Friday, December 6, 2013
A recent issue of the ABA's Dispute Resolution Magazine (Fall 2013) included an article on "Elder Mediation: Coming of Age," authored by two mediation trainers, that tracks the growth of mediation for elder disputes in a variety of settings. The authors conclude: "Skilled, dedicated professionals can help parties find paths to agreements on some of the toughest and most emotional issues that families face."
Included within the article was a listing of elder dispute resolution resources:
- Alaska Court Program
- ABA Commission on Law and Aging
- Bet Tzedek
- Center for Civic Mediation, Elder Care Mediation Program
- Center for Dispute Resolution, Missouri State University
- Center for Social Gerontology
- Circuit Court of Cook County Elder Law & Miscellaneous Remedies Division
- Elder Decisions
- Elder Mediation Program of Mosaica Center for Consensual Conflict Rsolution
- Good Shepherd Elder Dispute Services Program
- LGBT Elder Care Intitiative
- Multi-Door Division of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia
- Northern Virginia Mediation Service
- Wise and Healthy Aging
Hat tip to my colleague at Penn State Dickinson, Professor Nancy Welsh, for sharing a copy of the issue. Nancy is co-chair for the editorial board for Dispute Resolution Magazine.
Tuesday, December 3, 2013
USA Today continues reporting on criminal misuse of resident funds held in accounts at nursing homes, pointing to the lack of clear laws requiring faculities to conduct audits or other oversight systems for resident accounts:
"Federal law provides the regulatory framework for the nation's 16,000 nursing homes, which have to meet an array of standards to participate in Medicare and Medicaid. Federal rules do not require audits for resident trust fund accounts, and most states take the same approach.
The U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the federal agency responsible for nursing home regulation, is considering whether additional oversight is needed to address theft and mismanagement of residents' funds.
'We are aware of this situation and are reviewing the (inspection) procedures used to detect these kinds of problems,' agency spokesman Aaron Albright said when asked about USA TODAY's findings. 'CMS takes safeguarding nursing home patients very seriously.'"
Wednesday, October 23, 2013
Powers of Attorney (POAs) are a key tool in estate planning and Medicaid planning. A thoughtfully drafted POA can avoid the need for a guardianship, for example, and thus avoid delays, embarrassment and greater expense for a principal who later becomes incapacitated.
Unfortunately, POAs can also be a tool for misuse by agents who can't resist the temptation to help themselves, rather than their principals. For a number of years, states have been struggling to balance utility against risk.
In Pennsylvania, for example, prior to 1999, statutory law governing POAs permitted principals to grant agents the authority to make gifts. Civil case law interpreted such gift-giving authority, unless expressly limited, as permitting agents to make "self-gifts." Even if the agent's self-gifting put the principal in serious financial jeopardy, some prosecutors declined to prosecute. Following a series of troubling reports and cases, in 1999 the Pennsylvania legislature amended state law to declare that all agents appointed under POAs were subject to specific fiduciary duties. The change also imposed a statutory presumption of limited gift authority (tied to annual federal gift tax exclusions) unless the principal expressly granted the agent "unlimited" gift authority.
Concern about misuse of powers of attorney has grown on a nationwide basis,especially after high profile cases such as that of New York heiress Brooke Astor, where her son used a POA to sell off artwork and other valuable property, while reportedly keeping his mother isolated from friends.
Even before the Brooke Astor case came to light, academics, legislators, judges and practitioners worked together in the Uniform Law Commission to propose amendments to statutory authority governing POAs, resulting in the Uniform Power of Attorney Act of 2006 (UPOAA), which superseded prior uniform law proposals. The UPOAA attempts to rebalance risk and power, or as the Commission summarizes:
"The UPOAA seeks to preserve the durable power of attorney as a low-cost, flexible, and private form of surrogate decision making while deterring use of the power of attorney as a tool for financial abuse of incapacitated individuals. It contains provisions that encourage acceptance of powers of attorney by third persons, safeguard incapacitated principals, and provide clearer guidelines for agents."
Adoption of the UPOAA has been fairly slow. As of today, only 13 states plus the U.S. Virgin Islands, have enacted the UPOAA.
