Friday, May 8, 2009
This week's Journal of the American Medical Association contains an article by Professor David Orentlicher on health reform and how and what three components a successful reform should contain. He writes,
For the first time since 1994, there appears to be a real window of opportunity to enact universal health care coverage. President Obama and leading members of Congress have made health care reform a top priority. With 45 million individuals uninsured, and millions more finding their health care insurance inadequate, the United States may finally join the ranks of other industrialized countries and guarantee coverage for all of its citizens.
Proposed reforms take many forms and run a broad range in terms of their underlying philosophy, sources of financing, and role for the government. Many advocates want to rely more on competition and the market, whereas others believe greater government intervention is essential. Some call for more patient responsibility, while others focus on reform of physician practices.
Many of the arguments are familiar. Market proponents claim that government intervention will stifle innovation, lower quality, and drive up costs. Supporters of a bigger role for the government respond that health care markets are dysfunctional. According to this view, competition in health care does not work as it does in other sectors of the economy, but instead generates high costs and wasteful spending.
This Commentary considers the history of public welfare programs in the United States to identify proposals that actually can achieve universal coverage. Universal coverage is not the only goal of health care reform; reforms also should improve quality and contain costs. Nevertheless, universal coverage is a key goal, and it is essential to identify the viable options for reaching it.
A variety of approaches could in theory ensure coverage for everyone, and in practice have done so in many countries. But only a few approaches could do so in the United States, where social values and the structure of political power set important limits on the kinds of public programs that can succeed. Specifically, to achieve universal coverage, a government plan should include 3 basic components.. . . . .. With these 3 elements—a federal program funded by payroll taxes for all US individuals—there are 3 main options for achieving universal access to health care.