Thursday, October 27, 2005
Nature reports 60 researchers met with policy-makers in Johannesburg last week to discuss adaptation to climate change:
"We urgently need to determine how we can adapt to climate change, and what the most appropriate interventions should be," says zoologist Steven Chown from the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Temperatures in Africa have risen up to 1°C in the past century and, even if the emission reductions of greenhouse gases agreed by the Kyoto Protocol are achieved, temperatures could rise a further 2–3 °C by 2050, according to climatologist Bruce Hewitson of the University of Cape Town.Africa and Climate Change
The biggest challenges to African biodiversity will be the increase in temperature, drought, and increased susceptibility to invasive species. Species dependent on reserves may fare poorly.
Wednesday, October 26, 2005
|There is an interesting article on whether the US or Europe has been more precautionary published by Hammitt, Wiener, et al. in Risk Analysis, 25: 1215 (October 2005):|
|Precautionary Regulation in Europe and the United States: A Quantitative Comparison|
Much attention has been addressed to the question of whether Europe or the United States adopts a more precautionary stance to the regulation of potential environmental, health, and safety risks. Some commentators suggest that Europe is more risk-averse and precautionary, whereas the United States is seen as more risk-taking and optimistic about the prospects for new technology. Others suggest that the United States is more precautionary because its regulatory process is more legalistic and adversarial, while Europe is more lax and corporatist in its regulations. The flip-flop hypothesis claims that the United States was more precautionary than Europe in the 1970s and early 1980s, and that Europe has become more precautionary since then. We examine the levels and trends in regulation of environmental, health, and safety risks since 1970. Unlike previous research, which has studied only a small set of prominent cases selected nonrandomly, we develop a comprehensive list of almost 3,000 risks and code the relative stringency of regulation in Europe and the United States for each of 100 risks randomly selected from that list for each year from 1970 through 2004. Our results suggest that: (a) averaging over risks, there is no significant difference in relative precaution over the period, (b) weakly consistent with the flip-flop hypothesis, there is some evidence of a modest shift toward greater relative precaution of European regulation since about 1990, although (c) there is a diversity of trends across risks, of which the most common is no change in relative precaution (including cases where Europe and the United States are equally precautionary and where Europe or the United States has been consistently more precautionary). The overall finding is of a mixed and diverse pattern of relative transatlantic precaution over the period.
The Air and Waste Management Association is holding a conference in San Francisco on March 7-9, 2006 on Planning for the Future: Climate Change, Greenhouse Gas Inventories, and Clean Energy Linkages. They have issued a call for papers - abstracts due November 14th. Call for Papers The conference will include a number of policy as well as technical topics, including international initiatives; national legislation; local, state, and regional plans; emerging approaches for economic incentives and trading.
Tuesday, October 25, 2005
Nature reports that:
Researchers from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, based in Copenhagen, are advising that fishing activities in many regions of the world's oceans be reduced to zero for the sake of endangered fish. These creatures include many food species, such as the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) and roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris), but also deepwater sharks that are often snared as by-catch, such as the Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis). "The only way to do it is to reset the watch," argues Poul Degnbol, chairman of the council's advisory committee on fishery management. "We have to start from a low level and monitor closely. We can only expand when we know what we're doing." Working out how many fish we can take without causing a population crash is a priority for fisheries researchers, adds Holm. And until we have that knowledge, fishing has to be cut back to more modest levels, he argues. "We're kidding ourselves if we think we will ever have a perfect knowledge," he says. "But we're balancing on the edge of the cliff, and it would be much wiser for us just to take a few steps back." Nature article
The ICES is the marine science body that provides advice for North Atlantic fisheries to 19 countries as well as regional and international organizations. The deep seas fishery report is advice given in response to an EU request. ICES Report
From the Deep Sea Coalition:
There is growing concern amongst scientists about the need to take urgent action to protect deep sea biodiversity - fish stocks as well as habitat.