In 2013, legislatures in Mississippi (H.B. 468) and Pennsylvania (S.B. 620) are considering adoption. In Pennsylvania, the need for clarification has been heightened by reaction to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court's opinion in Vine v. Commonwealth, 9 A.3d 1150 (Pa. 2010), where a POA was signed by a hospitalized principal, and used by the husband/agent to make self-benefiting changes to his wife's retirement accounts, while his wife was incapacitated.
Court practice and enforcement policies on POAs, guardianships and elder abuse are also under consideration by the Pennsylvania Elder Law Task Force (2013), chaired by Justice Debra Todd of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.
In Pennsylvania, views on what changes to POA laws are necessary differ in small or large ways among bankers, estate attorneys, elder law attorneys and district attorneys, just to name a few of the interested parties.
The scholarship of law professors has been important to the debate over proper use of POAs, including two articles by Valparaiso Law Professor Linda Whitton, "Durable Powers of Attorney as Alternatives to Guardianship: Lessons We Have Learned" and "The New Power of Attorney Act: Balancing Protection of the Principal, the Agent and Third-Persons."
By the way, when I first drafted this post, I titled it "The Problem(s) with Powers of Attorney." Overnight, I rethought that title, because many POAs are never abused and agents frequently go above and beyond in performing uncompensated services, including financial management, for aging principals. I therefore retitled the post. What law reform movements are attempting to do is reduce the potential for abuse. Human nature being what it is, there is probably no law that can prevent abuse by a wrongly motivated agent. Who to trust with powers granted under a POA will always be an important matter for families to consider and discuss with their legal and financial advisors.
October 23, 2013 in Advance Directives/End-of-Life, Current Affairs, Estates and Trusts, Ethical Issues, Medicaid, Property Management, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)
Tuesday, October 22, 2013
This semester, I have had several practitioners as guest speakers in my Elder Law class at Penn State Law. (The students have been loving this -- real world advice!) More than one speaker has mentioned that he or she does not handle litigated issues for clients. One guest lawyer mentioned "no longer handling" contested guardianships. Along the same line, I recently ran into a former student who has an Elder Law practice and who told me that most of his work is handling contested matters, including litigation over what he described as financial abuse.
That started me thinking. Is the specialized practice of Elder Law now branching into two subspecialties, litigation and planning?
If so, there could be a variety of reasons for the split, including:
- a growth in client base means the traditional Elder Law practitioner is too busy with "planning" clients, and can afford to turn away litigation;
- challenges to state restrictions on Medicaid eligibility or other benefits can require litigation, including knowledge of class action suits;
- there is more demand among individual clients for "litigated" outcomes, requiring courtroom skills (although I suspect that does not necessarily mean the disputes will result in actual trials, given the overall downward trend nationally in any civil case going to trial).
Of course, money is probably at the heart of the growth of both sides of the practice. Some people use advance planning to address allocation of financial resources. Other people may be taking "after the fact" routes to address lack of planning or, even, bad planning.
Your thoughts? Is there a growth in Elder Law practice -- is there a split between lawyers who do or don't handle litigation?
Thursday, October 10, 2013
I have been seeing and hearing a fair number of inquiries about the effect of reverse mortgages on an individual's eligibility for Medicaid, with suggestions the answers differ both by type of reverse mortgage contract and by state. That sparked my curiosity about whether there is emerging scholarship about reverse mortgages as a tool for financing long-term care. Here are some of the articles I found, with a few notes about the substance:
Bradley Schwab, "The Birth of a Real Right: An Overview and Analysis of the Recent Revision of Book III, Title X of the Civil Code," 73 Louisiana Law Review 821 (2013):
The title of this article probably means a lot in Louisiana, but I have to say I would not have realized it was an entire article about annuity contracts, until my research discovered the author's conclusion for why annuity contracts are often "more appropriate than a reverse mortgage for those who eventually need long-term nursing home care." An impressive analysis -- from a recent graduate. Perhaps another example of an Elder Law student who "rocks?"
Paul Black, "Reverse Mortgages and the Current Financial Crisis," 8 NAELA Journal 87 (2012):
Starts with a detailed outline of the mechanics of reverse mortgages, before moving into analysis of the potential risks to borrowers, including predatory lending tactics, the recent prohibition on "bundling" of reverse mortgages with deferred annuities, and the potential for unintended consequences for Medicaid eligibility. Turns out the author, a 2010-11 Borchard Foundation Fellow, is a fairly recent graduate and this article is actually an expanded version of a paper he first wrote as a law student. Another Elder Law student who "rocks?"
