Thursday, April 16, 2015

NYT: Nursing Homes Chase Lucrative Patients (But That's Not the Whole Story)

From the New York Times on April 14, an article from the business section, As Nursing Homes Chase Lucrative Patients, Quality of Care is Said to Lag.

Promises of “decadent” hot baths on demand, putting greens and gurgling waterfalls to calm the mind: These luxurious touches rarely conjure images of a stay in a nursing home.

 

But in a cutthroat race for Medicare dollars, nursing homes are turning to amenities like those to lure patients who are leaving a hospital and need short-term rehabilitation after an injury or illness, rather than long-term care at the end of life.

 

Even as nursing homes are busily investing in luxury living quarters, however, the quality of care is strikingly uneven. And it is clear that many of the homes are not up to the challenge of providing the intensive medical care that rehabilitation requires. Many are often short on nurses and aides and do not have doctors on staff.

Some colorful quotes here ("patients are leaving the hospital half-cooked"), but a lot of this well-written article nonetheless seems like old news to me (okay, perhaps that's because of my chosen research focus), with reporting on trends influenced by operating margins on the "nonprofit" side of care, and "return on investment" for shareholders on the for-profit side.  Perhaps "intensity" of the pressures is the theme here? 

Tip of the hat to George Washington University Law student Sarah Elizabeth Gelfand ('16) and GW Professor Naomi Cahn for making sure we saw this article!  

April 16, 2015 in Consumer Information, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, Medicaid, Medicare, Retirement, Statistics | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Saturday, April 11, 2015

ALs, PCHs, CCRCs, SNFs, RCFEs and the Name Game in Senior Housing

One of the first assignments I give to law students in my Elder Law course is to visit a "nursing home" and to see if they can get a copy of the admission agreement or contract.  (Most of the facilities in my area cooperate with these student visitors.)  The lesson here, however, is revealed when the students bring the documents back to the classroom for discussion. We discover that the majority of the contracts are not for admission to "skilled nursing facilities."

More frequently the facilities in question are licensed as "continuing care retirement communities" or CCRCs, which are big in Pennsylvania, or personal care homes (PCs or PCHs), or assisted living (AL) communities, each of which have different state regulations applying to their operations. These are not "nursing homes," or at least, they are not "skilled nursing facilities." Further, in Pennsylvania, increasingly there may be no label at all -- at least not a label that the public is familiar with -- and that is often by design as the facility or community may be attempting to avoid a "higher" level of requirements. 

The usual explanation is that the choice in label is not driven by concerns over "quality" of care, but by costs of having to meet some non "care" related regulation, such as AL state requirements for room size or physical accommodations.  The facility makes the case that it can meet the real needs of its clientele without being tied to "higher care" and therefore more "costly" models for senior housing.  Fair enough.  Caveat emptor.  If you are the customer, make sure you do your homework, ask questions, comparative shop, and avoid assumptions based on pretty pictures in marketing brochures. And try to do all of this before an emergency that accelerates the need for a move.

But, there can be significant differences triggered by a label (or lack thereof) that are not readily apparent to the public. A recent Policy Issue Brief published by Justice In Aging (formerly the National Senior Law Center) uses examples from California to shine a spotlight on subtle issues in labeling, as well as on the importance of regulations that are responsive and up-to-date.  Merely changing an "identity" or label should not be the basis for failing to comply with minimum standards relevant to the clients' needs.

In How California's Assisted Living System Falls Short in Addressing Residents' Health Care Needs,  Justice in Aging (JIA, to make our circle of acronyms almost complete), provides a sample job notice for a California facility and asks "can you spot the legal violations in this Assisted Living job announcement?" The notice, appears to be hiring for a "certified med aide," despite the fact that  there is no such thing in California, and more importantly, if the facility calling itself "Assisted Living" is actually a RCFE (residential care facility for the elderly), the California regulations do not permit staff to administer medications.  Outside of Medicare/Medicaid standards for skilled nursing facilities -- the "nursing homes" of the past -- there are no national standards for labeling of "assisted living" or the many alternatives. 

