Gender and the Law Prof Blog

Editor: Tracy A. Thomas
University of Akron School of Law

Thursday, February 23, 2017

Book Talk (video): Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Feminist Foundations of Family Law

ECSBookJacket

 

Tracy A. Thomas, Book Talk: Elizabeth Cady Stanton & the Feminist Foundations of Family Law, University of Akron, Center for Constitutional Law (Feb. 9, 2017).

In this presentation, I talk about Stanton's impact on family law, the feminist reforms of family law in the 19th century, and broader goals of mainstreaming women's legal history.

 

February 23, 2017 in Books, Legal History | Permalink | Comments (0)

The Mistaken Reliance on Title IX to Deter and Punish Campus Sexual Assault

Corey Rayburn Yung, Is Relying on Title IX a Mistake?, 64 Kansas L.Rev. (2016)

Abstract:     

This Article attempts to answer an essential question related to Title IX’s role in student sexual assault at universities: is it better to improve and universalize student safety and conduct codes or rely on the new Title IX framework that has emerged? The tentative answer offered is that it is a mistake to solely or primarily depend on Title IX to deter and punish offenders in university sexual assault cases. This conclusion is based upon the uncertainty related to various aspects of Title IX doctrine and the regulatory regime that has emerged to enforce the statute. Consequently, this Article concludes Congress should adopt a basic, uniform student safety and conduct code that will cure many of the shortcomings of a legal regime based entirely upon Title IX. This legislation, unlike proposals aimed at merely strengthening the Title IX framework, might potentially avoid some of the backlash that has emerged in the wake of Title IX’s growing application in student-to-student sexual assault cases at universities while better addressing the issue.

 

February 23, 2017 in Education, Violence Against Women | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Bringing Tort Law to the Campus Sexual Assault Debate

Sarah Lynnda Swan, Between Title IX and the Criminal Law: Bringing Tort Law to the Campus Sexual Assault Debate, 64 Kansas L.Rev. (forthcoming)

Abstract

In the last few years, campus sexual assault has risen to prominence as a national public concern. As policy-makers scramble to figure out how best to address this problem, the contours of the conversation in scholarship, media articles, and policy-making have devolved into two competing adjudicative frameworks: criminal law or Title IX. In this criminal law versus Title IX debate, two questions dominate. First, who can better adjudicate claims of campus sexual assault: criminal courts using criminal laws, or schools using Title IX? Second, if schools do adjudicate sexual assault claims under Title IX, are students entitled to the same procedural protections as criminal defendants? In this Symposium piece, I argue that this criminal law versus Title IX framing is unduly narrow. It ignores a third, important mode of adjudication for sexual assault claims: tort law. In this essay, I show why tort law has been left out of the campus sexual assault debate, and the potential impact of its inclusion. Incorporating tort law into the campus sexual assault debate has three specific benefits. First, conceptualizing campus sexual assault as a tort reminds us that the same wrong can be legitimately framed and addressed in multiple ways. Second, tort law sets a useful standard for determining the scope of procedural protections in campus sexual assault proceedings. Third, tort law suggests that affirmative consent may be appropriate for campus sexual interactions. Ultimately, bringing tort law into the campus sexual assault debate opens up the vast and fertile ground between the two poles of criminal law and Title IX, and creates a space where better institutional design and a more effective solution to this social problem might be found.

February 22, 2017 in Education, Violence Against Women | Permalink | Comments (0)

Interdisciplinary Clinical Work and Empowering Women Clients

Ruthy  Lowenstein Lazar, Interdisciplinary Clinical Education--On Empowerment, Women, and a Unique Clinical Model, 23 Clinical L. Rev. 429 (2016)

For the past seven years, the Women’s Rights Clinic operatingwith in the Law School of the College of Management in Israel has been engaged in an “assistance project” of the women cleaners working at the campus. This Article presents a discussion of interdisciplinary clinical work and focuses on an empowerment model developed in the Women’s Rights Clinic. It argues that clinical work for marginalized populations requires a holistic approach that is not limited to legal work alone, but enables the use of a combination of legal and extra-legal tools. The holistic approach illustrated in the Article emphasizes the importance of integrating into lawyering models skills from the domains of social work and therapy rooted in empowerment theory: developing empathy and listening, giving clients a voice, avoiding paternalism, and using emotional discourse in communication with clients.