Andrew Hyer et al., "Paying for Long-Term Care in the Gem State," 48 Idaho Law Review 351 (2012):
While surveying financing alternatives for long-term care in Idaho, the co-authors who are academics at Boise State, caution that studies suggesting use of reverse mortgages "saves" the state money on Medicaid. while interesting, could be based on out-of-date information.
It strikes me that I might be missing more recent analyses of reverse mortgages impacting Medicaid. Please don't hesitate to send me links to thoughtful pieces.
Friday, September 27, 2013
For example, I just finished teaching a series of cases that ask students to evaluate the voidability of large end-of-life gifts made by older individuals, usually to persons who appear to be caregivers or recent "befrienders." Were the transactions voluntary even if unwise, or were they the product of an unstable mind or undue influence? Close calls on most of the cases.
The cases that interest me most were the ones where an attorney represented the older person during execution of the documents. In one case, the court commented that the attorney who completed the transaction met with the new client for an hour on a Sunday afternoon and performed a series of "tests" that satisfied the attorney about the client's capacity to complete transfers of the bulk of his real estate. However, a geriatric psychiatrist who later evaluated the same individual, found the individual to have advanced dementia of an Alzheimer's Disease type and concluded the individual would not be able to understand the significance of the deed transfers signed earlier, even though he appeared to be "oriented as to time, place, and person."
Which professional's testimony carried the day? The court credited the attorney's testimony that his client was "lucid" while completing the documents in question, and pointed to the fact the doctor "conceded" that the individual had "moments of lucidity."
Exactly what "tests" does a lawyer, any lawyer, use to evaluate cognitive function? Perhaps every seasoned lawyer has a series of tried and true questions or techniques. But I suspect that many lawyers rely more on instinct than tests, and certainly most transactions by older adults are not challenged.
Should lawyers go further to assess capacity? To help frame the discussion on whether and when to go more deeply into questions of capacity, guidelines are available. Members of the American Bar Association (ABA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) participated in an interdisciplinary task force, which led to three separate documents, including worksheets that may be useful in any assessment of capacity:
- Assessment of Older Adults with Diminished Capacity: A Handbook for Lawyers
- Assessment of Older Adults with Diminished Capacity: A Handbook for Psychologists
- Judicial Determination of Capacity of Older Adults in Guardianship Proceedings: A Handbook for Judges
The good news is that all three documents are available on the internet. The less good news is the documents are copyrighted and permission is needed to make additional copies for distribution to a group or audience. The handbooks have been available since 2006. Nonetheless, I suspect most attorneys, many psychologists, virtually all other medical professionals, and a heck of a lot of judges have never heard of the handbooks.
Any opinions about the usefulness of these handbooks to practitioners?
Sunday, September 15, 2013
New York City, Two Wills, 100+ Year-Old Testator, $300 Million Estate: Can You Guess Where This is Going?
Bingo. Although this time the court case (cases?) is not about Brooke Astor. This time the tragic subject is another heiress, the reclusive Huguette Clark. The will contest case is scheduled to start jury selection on September 17.
Thanks to Professor Ann Murphy, Gonzaga School of Law, for pointing us to the September 15 New York Times article by Anemona Hartocollis, "The Two Wills of the Heiress Huguette Clark."
Tuesday, August 20, 2013
Completed by the Uniform Law Commission in 2009, and thus opening the window for adoption by state legislatures, the Uniform Real Property Transfer on Death Act allows an owner of real property to pass the property directly to a beneficiary on the owner's death, without probate. The property passes by means of a recorded TOD or "Transfer on Death" deed. This seems like an uncontroversial and helpful clarification in the law. Any comments, especially from those who see potential problems? (Add your comments below -- I'll post them soon.)
Jurisdictions that have so far adopted the law are Hawaii, Illinois, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Virginia, and most recently, D.C. Legislation is also pending in Alaska, Connecticut, Maryland, South Dakota, Washington and West Virginia.
In D.C., there is an Estates, Trust & Probate Bar Lunch program scheduled to discuss the new law, for September 18, 2013.