The International Council on the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) has prepared a report calling for "a complete overhaul of deep-sea fisheries." (1) According to a 17 October ICES press release about the report's launch (2), "scientists will recommend that all existing deep-sea fisheries should be cutback to low levels until they can demonstrate that they are sustainable. They will advise zero catch of depleted deep-sea sharks, and they will recommend that no new fisheries for deep-sea fish should be allowed until it can be demonstrated that they are capable of being sustainable." According to David Griffith, General Secretary of ICES, "Deep-sea fish such as the orange roughy or the roundnose grenadier are long-lived, slow reproducing fish that can withstand only low levels of fishing pressure. All our evidence indicates that the current fishing pressure on these stocks is much too high. We are particularly concerned about deep-sea sharks such as the Portuguese dogfish and leafscale gulper shark which are now heavily depleted."
"Unfortunately, the ICES recommendations confirm what we have been saying all along: that deep-sea fisheries are in deep, deep trouble," said Karen Sack, Oceans Policy Advisor for Greenpeace International. (3) WWF stepped up the pressure even further, demanding that "EU Fisheries Ministers listen to ICES advice and take urgent action to prevent the total collapse of all deep-sea fish stocks" and called for the closure of all deep sea fisheries. (4) The EU remains the biggest stumbling block with the United Nations General Assembly in efforts to agree on a moratorium on high seas bottom trawling.
In the UK, which currently holds the EU Presidency, top marine scientists are also calling for urgent action worldwide. In an open letter signed by 50 leading scientists, Minister Ben Bradshaw was urged to "take advantage of a historical opportunity to secure significant protection for the world's deep-ocean ecosystems on the high seas - the two-thirds of the world's oceans that lie beyond the jurisdiction of any nation. We are calling on you exercise leadership during the UK Presidency of the European Union to negotiate a moratorium on deep-sea bottom trawl fishing on the high seas at the United Nations General Assembly this year." (5)
Minister Bradshaw also received a letter from Sir John Lawton, Chairman of the prestigious Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. (6) Last December, the Royal Commission said that drastic and urgent action was needed to save the marine environment from further destruction by fishing, including the ruinous effects of deep sea bottom trawlers. (7) In his letter to Minister Bradshaw, Sir Lawton said, "Protection of the deep seas, on the basis of sound scientific analysis including the application of precaution, needs to be urgently incorporated into international law. We therefore endorse the call for you to exercise your leadership during the UK Presidency of the European Union to negotiate a moratorium on deep-sea bottom trawl fishing at the United Nations General Assembly this year to protect vulnerable deep-sea ecosystems and species from irreversible damage and loss."
Leading Canadian scientists have also sent a letter to Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin. (8) In a speech in May, Mr. Martin called on ministers attending an international high-level fisheries governance conference to "seize this historic occasion, and begin the process to stop the rape of our fisheries and oceans, once and for all. I'm asking you to come together - as a global community - to write the next chapter in the history of the world's fisheries and oceans, and to restore their once-proud place in our cultures, in our nations, and in our lives." The scientists' letter, dated 17 October, called on the Prime Minister to support the high seas moratorium, noting that "it would be in keeping with Canada's national and international commitments to biodiversity protection."
Unfortunately, some governments continue to fight for delays despite the inevitable need to take action. The DSCC has obtained a copy of a position paper apparently being circulated by Japan, which argues amongst other things, ironically, that the call for a moratorium on high seas bottom trawling is "without scientific justification." (9) Obviously Japan isn't listening to the wider scientific community.
Fisheries negotiations resume again on 24 October. A DSCC team is present in New York pushing for the moratorium - knowing how strongly scientists feel about this issue has only increased their resolve.
(1) ICES describes itself as "the organisation that coordinates and promotes marine research in the North Atlantic. This includes adjacent seas such as the Baltic Sea and North Sea. ICES acts as a meeting point for a community of more than 1600 marine scientists from 19 countries around the North Atlantic."
(6) Letter in support of the open letter from scientists concerning protection of deep-sea biodiversity from Sir John Lawton, Chairman of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, 17 October 2005 (pdf)
The Geological Society of America annual meeting had a session on Hurricane Katrina last week: An Eye on Katrina: Geoscience Perspectives on a Catastrophic Hurricane. GSA Katrina Abstracts The session included presentations on the impact of Katrina on Louisiana, Mississippi, barrier islands, Lake Ponchartrain, and gulf coast wetlands as well as some policy oriented comments on coastal protection and management.
Monday, October 24, 2005
The ABA Section on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources sponsors an Environmental Science teleconference series. If you need a refresher or if you are venturing into scientific ground that you have not trod before, this is an easy way to keep current. Environmental Science Brochure