JIA's issue brief dated April 7, 2015 is part of a series that explores how California's system functions and points to ways it could be modified to help assure residents their expectations and needs will be satisfied.

The lessons in the JIA brief -- with a few tweaks to respond to any given state's set of acronyms -- seem equally relevant in all states.

April 11, 2015 in Consumer Information, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, Medicaid, Medicare, Retirement | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, April 10, 2015

Third Circuit Affirms Geriatrician's Conviction for Violation of Anti-Kickback Law

ElderLawGuy Jeff Marshall alerted us to this week's ruling by the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, affirming the conviction of Eugene Goldman, M.D. for several counts of taking "kickbacks" for referral of Medicare and Medicaid patients for hospice services.  Dr. Goldman's sentence of 51 months, followed by three years of supervised release during which he is barred from practicing medicine, was affirmed.  The facts, as set forth in the opinion, are interesting:

"Goldman had a geriatric medicine practice in Northeast Philadelphia. In December 2000, he secured the position of Medical Director of Home Care Hospice ('HCH'). Alex Pugman served as Director of HCH, and his wife, Svetlana Ganetsky, was the Development Executive, responsible for marketing HCH to doctors and other healthcare professionals. According to his contract, Goldman was responsible for quality assurance, consultations, and the occasional meeting. In reality, his job was to refer patients to HCH.

 

Goldman was paid for the number of patients he referred to HCH and the length of their stay. Early in his relationship with HCH, Goldman was paid $200 per referral. By 2011, he received $400 per referral, with an additional $150 for each patient who stayed longer than a month. Ganetsky paid Goldman each month by check. Between 2002 and 2012, Goldman referred more than 400 Medicare patients to HCH and received approximately $310,000 in return.

 

In 2006 the FBI and Department of Health & Human Services began investigating HCH for Medicare fraud. The FBI followed up in 2008 by obtaining a search warrant and seizing over 500 boxes of documents and information from HCH’s servers. Shortly after the raid, Ganetsky and Pugman approached the FBI and agreed to cooperate in the investigation. Ganetsky then recorded several meetings at which she paid Goldman for his referrals. Ganetsky made these payments with funds drawn from an account opened by the FBI for the investigation."

Continue reading

April 10, 2015 in Crimes, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Health Care Reform, Transition & Transformation in LTC

Monday, April 6, 2015

QI Program Ends

According to an informational bulletin from CMS on April 1, the traditional medical assistance program (TMA) and the QI program ended.  The QI program had been extended until March 31, 2015, so both programs ended effective April 1, 2015. As a result of the end of the QI program and "[i]n the absence of an extension, states will not be required to discontinue their payment of Part B premiums for QI beneficiaries, but these payments will no longer be eligible for federal reimbursement from CMS unless and until the program is reauthorized" The informational bulletin is available here.

April 6, 2015 in Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Saturday, April 4, 2015

"Informal" Arrangements for Home Care? What's the Downside? Here's One...

When it becomes impossible for a loved one to stay at home without help, one decision that families made need to face is whether to use an agency, or hire one or more individuals outright. Agencies are usually more expensive (at least on paper). But direct hires of home aides can raise other questions, including how to handle state and federal income taxes and documentation, insurance, transportation (read: more insurance questions), coverage for holidays, sick leave, overtime, and more.  You start off thinking this is short term help; the reality is it can last much longer....

But there is still one more question that may not be on the family's radar screen, until it is too late.

If the informal home care arrangements eventually don't suffice, perhaps because of increasing frailty and care needs, what happens when the individual's money is gone and there is a need for Medicaid-paid care?  

As explained in a recent Michigan Court of Appeals case, "informal" arrangements for home care may trigger ineligibility for Medicaid-paid care based on state rules or policies implementing federal law.