Friday, August 16, 2013
Recently I was having lunch with a group of friends. One friend, younger than me, commented that she didn't like to tell people she was "retired," because it made her feel too old. We laughed and asked, "Would it be better to tell people you are 'unemployed'?" We all agreed that probably sounded worse.
But, is "retired" really such a dirty word? For some, perhaps yes. For example, AARP used to be an acronym for the "American Association of Retired Persons" but in 1999 the organization changed its official name to AARP, and membership is open to anyone 50 or over, regardless of working status.
Fortunately for researchers, "retired" and "retirement" are still viable terms that generate a lot of important issues. One of my favorite researchers is Gordon L. Clark at Oxford, who writes and speaks clearly and thoughtfully on a number of financial issues, including retirement. His co-authored Oxford Handbook of Pensions and Retirement Income sits on my quick access shelf.
Another resource for statistics and commentary on retirement-related issues is the University of Michigan's Retirement Research Center. Check their website for the latest publications, including data on the impact of proposed changes in Social Security rules on individuals' work and retirement decisions.
Friday, June 29, 2012
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's Request for Information on Senior Financial Exploitation (RFI) is now in the Federal Register. The request seeks information on elder financial abuse and exploitation as well as certifications or designations of financial advisors who serve seniors. The Bureau is seeking as robust a response as possible. If you have regular membership calls or email communications (such as a listserv) and if you think it is appropriate to let your membership know about the RFI, please encourage comment submissions. There is a sixty (calendar) day window for responses. The last day for responses is August 17th.
Here is the link to the Request https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2012/06/19/2012-14854/request-for-information-regarding-senior-financial-exploitation
This is a unique opportunity for advocates and practitioners to let the CFPB know what they are seeing and experiencing personally and professionally on the issue of elder financial abuse and exploitation. In addition to questions about senior financial advisor certifications and advice, there are questions concerning financial literacy efforts, power of attorney and guardian abuse, affinity frauds and financial exploitation of older veterans.
Wednesday, February 15, 2012
Consumer Voice hosts two-part Webinar Series on Guardianship, Financial Powers of Attorney, and Advance Care Planning
Join Us for a Two-Part Webinar Series on
Guardianship, Financial Powers of Attorney, and Advance Care Planning
The National Consumer Voice for Quality Long-Term Care (the Consumer Voice) is hosting a two-part webinar series designed to give advocates, ombudsmen, consumers, families, providers and others a deeper understanding of guardianships, financial powers of attorney and advance care planning. Participants will gain a basic understanding of these three important legal protections and how best to work with and support an individual who has a guardian or agent. Suggestions and approaches for handling challenging situations will also be covered.
The series is designed for both beginners and those with advanced knowledge!
Series Topics and Dates:
- Guardianship, Financial Powers of Attorney and Advance Care Planning: What You Need to Know (Beginner/Refresher) - March 13, 2012; 3:00 - 4:30pm ET
Three national experts from the ABA Commission on Law and Aging will provide an overview of guardianship, financial powers of attorney, and advance care planning. For each of these topics, speakers will present the fundamentals, explain the individual’s rights, and discuss the roles and responsibilities of guardians, agents, nursing home or assisted living providers and staff, ombudsmen, and consumer advocates.
- Guardianship, Financial Powers of Attorney and Advance Care Planning: Taking it to the Next Level (Advanced) - April 4, 2012; 3:00 - 4:30pm ET
What do you do when a nursing home resident with unclear decision-making capacity disagrees with her daughter who is the agent? What happens when a guardian wants to make a decision that the resident adamantly opposes? Members of a panel representing the legal community, advocacy and providers will discuss how to approach and resolve these and other difficult situations.
- Consumer Advocates: $35 per session or $65 for the series
- Providers: $99 per session or $175 for the series
- Recording (mp3 by e-mail): $15 per session or $25 for the series
Wednesday, February 8, 2012
On Feb. 10, 2010, Palm Beach air-conditioning mogul John Goodman allegedly ran a stop sign. His Bentley convertible struck a Hyundai being driven by Scott Wilson, a 23-year-old civil engineer. Wilson’s car landed in a nearby canal where the young man drowned. The near-billionaire then fled the scene. Police say Goodman had a blood alcohol content of 0.177, twice the legal limit. Not surprisingly, Goodman is being sued by Wilson’s parents for a great deal of money. (He also faces criminal charges that could put him in jail for 30 years).