February 22, 2017 in Law schools | Permalink | Comments (0)

Empirical Research on Gender Diversity of Dutch Corporate Boards as Statutorily Required

Rosalien Diepeveen, Tineke Lambooy & Remko Renes, The Two-Pronged Approach of the (Semi) Legal Norms on Gender Diversity: Exploratory Empirical Research on Corporate Boards of Dutch Listed Companies

In this article, two different perspectives on diversity and gender equality in boards of listed companies in The Netherlands are discussed: first, the diversity perspective which focuses on better decision-making capabilities of gender-diverse teams (i.e. the economic perspective), and second, the gender equality perspective which aims to realise gender equality in all levels of society pursuant to international human rights treaties and national law (i.e. the rights-based perspective).

This two-pronged approach is presented as follows: on the basis of a literature study and desk research, the authors first set out the views discussed in the extant literature on the economic perspective and, next, the legal context applicable to the rights-based perspective. Subsequently, the application in practice of these two perspectives are tested by analysing unique empirical data collected by the authors from listed companies in The Netherlands.

The empirical data are collected in two studies assigned by the Dutch Corporate Governance Code Monitoring Committee (the Committee) to the authors in 2014 and 2015. This Committee annually reports on the compliance by listed companies with the Dutch Corporate Governance Code (the Code). One of the areas of concern is diversity in corporate boards as, since 2008, the Code requires that companies have a policy to realise a diverse board composition, gender being one of the indicators. The Code applies on a comply or explain basis.

The empirical study revealed that Dutch companies, in their annual reporting on their board diversity policies, often referred to the Dutch corporate law provision concerning the gender quota. This provision requires of large companies that their corporate boards (both the board of directors and the supervisory board) comprise at least 30 per cent women and at least 30 per cent men. Like the Code, this legal provision also applies on a comply or explain basis. This law had been enacted for a limited period of time, i.e. from 2013 until 2016, but a legislative proposal is pending to extend the application of this quota provision until 2020.

The authors discovered that the two perspectives (i.e. the economic and the rights-based perspectives) are often mixed up by companies, government representatives and institutions, and other parties (together: stakeholders) who deal with the theme of (gender) diversity in corporate boards. In this article, the authors elaborate on these two perspectives, raise questions in regard to the application of the (semi-)legal norms in this area, and share innovative findings regarding the measures taken by progressive Dutch listed companies in order to realise a diverse board composition, and in particular to comply with the statutory quota on female board representation.

February 22, 2017 in Business, International | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Judge Nancy Gertner on What it Means to be a Woman Judge

Judge Nancy Gertner, Keynote Speaker, Univ. of Baltimore 9th Feminist Legal Theory Conference (Mar. 2016)

I was on the bench for seventeen years, and I intend to write about that experience. The problem is that while my memoir was funny, this book—on judging—is not. In my memoir, I describe the fact that the only way I could face the discrimination I was facing was to crack jokes about it, to find the humor in horrific situations. I started writing about judging literally the minute I joined the federal bench. I recorded everything I did and why—the palpable change from who I had been on April 26, 1994, when I was an employment discrimination, civil rights, and criminal defense lawyer, and who I was supposed to be on April 27, 1994, when I was sworn in as a judge.

February 21, 2017 in Conferences, Judges | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tracking the Experience of Decriminalizing Prostitution in Rhode Island

Donna Hughes & Melanie Shapiro, Bibliography of Sources on Prostitution Decriminalization in Rhode Island

A bibliography of sources on the research we did on prostitution and sex trafficking and the advocacy work we did to end decriminalized prostitution. For 29 years prostitution was decriminalized in Rhode Island (if it occurred indoors). Sexual exploitation and violence against women and girls were integrated into economic development. The number of sex businesses grew rapidly and organized crime groups operated brothels and extorted money from adult entertainment businesses. Rhode Island became a destination for pimps, sex traffickers, and other violent criminals. The lack of laws impeded police from investigating serious crimes, including sex trafficking

February 21, 2017 in Human trafficking | Permalink | Comments (1)

The Burden of Asylum for Gender-Related Persecution

Joanna Kallinosis, Refugee Roulette: A Comparative Analysis of Gender-Related Persecution, 6 DePaul J. Women, Gender & L. (2017)

This essay examines the existing law regarding gender related persecution and the burden imposed on female asylum applicants to fit their claims within the circumscribed notion of a refugee within Immigration law of the United States of America. Such difficulties are contrasted with the Canadian Immigration system, where women enjoy greater freedom in the interpretation of requisites necessary to be granted asylum. Section I of this essay explores the problems women face in gaining asylum in the United States. Section II of this essay will analyze the conflicting claims and claimants. Section III of this essay will explore past trends in asylum law; discuss the framework for evaluating asylum claims under current US asylum law; analyze the competing judicial interpretations of asylum law and discuss the inconsistency of judicial decisions. Section IV of this essay will discuss the projection of future trends. Section V of this essay will propose an amendment to the Refugee Act to include a Sixth category of gender or sexual persecution.