Continue reading

April 4, 2015 in Consumer Information, Current Affairs, Ethical Issues, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

5-4 Supreme Court Decision Rejects Private Rights of Action on Medicaid Funding

On Tuesday, March 31, the Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision rejected "private" rights of action for services providers to challenge under-funding of Medicaid programs by states.  The ruling potentially impacts availability of services to all Medicaid-eligible beneficiaries, if doctors, home care agencies and similar private health care providers decline to participate in Medicaid funded service programs. The decision in Armstrong v. Exceptional Child Center, was delivered by Justice Scalia, joined in part by Justices Roberts, Thomas, Alito and Breyer.  Justice Sotomayor dissents, joined by Justices Kennedy, Ginsburg and Kagan.

This one is going to take a bit of time to digest. 

Here is the Washington Post coverage of the opinion.

Here is Kaiser Health's News Links to early reactions.

April 1, 2015 in Federal Statutes/Regulations, Medicaid, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, March 20, 2015

ABLE webinar

Have you seen the number of articles that have been released about ABLE accounts?   Here's a chance to learn more:  the ABLE National Resource Center has announced a free webinar on ABLE on March 26 from 2-3:30 edt.  This is a collaboration between ARC, National Disability Institute, Autism Speaks, National Down Syndrome Society, and the College Plan Savings Network. According to the website, Understanding ABLE will cover the facets of ABLE, implementation updates and time for Q&A. To register, click here.

March 20, 2015 in Current Affairs, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Medicaid, State Statutes/Regulations, Webinars | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, March 16, 2015

Proposal to Increase Anti-Impoverishment Protections for Community Spouses Introduced in Connecticut

One of the declared purposes of modern federal law setting threshold standards for eligibility for Medicaid for long-term care is "protection of the community spouse" from impoverishment.  At least that's a declared objective of amendments to federal law, passed by Congress in 1988. As one of Dickinson Law's Elder Protection Clinic clients once observed, "slower" impoverishment isn't the same as protection. States have choices to make within federal guidelines about minimum and maximum sums, about how much money community spouses can keep when their loved ones apply for Medicaid for long-term care.

In Connecticut, there is new legislation proposed, aimed at increasing the level of protection of community spouses in that state.  As described in a recent article from the Hartford Courant

Allowing the spouse of a person in a nursing home to keep enough money to live on independently is, in many ways, a moral issue. But in a tight budget year in Connecticut, it's a fiscal issue.

 

A proposal that would increase the minimum assets that a spouse living in the community can keep - from $23,844 to $50,000 – in order for his or her partner to be eligible for Medicaid nursing home care is being backed by elder advocates, who say the increase would help seniors, especially women, remain able to live independently. But the move is being opposed by the Department of Social Services on the grounds it will shift millions in costs to the state-funded Medicaid program.

 

The proposal would affect couples with combined assets of between $23,844 and $100,000....

It will be interesting to see whether this bill has traction, and whether other states are also willing to step up to the financial plate.

March 16, 2015 in Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

8th Circuit Rejects "Attempt" to Create d4A Special Needs Trust to Permit SSI Eligibility

In Draper v. Colvin, petitioner sought judicial review of SSA's denial of her application for SSI benefits. Her claim was sympathetic, as "[e]ighteen-year-old Stephany Draper suffered a traumatic brain injury in a car accident in June 2006."

In an admittedly  "hard line" ruling on March 3, the 8th Circuit rejected her argument that her parents' intent to establish a valid third-party-settled special needs trust, using proceeds from a settlement of a personal injury suit on her behalf, should permit her to claim SSI. 

The ruling means that over $400,000 will be treated as "available resources," thus requiring spend down before she would be eligible for benefits.  The court explained (minus citations):

Admittedly, some evidence in the record supports Draper's claim that her parents intended to act in their individual capacities. Draper's parents identified themselves individually as settlors and trustees, and the trust document explicitly states that it was established “pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1396p(d)(4)(A)," a provision which notes that a third party, such as a parent, must create the special needs trust for the benefit of the disabled person. Nevertheless, as discussed [earlier in the opinion], other facts provide substantial evidence to support the conclusion that Draper's parents acted using the power of attorney when establishing the trust.