Fortunately for Goodman, he had set up a very large trust (currently worth “several hundred million dollars” according to Goodman’s attorney) years earlier for the benefit of his two children, with distributions to be dispersed when each child reached the age of 35. West Palm Beach Judge Glenn Kelley ruled early in the Goodman civil lawsuit that the jury could not be told of the large trust’s existence because it might encourage jurors to impose a larger verdict against Goodman, despite the fact that he, in theory, has no control over the trust.
Thursday, November 10, 2011
AARP’s Public Policy Institute today released a new research report focusing on older investors with diminished capacity—and how financial services professionals can best meet their needs.
Older people are increasingly responsible for their own retirement security in an era of defined contribution plans and other forms of “do-it-yourself” retirement. Financial capacity is the first kind of decision-making capacity to decline with the onset of dementia and other causes of cognitive impairment. Are financial services industries prepared for the age boom and increased incidence of diminished capacity?
This report includes extensive background information on diminished financial capacity, the risk of financial exploitation, and the financial professionals who serve older clients. It shares results of a national survey of financial professionals and an interdisciplinary roundtable about current practices, protocols and needs—and makes recommendations for federal and state policy-makers, industry, aging organizations and other stakeholders. You can find the report at:
Thursday, June 24, 2010
Center for Elder Justice and Policy Publishes Protocol on Identifying and Addressing Financial Exploitation
Wednesday, March 17, 2010
Call for Papers – Future of Elder Law Practice
William Mitchell Law Review, Vol. 37, Issue I (Fall 2010)
The William Mitchell Law Review is proud to dedicate its first issue of the 2010-11 academic year to Elder Law in its upcoming Volume 37 (Fall 2010). We are currently seeking papers that examine the future of elder law practice. Submissions may either take the form of shorter commentaries or longer law review articles. The deadline for submissions has been set for July 1, 2010.
The William Mitchell Law Review is highly regarded both regionally and nationally. Our Law Review recently ranked twenty-second in citations by judges and ranked fifty-seventh in citations by other law journals, culminating in an overall ranking of seventieth. Over the years, the William Mitchell Law Review has featured the works of various scholars and practitioners such as Congressman Tim Penny, and former Vice President Walter Mondale. The William Mitchell Law Review has also published nationally known legal experts ranging from Philip Bruner, to Supreme Court Justices Sandra Day O’Connor, Byron White, and Harry Blackmun. Now, we would like to invite you to join us to publish in our upcoming volume.
Please direct inquiries to Executive Editor Sanjee Weliwitigoda at email@example.com. Please send submissions to firstname.lastname@example.org or mail them to our Editorial Office. Please note that the Law Review prefers electronic submissions.
March 17, 2010 in Current Affairs, Discrimination, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Estates and Trusts, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, Medicaid, Medicare, Property Management, Retirement, Social Security | Permalink | TrackBack (0)
Tuesday, January 26, 2010
A recent alumnus of William Mitchell, who is working in the home mortgage department of a national bank, describes the following growing problem: “We are speaking with elderly applicants who have old liens recorded on their titles which should not be there. What's sad about the situation is that a lot of applicants are widows or widowers who had their spouse take care of all their property and lien issues, and they have no idea what to do to take these old liens off so the refinancing application can proceed.”
As a first step toward helping this group of people, he suggested that elder law clinics and/or legal services programs that serve elders could develop a checklist to identify folks who might be in similar situations, something along the lines of:
- When was the last date you checked your title? ·
- Are you aware of all liens reported as open on your credit report?
- Are there liens listed as open on your credit report that should be closed?
- Does your title have any liens recorded on it that should not be there?
- Does your title have any liens not recorded on it that should be there? ·
- Does your title have a current lien on there, but that lien's amount has increased/decreased, or has it been bought/superseded by another mortgagee? ·
- Do you have the proper documents necessary to remove/modify/add the proper liens to your title? ·
- Do you know how to modify your title?
What do folks think? Are there clinics or programs doing this kind of work? Is the problem one people are seeing in their regular practice? Are there other resources that can be used to address the issue?
