigration Policies and the Lives of Undocumented Latino Youth by Maria Chavez, Jessica L. Lavariega Monforti, Melissa R. Michelson, available September 2014
In 2012, President Obama deferred the deportation of qualified undocumented youth, forever changing the lives of the approximately five million DREAMers currently in the US. Formerly “illegal,” a generation of Latino youth have begun to build new lives based on their newfound “legitimacy.” In this book, the first to examine the lives of DREAMers in the wake of Obama’s action, the authors relay the real life stories of more than 100 DREAMers from four states. They assess the life circumstances in which undocumented Latino youth find themselves, the racializing effects generated by current immigration public discourse, and the permanent impact of this policy environment on DREAMers in America.
Thursday, March 20, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Soft Soil, Black Grapes: The Birth of Italian Winemaking in California by Simone Cinotto
Soft Soil, Black Grapes: The Birth of Italian Winemaking in California by Simone Cinotto 277 pages March, 2014 ISBN: 9781479832361
Winner of the 2013 New York Book Show Award in Scholarly/Professional Book Design
From Ernest and Julio Gallo to Francis Ford Coppola, Italians have shaped the history of California wine. More than any other group, Italian immigrants and their families have made California viticulture one of America’s most distinctive and vibrant achievements, from boutique vineyards in the Sonoma hills to the massive industrial wineries of the Central Valley. But how did a small group of nineteenth-century immigrants plant the roots that flourished into a world-class industry? Was there something particularly “Italian” in their success? In this fresh, fascinating account of the ethnic origins of California wine, Simone Cinotto rewrites a century-old triumphalist story. He demonstrates that these Italian visionaries were not skilled winemakers transplanting an immemorial agricultural tradition, even if California did resemble the rolling Italian countryside of their native Piedmont. Instead, Cinotto argues that it was the wine-makers’ access to “social capital,” or the ethnic and familial ties that bound them to their rich wine-growing heritage, and not financial leverage or direct enological experience, that enabled them to develop such a successful and influential wine business. Focusing on some of the most important names in wine history—particularly Pietro Carlo Rossi, Secondo Guasti, and the Gallos—he chronicles a story driven by ambition and creativity but realized in a complicated tangle of immigrant entrepreneurship, class struggle, racial inequality, and a new world of consumer culture.
Skillfully blending regional, social, and immigration history, Soft Soil, Black Grapes takes us on an original journey into the cultural construction of ethnic economies and markets, the social dynamics of American race, and the fully transnational history of American wine.
Simone Cinotto teaches History at the University of Gastronomic Sciences in Pollenzo, Italy.
Wednesday, March 19, 2014
From the Booskshelves: Midnight in México: A Reporter’s Journey Through a Country’s Descent into Darkness by Alfredo Corchado
In the last six years, more than 80,000 people have been killed or disappeared in the Mexican drug war, where trafficking is a multi-billion dollar business. In a country where the powerful are rarely scrutinized, noted Mexican American journalist Alfredo Corchado refuses to shrink from reporting on government corruption, murders in Juarez, or the ruthless drug cartels of Mexico. A paramilitary group spun off from the Gulf cartel, the Zetas, controls key drug routes in the north of the country. In 2007, Corchado received a tip that he could be their next target—and he had 24 hours to find out if the threat was true.
Rather than leave his country, Corchado goes out into the Mexican countryside to investigate the threat. The more curious he becomes, the more secrets he uncovers. As he frantically contacts his sources, Corchado suspects the threat is his punishment for returning to Mexico against his mother’s wishes. His parents had fled north decades earlier after the death of their young daughter, and they raised their children in the California field where they worked as migrant farmers.
Corchado returned to Mexico as a journalist in 1994, convinced that Mexico would one day foster political accountability and leave behind the pervasive corruption that has plagued its people for decades. But in this land of extremes, the gap of inequality—and injustice–remains wide. Even after the 2000 election that put Mexico’s opposition party in power for the first time, the opportunities of democracy did not materialize. The long-ruling PRI had worked with the cartels, taking a piece of their profit in exchange for a more peaceful, and more controlled, drug trade. But, the party’s long awaited defeat created a vacuum of power in Mexico City, and in the cartel-controlled states that border the U.S. The cartels went to war with each other in the mid 2000s, during the war to regain control of the country instituted by President Felipe Calderón, only the violence flourished.