February 21, 2017 in International, Violence Against Women | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, February 20, 2017

The Absence of Binding Norms for Gender-Based Asylum

Blaine Bookey, Gender-Based Asylum Post-Matter of A-R-C-G: Evolving Standards and Fair Application of the Law,  22 Southwestern J. Int'l Law 1 (2016)

Abstract:     

When I last studied this issue — the eligibility of domestic violence survivors for asylum in the United States — I concluded: “the absence of binding norms remains a major impediment to fair and consistent outcomes for women who fear return to countries where they confront unimaginable harms, or worse, death.” Despite a recent decision by the highest immigration tribunal in the United States accepting that women fleeing domestic violence can meet the refugee definition and qualify for protection, I could write the same words today. The 2014 ruling in a case known as Matter of A-R-C-G- marked a critical advancement in U.S. law. Notwithstanding, in the year since that decision, arbitrary and inconsistent outcomes have continued to characterize asylum adjudication in this area of the law.

I do not mean to diminish the importance of the A-R-C-G- precedent, a long-awaited and hard-fought victory. Issued by the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA or Board), the decision constitutes binding precedent for immigration judges (and asylum officers) across the country who often have the final word in these life or death matters because adverse decisions are not often appealed, and if appealed, the vast majority are upheld. For thirteen years, from the vacating of the well-known and controversial Matter of R-A- decision denying asylum to a domestic violence survivor in 2001, to the issuance of the A-R-CG- decision in 2014, immigration judges and asylum officers adjudicated domestic violence asylum claims without the benefit of jurisprudential (or regulatory) guidance.

 

February 20, 2017 in International, Violence Against Women | Permalink | Comments (0)

Intersectionality and Anti-Discrimination Law of Gender and Race in Sweden

Eva Schomer, Sweden a Society of Covert Racism: Equal from the Outside: Everyday Racism and Ethnic Discrimination in Swedish Society, 6 Onati Socio-Legal Series (2016) 

Abstract:     Sweden is widely considered to have one of the most equal and gender-equal societies in the world. But the Swedish society is also one in which the Labour Court can find discrimination when a 60-year-old ‘Swedish’ ‘white’ woman fails to get a job interview – yet not when workers call a colleague of Gambian background ‘blackie’, ‘big black bastard’, ‘the African’, and ‘svartskalle’, or a man of Nigerian background ‘Tony Mogadishu’ and ‘Koko stupid’. In this article, I will try to explain the logic behind these positions. I will also suggest an extended jurisprudential methodology that might help to prevent laws and the legal system from reinforcing societal processes of racialization. In this article I will argue that it is necessary to develop the legal methods to make it possible to forestall and prevent racism. To prevent everyday racism in the way intended by the law in books, the courts must take into account the living law and the law in action. If the courts are allowed to continue applying the law according to their whim, without even considering their position as representatives for the power of dominant ‘white’ groups over subordinated people of colour, then it is obvious that the living law that is the dominant discourse of ‘white’ normalcy will never change.

 

February 20, 2017 in Equal Employment, International | Permalink | Comments (0)

World Bank Study Measures Legal Gender Disparities in Economies Around the World

Sarah Iqbal, Asif Mohammed Islam, Rita Ramalho, Alena Sakhonchik, Unequal Before the Law: Measuring Legal Gender Disparities Across the World

Abstract:     

Several economies have laws that treat women differently from men. This study explores the degree of such legal gender disparities across 167 economies around the world. This is achieved by constructing a simple measure of legal gender disparities to evaluate how countries perform. The average number of overall legal gender disparities across 167 economies is 17, ranging from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 44. The maximum possible legal gender disparities is 71. The measure is found to be correlated with other measures of gender inequality, implying the measure does capture gender inequality while also differing from preexisting measures of gender inequality. A high degree of legal gender disparities is found to be negatively associated with a wide range of outcomes, including years of education of women relative to men, labor force participation rates of women relative to men, proportion of women top managers, proportion of women in parliament, percentage of women that borrowed from a financial institution relative to men, and child mortality rates. Subcategories within the legal disparities measure help to uncover specific types of legal disparities across economies.