The Court continued on to its tough bottom line:

Continue reading

March 10, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Estates and Trusts, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Property Management, Social Security, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Thursday, March 5, 2015

Oral Argument re Statutory Construction of Affordable Care Act in King v. Burwell

Neither short nor sweet?  Here is a link to the written Transcript of the oral argument before the United States Supreme Court  on March 4, 2015 in King v. Burwell.

March 5, 2015 in Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, February 27, 2015

Why A "Pooled Trust" for Special Needs?

Texas attorney Renée C. Lovelace has literally written the book -- a guidebook -- on Pooled Trust Options.  Renée was a recent guest speaker at Penn State's Dickinson Law, appearing before students in an advanced seminar on planning techniques.  Indeed, our students had specifically asked to hear from experienced practitioners on special needs trusts, and with the help of the National Elder Law Foundation we were able to host a nationally known speaker to do just that. Renee Lovelace and Dickinson Law Students

Renée (third from the left, in blue) helped our students identify appropriate uses of pooled trusts, such as where the beneficiary's needs could be uniquely well-served by a trustee who is familiar with the challenges sometimes encountered in managing assets on behalf of  persons with disabilities.

While the special needs beneficiary may be frustrated by a manager's handling of "his" (or "her") money, sometimes it is the family that has questions about application of the law. Recently I was reading a New Jersey case decision, where a family was challenging the state's attempt to seek reimbursement for medical and care expenses expended by the state, following the death of their disabled daughter.  At the core of the dispute was what appeared to be a misunderstanding on the part of the family about the nature of their daughter's special needs trust, which they were describing as a pooled trust.  The court pointed out, that in the absence of a nonprofit manager, the trust could not be deemed a (d)(4)(C) trust or "pooled" trust, that would have allowed assets remaining after the death of the daughter to stay in the trust for the benefit of other disabled persons, rather than be subject to the state's reimbursement claim.

Thus, the case is a reminder that pooled trusts, properly created and managed are usually drafted as special needs trusts (SNTs).  However, not all SNTs are pooled trusts.  Or as Renée explains so well in her thorough guidebook:

Continue reading

February 27, 2015 in Books, Consumer Information, Current Affairs, Estates and Trusts, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Social Security | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, February 24, 2015

National Consumer Law Center Webinar on Medical Debt & Collection Practices

The National Consumer Law Center (NCLC) is offering a free webinar on "Medical Debt: Overview of New IRS Regulations and Industry Best Practices" on March 4, 2015 from 2 to 3 p.m. Eastern Time.

The hosts describe the webinar as follows:

This webinar will present an overview of the IRS final regulations governing financial assistance and collection policies of nonprofit hospitals. The regulations require nonprofit hospitals to have written financial assistance policies; regulate debt collection by nonprofit hospitals and third party
agencies; and prohibit the imposition of "chargemaster" rates to patients eligible for financial assistance. 

Find out how to use the regulations to help clients who owe medical debts to nonprofit hospitals and protect them from lawsuits, liens, and credit reporting damage. The webinar will also review the voluntary best practices on medical account resolution issued by the Healthcare Financial Management Association.

Here is the link for REGISTRATION.  Thanks to the National Senior Citizens Law Center (soon to be "officially" Justice in Aging) for sharing news of this educational opportunity of clear relevance to older persons and their families. 