The work Corchado lives for could kill him, but he’s not ready to leave Mexico—not yet, maybe never. Midnight in Mexico is the story of one man’s quest to report the truth of his country as he races to save his own life. It is his search for home and in the darkest hours his determination to find hope. At the dawn of a new sexenio and as Democrats and Republicans debate immigration reform, Corchado’s book is an essential read.
Tuesday, March 18, 2014
Stephen Steinberg in the Boston Review has this to say about a new book by a pair of Yale Law School professors:
"The tiger couple is chasing its own tail, which is to say, they are stuck in circular reasoning. In their new book, The Triple Package, Amy Chua, author of the best-selling Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, and Jed Rubenfeld tackle the question of why certain groups are overrepresented in the pantheon of success. They postulate the reason for their success is that these groups are endowed with “the triple package”: a superiority complex, a sense of insecurity, and impulse control. The skeptic asks, “How do we know that?” To which they respond: “They’re successful, aren’t they?”
"But Chua and Rubenfeld proffer no facts to show that their exemplars of ethnic success—Jewish Nobel Prize winners, Mormon business magnates, Cuban exiles, Indian and Chinese super-achievers—actually possess this triple package. Or that possessing these traits is what explains their disproportionate success. For that matter, they do not demonstrate that possessing the triple package is connected, through the mystical cord of history, to Jewish sages, Confucian precepts, or Mormon dogma. Perhaps, as critics of Max Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism have contended, success came first and only later was wrapped in the cloth of religion. In other words, like elites throughout history, Chua and Rubenfeld’s exemplars enshroud their success in whatever system of cultural tropes was available, whether in the Talmud, Confucianism, Mormonism, or the idolatry of White Supremacy. The common thread that runs through these myths of success is that they provide indispensable legitimacy for social class hierarchy."
Monday, March 17, 2014
After all the green beer has been poured and the ubiquitous shamrocks fade away, what does it mean to be Irish American besides St. Patrick’s Day? Who’s Your Paddy traces the evolution of “Irish” as a race-based identity in the U.S. from the 19th century to the present day. Exploring how the Irish have been and continue to be socialized around race, Jennifer Nugent Duffy argues that Irish identity must be understood within the context of generational tensions between different waves of Irish immigrants as well as the Irish community’s interaction with other racial minorities. Using historic and ethnographic research, Duffy sifts through the many racial, class, and gendered dimensions of Irish-American identity by examining three distinct Irish cohorts in Greater New York: assimilated descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants; “white flighters” who immigrated to postwar America and fled places like the Bronx for white suburbs like Yonkers in the 1960s and 1970s; and the newer, largely undocumented migrants who began to arrive in the 1990s. What results is a portrait of Irishness as a dynamic, complex force in the history of American racial consciousness, pertinent not only to contemporary immigration debates but also to the larger questions of what it means to belong, what it means to be American.
The Great Irish Famine is the most pivotal event in modern Irish history, with implications that cannot be underestimated. Over a million people perished between 1845-1852, and well over a million others fled to other locales within Europe and America. By 1850, the Irish made up a quarter of the population in Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The 2000 US census had 41 million people claim Irish ancestry, or one in five white Americans. Atlas of the Great Irish Famine (1845-52) considers how such a near total decimation of a country by natural causes could take place in industrialized, 19th century Europe and situates the Great Famine alongside other world famines for a more globally informed approach. The Atlas seeks to try and bear witness to the thousands and thousands of people who died and are buried in mass Famine pits or in fields and ditches, with little or nothing to remind us of their going. The centrality of the Famine workhouse as a place of destitution is also examined in depth. Likewise the atlas represents and documents the conditions and experiences of the many thousands who emigrated from Ireland in those desperate years, with case studies of famine emigrants in cities such as Liverpool, Glasgow, New York and Toronto. The Atlas places the devastating Irish Famine in greater historic context than has been attempted before, by including over 150 original maps of population decline, analysis and examples of poetry, contemporary art, written and oral accounts, numerous illustrations, and photography, all of which help to paint a fuller picture of the event and to trace its impact and legacy. In this comprehensive and stunningly illustrated volume, over fifty chapters on history, politics, geography, art, population, and folklore provide readers with a broad range of perspectives and insights into this event.