 

February 20, 2017 in International | Permalink | Comments (0)

Friday, February 17, 2017

Exploring Why Cases of Sexual Assault against Black Women Rarely Result in a Conviction

 

Channel Fitch, Teri Platt & Michelle Wilson,  Black Women and the Criminal Justice System: The Politics of Processing Sexual Assault Cases

Abstract

According to the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (RAINN), 3.7% of reported sexual assault instances are tried in court and only 2% result in a conviction. Despite evidence that most victims of sexual assault are children, multi-racial women, and black women, the majority of cases that are tried are those where the victims were white women. This paper will examine cases where black women are the victims in order to understand why these instances do not result in convictions. Our argument is that socioeconomic factors may make it more difficult for black women to navigate the process. We will explore this by analyzing each phase of the process to identify complexities in the system that may prevent these cases from concluding in court. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the experiences of black women in the criminal justice system and recommend procedural reforms that will result in an increase in reports and convictions.

February 17, 2017 in Violence Against Women | Permalink | Comments (0)

Victim Narratives in Sexual Assault Cases in the Age of Social Media

Erin Sheley, Victim Impact Statements and Expressive Punishment in the Age of Social Media, Wake Forest L. Rev. (forthcoming)

Abstract

Victim impact statements (VIS) are long-disfavored among legal commentators for allegedly injecting unnecessary, negative emotion into sentencing at the expense of the defendant, with ambiguous informational benefits to the sentencing body. Most traditional arguments both for and against VIS turn on purely retributive or utilitarian grounds. This essay takes up the Stanford sexual assault victim’s statement to propose an expressive framework for understanding the function of VIS, which resolves much of the theoretical confusion surrounding the traditional justifications. I show how the expressive goals of criminal punishment have long been distorted by the mediation of traditional news reporting. I then analyze the legal relevance of the particular criminological values expressed in the Stanford statement to show how unmediated victim narratives may counterbalance media distortion, particularly in the age of social media transmission. I conclude that the criminal justice system better serves its expressive function by formally incorporating VIS into sentencing.

February 17, 2017 in Violence Against Women | Permalink | Comments (0)

Examing Why Women Lawyers are Less than 20 Percent of Advocates in the US Supreme Court

Jennifer Mika, The Noteworthy Absence of Women Advocates at the US Supreme Court, 25 American J. Gender, Social Policy & Law 1 (2016)

Abstract:     

Arguing before the U.S. Supreme Court is considered one of the most prestigious accomplishments in a litigator’s career. However, during the last five terms, women consistently make up less than one fifth of this elite club. This article takes a closer look at the advocates that argued before the Supreme Court during the 2015-2016 term as well as those who appeared more than once in a given term over the past six years. It explores the possible causes of the deficit in women advocates including gender disparity in Supreme Court clerkship experience. It strives to start a dialogue about how the gender gap in Supreme Court advocacy can be closed.

 

February 17, 2017 in SCOTUS, Women lawyers | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, February 16, 2017

Making Peace Negotiations Responsive to Gender

Aisling Swaine, Law and Negotiation: A Role for a Transformative ApproachGlobal Policy Volume 7, Issue 2, May 2016, 282-287

Abstract:     

Feminist critique of negotiations that aim to bring about peaceful political settlements has consistently pointed to the glaring absence of the critical analysis of and response to gender relations as part of both the modus operandi and substantive output of those processes. Just as war is a gendered phenomenon (working off gender relations that subordinate women), so too the processes that respond to it and aim to negotiate its end and create an aftermath, are inherently gendered. Where the goal is a peace that works for ‘everyone’, then negotiation needs to respond to structural gendered conditions that limit the potential that negotiation holds for women. The concept of transformation has been espoused by feminists as key to altering the structural inequalities that determine a systemic gendered order that works to deprivilege women and women’s interests. As a concept, ‘transformation’ holds great potential to regenerate processes of negotiation towards promoting women’s ability to have agency over their lives. This article begins a consideration of what transformation might mean for the practice of negotiation and how it might be advanced to make negotiations responsive to gender relations so that a peace that serves women as well as men is worked towards.