Thursday, May 28, 2009
Gerry W. Beyer
Texas Tech University School of Law
Estate Planning Studies, 2009
This article examines some of the provisions in the 2006 Uniform Power of Attorney Act and how they attempt to meet some of the challenges that durable powers face with a focus on formalities in drafting, standards of conduct for an agent, an agent's powers and authority, and overcoming the dishonoring of the document.
The UPOAA does an admirable job of modernizing power of attorney law to reflect legislative trends and collective best practices. The enhancements should facilitate the acceptance of durable powers and make it more difficult for devious individuals to abuse the powers. The Act, however, is not the "end all" of power of attorney practice, and thus the practitioner must be vigilant to ascertain the principal's desires, consider the applicable law and facts, and then customize the power to meet the client's needs.
Keywords: power of attorney, agent, principal, Uniform Power of Attorney Act, disability planningAccepted Paper Series
Saturday, August 30, 2008
Australian Guardianship and Administration Council
2009 National Conference
Social Inclusion: The Future of Ageing, Disability
and Substituted Decision-Making
BRISBANE : 19-20 MARCH 2009
FIRST & FINAL CALL FOR ABSTRACTS
Closing date for receipt of abstracts: Tuesday 30 September, 2008
Abstracts for papers that address these and related issues are invited and may include a consideration of:
Please note that the acceptance of papers etc.
is contingent on registration for the Conference.
• Assessing capacity
• Use of enduring powers of attorney, advance health directives and
• Guardianship, including protection of rights and developing best practice
• Responding to challenging behaviour,
mental illness, personality disorders and homelessness
• Administration and financial protection of the vulnerable
• Medical treatment decisions including end of life
• Tribunals - structure, fact finding, confidentiality and procedural fairness
• Promoting human rights
• Engaging with Indigenous Communities
• Responding to the needs of our vulnerable aged
Please ensure that you comply with the following and forward (details below)
no later than 30 September 2008.
Abstracts must be:
• typed in Microsoft Word
• no more than 300 words
• submitted by email as an attachment or by post on a CD or floppy disk
(faxes will not be accepted)
Abstracts should include:
• Name of conference
• Title of presentation
• Author/s name(s), with name of presenting author underlined:
• Authors’ affiliations
• Main author’s address and contact details (postal and email addresses, phone and fax numbers)
Please forward abstracts by email to:
or on a CD to:
c/- The Congress Organiser
146 Leicester Street
Carlton, Victoria 3053
Receipt of all abstracts will be
acknowledged by email.
Wednesday, October 18, 2006
Within the week, the Arizona Supreme Court will publish a free law book for seniors and their adult children. The book instructs on how to prevent and battle elder abuse, deal with Social Security issues, trusts, funeral planning and senior driver's license issues, among other things. All Maricopa County courts and most Walgreens pharmacies in the state soon will carry the 16-page book. Several Arizona chapters of the AARP are endorsing the publication.
The Arizona Supreme Court modeled its guide after a widely popular senior law guide from California. Advice in the book is specifically tailored for Arizona law. Additional copies of the book may be obtained by contacting Nancy Swetnam of the Arizona Supreme Court at (602) 452-3362.
Source: AZ Central.com, http://www.azcentral.com/community/westvalley/articles/1018gl-nwvsenior18Z20.html
Ed: Everything you need to know about elder law in 16 pages! And to think I've been using a 700 page casebook and a 600 page statutory supplement!
Thursday, August 17, 2006
When: October 19-20,
Where: Clearwater Beach, FL
Program Chair: Professor Rebecca C. Morgan - Director, Center for Excellence in Elder Law
Boston Asset Management Faculty Chair in Elder Law
Plenary Sessions: Analyzing an Incoming SNT Matter, SSI & SNTs, Corporate Trustees - What They Need You to Know, Future of the SNT Practice, New Developments, and Current Issues in SSI.
Attorneys’ Track: Ethics, Administration, Modifying Trusts, Fixing Problems, Tax Planning for SNTs, Tax Issues in SNTs, Creating the Long-term SNT Distribution Plan, SNTs & Qualified Plans, Interstate/Multi-state Issues, and Developing a System for Self-Settled Special Needs Trusts.
Trustees’ Track: Marketing, Investment & Management Issues, Budgeting & Counseling Issues, Representation Issues, Hiring Others, How to Find Services and Advocate for the Beneficiary, Houses & Cars, I Want to Buy A......, and Closing & Planning to End SNTs.