February 24, 2015 in Consumer Information, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | TrackBack (0)

Sunday, February 22, 2015

First White House Conference on Aging Regional Forum Held in Tampa, Florida

The first White House Conference on Aging Regional Forum was held on February 19, 2015 in Tampa Florida. The morning featured comments by the WHCOA Executive Director Nora Super and remarks by Cecilia Munoz, Assistant to the President and Director, Domestic Policy Council.  Two panels followed, with comments by panelists on the 4 topics of emphasis for the 2015 WHCOA, healthy aging, long term services and supports, retirement security and elder justice.  In the afternoon, participants were divided into working groups for those 4 topics, where they discussed priorities, obstacles, and actions.  Representatives from each working group presented the group's topic recommendations in a closing panel presentation moderated by Kathy Greenlee, Administrator for the Administration on Community Living and the Assistant Secretary for Aging. In person attendance was invitation only, but the event was live webcast through HHS. The next regional forum is set for Phoenix, Arizona on March 31st. Visit the WHCOA forums website a day or so before the event to register for the live webcast.

February 22, 2015 in Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Programs/CLEs, Retirement, Social Security | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Thursday, February 19, 2015

For Aging Patients, Are There Enough Doctors to Go Around?

As the long-predicted aging tsunami hits, are there enough doctors to meet the need?  Not in Montana, as demonstrated by a two-part story from NBC News:

"There is no part of life in McCone County, Montana, where the community's age has not begun to show. Farmers have gone gray. There were some dozen funerals last winter. Each year makes more widows.  Nearly 25 percent of McCone County's 1,700 residents are already over 60, a bellwether for changes that will soon roll across Montana. State projections show a quarter of Montanans will be seniors by 2030, twenty years before the same demographic shift hits the nation as a whole.

 

Montana policymakers have watched that shift coming toward them, knowing it brings more older, potentially sicker patients to a largely rural medical system in which providers and specialists are already scarce. Seniors here often travel an hour or more for 'emergency' care, and nursing home beds are dwindling, particularly in the sparsest areas.    

    

In the face of these changes, Charlie Rehbein, head of the Montana Office on Aging, asks, 'How do we provide services to them?'"

"In Montana, Aging Takes a Village," and "As Crisis Grows, A Search For Help," the Aging Tsunami coverage details the struggle to recruit even physician assistants to rural areas of the state. 

February 19, 2015 in Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Questions Raised by Doctor's Guilty Plea for Kickbacks from Prescribing Risky Drugs to Seniors

A long-running investigation of a doctor in Illinois for Medicaid and Medicare fraud is coming to a close.  Michael Reinstein, "who for decades treated patients in Chicago nursing homes and mental health wards," has pleaded guilty to a felony charge for taking kickbacks from a pharmaceutical company.  As detailed by the Chicago Tribune, on February 13, Reinstein admitted prescribing, and thus generating public payment for, various forms of the drug clozapine, widely described as a "risky drug of last resort."

The 71-year old doctor has been the target of the state and federal prosecutors for months, and he's also agreed to pay (which is, of course, different than actually paying) more than $3.7 million in penalties.  He may still be able to reduce his prison time from 4 years to 18 months, if he "continues to assist investigators."

The investigation traces as far back as 2009, as detailed by a Chicago-Tribune/ProPublica series that revealed he had prescribed more of the antipsychotic drug in question to patients in "Medicaid's Illinois program in 2007 than all doctors in the Medicaid programs of Texas, Florida and North Carolina combined."  Further, the Tribune/ProPublica series pointed to autopsy and court records that showed that, "by 2009, at least three patients under Reinstein's care had died of clozapine intoxication." Reinstein's, and one assumes, the pharmaceutical company's, defense was that the drug could have appropriate, therapeutic effects for patients, beyond the limited "on-label" realm.

Assuming that the government ever sees a dime in repayment, from either the doctor or the drug company, my next question is what happens to that money?  At a minimum, shouldn't there be review of the effect of the drugs on these patients, some of whom may have been administered the drug for years? We keep reading that the drugs are "risky," but shouldn't there be evidence of real harm -- or perhaps even benefit -- from the documented "off-label" use?  Certainly, prosecutions for off-label drugs are understandable attempts to claw-back, or at least reduce, public expenditures. But isn't more at stake, including the search for relief or workable solutions for patients who are in distress? 