Monday, March 3, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Italian Immigrant Radical Culture The Idealism of the Sovversivi in the United States, 1890-1940 by Marcella Bencivenni
Maligned by modern media and often stereotyped, Italian Americans possess a vibrant, if largely forgotten, radical past. In Italian Immigrant Radical Culture, Marcella Bencivenni delves into the history of the sovversivi, a transnational generation of social rebels, and offers a fascinating portrait of their political struggle as well as their milieu, beliefs, and artistic creativity in the United States. As early as 1882, the sovversivi founded a socialist club in Brooklyn. Radical organizations then multiplied and spread across the country, from large urban cities to smaller industrial mining areas. By 1900, thirty official Italian sections of the Socialist Party along the East Coast and countless independent anarchist and revolutionary circles sprang up throughout the nation. Forming their own alternative press, institutions, and working class organizations, these groups created a vigorous movement and counterculture that constituted a significant part of the American Left until World War II.
Italian Immigrant Radical Culture compellingly documents the wide spectrum of this oppositional culture and examines the many cultural and artistic forms it took, from newspapers to literature and poetry to theater and visual art. As the first cultural history of Italian American activism, it provides a richer understanding of the Italian immigrant experience while also deepening historical perceptions of radical politics and culture.
Thursday, February 27, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Reform Without Justice: Latino Migrant Politics and the Homeland Security State by Alfonso Gonzales
Placed within the context of the past decade's war on terror and emergent and countervailing Latino rights movement, Reform without Justice addresses the issue of state violence against migrants in the United States. It questions why it is that, despite its success in mobilizing millions, the Latino immigrant rights movement has not been able to effectively secure sustainable social justice victories for itself or more successfully defend the human rights of migrants.
Gonzales argues that the contemporary Latino rights movement faces a dynamic form of political power that he terms "anti-migrant hegemony". This anti-migrant hegemony, found in sites of power from Congress, to think tanks, talk shows and the prison system, is a force through which a rhetorically race neutral and common sense public policy discourse, consistent with the rules of post-civil rights racism, is deployed to criminalize migrants. Critically, large sectors of "pro-immigrant" groups, including the Hispanic Congressional Caucus and the National Council of La Raza, have conceded to coercive immigration enforcement measures such as a militarized border wall and the expansion of immigration policing in local communities in exchange for so-called Comprehensive Immigration Reform. Gonzales says that it is precisely when immigration reformers actively adopt the discourse and policies of the leading anti-immigrant forces that the power of anti-migrant hegemony can best be observed.
Tuesday, February 11, 2014
From the Bookshelves: Color Matters: Skin Tone Bias and the Myth of a Postracial America Edited by Kimberly Jade Norwood
Color Matters: Skin Tone Bias and the Myth of a Postracial America Edited by Kimberly Jade Norwood. Routledge – 2014
In the United States, as in many parts of the world, people are discriminated against based on the color of their skin. This type of skin tone bias, or colorism, is both related to and distinct from discrimination on the basis of race, with which it is often conflated. Preferential treatment of lighter skin tones over darker occurs within racial and ethnic groups as well as between them. While America has made progress in issues of race over the past decades, discrimination on the basis of color continues to be a constant and often unremarked part of life.
In Color Matters, Kimberly Jade Norwood has collected the most up-to-date research on this insidious form of discrimination, including perspectives from the disciplines of history, law, sociology, and psychology. Anchored with historical chapters that show how the influence and legacy of slavery have shaped the treatment of skin color in American society, the contributors to this volume bring to light the ways in which colorism affects us all--influencing what we wear, who we see on television, and even which child we might pick to adopt.
Sure to be an eye-opening collection for anyone curious about how race and color continue to affect society, Color Matters provides students of race in America with wide-ranging overview of a crucial topic.
Here is the contents of the volume:
Introduction Kimberly Norwood
1. The Ubiquitousness of Colorism: Then and Now, Kimberly Norwood and Violeta Foreman
2. The Origins of Colorism in Early American Law, Paul Finkelman
3. The Rise and Fall of the One-Drop Rule: How the Importance of Color Came to Eclipse Race, Kevin D. Brown
4. A Darker Shade of Pale Revisited: Disaggregated Blackness and Colorism in the "Postracial" Obama Era, Taunya Banks
5. Interracial Intimacy in the Context of Colorism: How Skin Color Matters, Kellina Craig-Henderson
6. Fragmented Identity: Psychological Insecurity and Colorism among African Americans, Vetta Sanders Thompson
7. Colorism and Blackthink: A Modern Augmentation of Double Consciousness, Kimberly Jade Norwood
8. The Implications of Skin Color vis-à-vis Discrimination: Revisiting Affirmative Action, Ronald Hall and Adrienne Johnson
9. A New Way Forward: The Development and Preliminary Validation of Two Colorism Scales, Richard D. Harvey, Kira Hudson Banks, and Rachel E. Tennial