 

February 16, 2017 in Gender, International | Permalink | Comments (0)

State Trigger Laws Ready if Roe Overturned

If Trump Gets His Way, These Will be the First Places to Ban Abortion

"We thought we wouldn’t have to worry about this stuff," Feigenholtz says, "but the new administration has been a wake-up call. I had to stop and say, 'Okay, now what? How do we protect women?'"

 

She was especially concerned about an obscure 40-year-old provision in Illinois' criminal code, one of a number of measures in 10 states across the country, that anticipate a time when the Supreme Court reverses itself on abortion. They are often referred to as "trigger laws," because even though each state's provision works a bit differently, the measures are "triggered" by the reversal of Roe v. Wade. Should that occur, these states commit to making abortion illegal in all cases, except to protect a mother's life, just as it was before the Supreme Court's 1973 ruling. (In four states, the trigger law makes the switch back to illegal abortion automatic.)

 
Feigenholtz was familiar with Illinois' trigger clause from her previous work on women's health measures in the General Assembly. After the election, she contacted local pro-choice advocates, including chapters of the ACLU and Planned Parenthood, to float the idea of proposing a measure to void Illinois' trigger law, as part of a bigger bill that seeks to expand abortion access by including abortion care in Medicaid and state employee health coverage. The bill she introduced in January, HB 40, proposes cutting Illinois' trigger language and affirming the state's commitment to uphold abortion rights, no matter what happens in Washington

 

Many such laws, including the one in Illinois, go even further, saying that if Roe is overturned, the state intends to renew their so-called "policy" that life begins at conception. This approach could not only affect the legality of abortion but also common forms of birth control, such as Plan B or IUDs, which some anti-abortion advocates consider to be abortifacients despite medical consensus to the contrary.

 

"After the passage of Roe, a handful of states said, 'If we can ever go back, we want to go back,'" says Daniela Kraiem, the associate director of the women and the law program at the Washington College of Law at American University. "The point of those laws, up until now, has been largely symbolic," she says, a way for states to "allow women to exercise their constitutional rights, but under protest."

 

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If the Supreme Court did overturn Roe, the enforceability of these trigger clauses is complicated and difficult to predict, Kraiem explains. For instance, six states—Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio—enshrine only their intention to revert back to pre-Roe policies, without requiring an automatic switch. Since a number of those legislatures tend to skew conservative, that intention could very quickly become law.

February 16, 2017 in Abortion | Permalink | Comments (0)

CFP National Association of Women Lawyers Student Writing Competition

NAWL Student Writing Competition

NAWL established the annual Selma Moidel Smith Law Student Writing Competition to encourage and reward original law student writing on issues concerning women and the law.

 

The rules for the competition are as follows:

 

Entrants should submit a paper on an issue concerning women's rights or the status of women in the law.

 

Essays will be accepted from students enrolled at any law school during the 2016-17 school year. The essays must be the law student author's own work and must not have been submitted for publication elsewhere. Papers written by students for coursework or independent study during the summer, fall, or spring semesters are eligible for submission. Notwithstanding the foregoing, students may incorporate professorial feedback as part of a course requirement or supervised writing project.

 

FORMAT: Essays must be double-spaced in 12-point, Times New Roman font. All margins must be one inch. Entries must not exceed 15 pages of text, excluding notes, with footnotes placed as endnotes. Citation style should conform to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Essays longer than 15 pages of text, excluding notes, or that are not in the required format will not be read.

 

JUDGING: NAWL Women Lawyers Journal® designees will judge the competition. Essays will be judged based upon content, exhaustiveness of research, originality, writing style, and timeliness.

 

QUESTIONS: Questions regarding this competition should be addressed to the Chair of the Writing Competition, Professor Jennifer Martin at jmartin@stu.edu.

 

SUBMISSION AND DEADLINE: Entries must be received by May 1, 2017. Entries received after the deadline will not be considered. Entries must provide a cover letter providing the author's name, title of the essay, school affiliation, email address, phone number, and permanent mailing address. Entries must be submitted in the following format: email an electronic version (in Microsoft Word) to jmartin@stu.edu.

 

AWARD: The author of the winning essay will receive a cash prize of $500. NAWL will also publish the winning essay in the Women Lawyers Journal. The most recent winning paper was Human trafficking waivers: How the United States implicitly violates federal law and empowers ISIS to commit human trafficking crimes written by Paloma A. Kennedy, Washington University School of Law. Please view the paper by clicking here

 

February 16, 2017 in Call for Papers | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

St. Valentine's Greeting to The Lady Judge

From the archives of Judge Florence Allen.  Allen was the first woman judge elected to a state supreme court (Ohio in 1922), appointed to a US Court of Appeals (6th Circuit), and shortlisted for the US Supreme Court. She saved this card sent to her from friends. 

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February 14, 2017 in Legal History, Women lawyers | Permalink | Comments (0)

An Alternative Interpretation of America First, Circa 1924

From the archives of Judge Florence Allen's papers.  Allen was the first woman judge elected to a state supreme court, appointed to a US Court of Appeals, and shortlisted for the US Supreme Court. She saved this pamphlet from the peace movement.

This "America First" poster appears to be part of a campaign by schools, churches, and organizations to turn "the old slogan 'America First'" into a "new American Creed that voices the faith of the broader patriotism that American should be in the forefront of the movement for world cooperation." Peace, not war.  Globalism, not localism.

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   Excerpts from the poster:

    America First: not flaunting her strength as a giant, but bending in helpfulness over a sick and wounded world like a Good Samaritan.

    Not in splendid isolation, but in courageous cooperation.

    Not in pride, arrogance, and disdain of other races and peoples, but in sympathy, love, and understanding

From the explanatory pamphlet:

How the Creed Came to be Spoken

    On Sept. 7, 1924, the Rev. George Ashton Oldham, Bishop Coadjutor of the Diocese of Albany NY preached . . . the Sunday before "Defense Day." He delivered a strong peace sermon. Toward its close he spoke of the old slogan "America First," and told how he thought it should be interpreted. He was listed to with breathless interest and with evident approval.

How It Came to be Published

    Among some who heard Bishop Oldham's sermon and some who read reports of it in the papers the idea arose of giving this new interpretation of "American First" a wider circulation by issuing it in poster form. The enthusiasm of the public was immediate and great. Cards and postcards were next issued, and then, to meet an urgent demand, a poster large enough for outdoor or classroom use.

A "Baerfact"

"As a statement of principles to which every forward-looking American can subscribe, 'America First' would be hard to beat. It makes the noisy rantings of all the professional patriots sound pretty mean and cheap and silly, and recalls the noble ideas of liberty, justice, helpfulness, and cooperation in which the nation was conceived and which it must follow to attain its high destiny."--JM Baer, the "Congressman Cartoonist"

Former Supreme Court Justice Sees Possiblility of New Heaven and New Earth (John H. Clarke)

Noted Editor Counsels his Fellow Countrymen

"It does not agree with the materialistic philosophy of the cry 'My country, right or wrong!' It does not exalt any part of humanity above the whole. It does not accord with the ugly, selfish, and ignoble appeal, 'March on American, and march alone!' It does not pander to a single fear or prejudice or hatred, but it sets a task and reveals a goal for our dear country which should arouse the fervent love and increasing service of every true patriot." 

February 14, 2017 in Legal History | Permalink | Comments (0)

Gender and the Structural Constitution

Paula Monopoli, Gender and the Structural Constitution, 76 Maryland L.Rev. Endnotes 17 (2016)

Abstract:      

This paper is based on remarks delivered by the author for the Constitution Day Lectures at the University of Maryland Carey School of Law. The paper draws on the author’s prior scholarship on gender and constitutional design to explore why more than eighty-five countries have already had female prime ministers or presidents while the United States has not. The paper’s thesis is that this puzzle may be explained, in part, by what some have called the “structural constitution.” Two design choices by the Founders made it less likely that a woman would ascend to the presidency. The first of these structural features is the choice of a singular or unitary executive that combines the head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief function in one person. The impact of that choice can be amplified by executive activism and the power of the courts via judicial review to define the scope of the executive as more or less expansive. The second structural feature is the choice of direct presidential selection, filtered through the Electoral College. With Hillary Clinton as the first viable female nominee of a major American party, this paper considers these structural constitutional choices, how they construct our politics and their impact on the likelihood that Clinton will be elected.

 

February 14, 2017 in Constitutional, Gender | Permalink | Comments (0)