In March 2014, for example, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., the maker of generic clozapine, reportedly agreed to pay more than $27.6 million to settle state and federal allegations that it induced Reinstein to prescribe the drug. Recovering misspent dollars is important.  But I also would like to see evidence of the harm alleged by the government -- or the benefit asserted by the defendants -- from the administration of the drugs.  Isn't objective study of the history of these real patients a very proper use of the penalties? 

February 18, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Consumer Information, Crimes, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Medicare, State Cases | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Pennsylvania Inspector General Reports $1.8 Million Recovery of Long-Term Care Funds

As picked up by several news media sources, Pennsylvania's Office of Inspector General (OIG) released a statement on February 9, 2015 reporting that "from September 2014 through December 2014, [OIG] recovered more than $1.8 million in taxpayer funds from individuals who were ineligible to receive long term care benefits."

Further, OIG reported these actions resulting in "over $709,000 in cost savings for the same period.  Cost savings represent future use of commonwealth funds that would have been expended for Long Term Care services on behalf of an ineligible individual."

The timing of this press release strikes me as interesting.  I don't recall seeing a three-month report before, nor does the press release disclose any details about the number of "ineligible" individuals this report represents. The recent press release merely states:

"In some instances, individuals or their personal representatives fail to disclose to the commonwealth income and/or assets such as real estate, stocks, or pensions in order to qualify the individual for Medical Assistance benefits."

OIG makes an annual report on investigations and recoveries of all state funds, including long-term care.  Pennsylvania's 2013-2014 Fiscal Year Annual OIG Report includes a statement that OIG "collected and cost avoided in excess of $9.9 million in long term care benefits." The conflating of recovery of "past" improper payments with "costs avoided" in the annual report makes it difficult to compare the more recent three-month report, covering the end of the calendar year, to determine whether it represents a significant change. 

It is probably worth noting that the OIG head in 2014 was an appointee of outgoing Republican Governor Tom Corbett, while the new Pennsylvania Governor, with new appointments to make, is Democrat Tom Wolfe.

February 10, 2015 in Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Part 2 of "Death of a Black Nursing Home" - Medicaid's Racism

Part 2 of the provocative New America Media series on "Death of a Black Nursing Home," describes a pervasive, discriminatory impact by states in deciding how to use Medicaid funding for health and long-term care.  In "Why Medicaid's Racism Drove Historically Black Nursing Home Bankrupt," Wallace Roberts writes:

"About 90 percent of Lemington’s residents were Medicaid recipients. The industry’s average, however, is 60 percent, so Lemington’s mission of providing care for low-income people from the area put it at a competitive disadvantage.

Lemington’s over-reliance on Medicaid was the principal reason its debt grew from a few hundred thousand dollars in 1984, to more than $10 million, including a $5.5 million mortgage on a new facility in 1984.

Pennsylvania’s Medicaid payments for nursing home reimbursement were too low to enable the home to hire enough trained staff. Lemington’s former human resources director, Kevin Jordan, noted that the home was “always scrambling to cover payroll” and spent lots of money on 'legal fees fighting the union.'”

The article details serious mistakes made by individuals in the operation of Leimington Home for the Aged, but also points to essential problems in Medicaid funding that doomed the facility to failure.  The author calls for reforms, including a consistent, national approach to long-term care funding, to eliminate -- or at least reduce -- the potential for misallocation of money by states:

"Although the leadership of Lemington Home must bear the responsibility for those legal judgments and the fate of an important institution, the racist history imbedded in Medicaid’s rules for the past 80 years should share the brunt of the blame for bankruptcies at hundreds of long-term care homes largely serving black, latino and low-income elders.

One needed change would be to award nursing homes in African American, Hispanic and low-income neighborhoods serving large numbers of Medicaid recipients larger “disproportionate share payments.” Under the law, such homes receive additional reimbursements for serving a larger-than-usual proportion of very poverty-level residents. But the higher rate also doesn’t kick in unless a facilty has at least a 90 percent occupancy rate, which many homes like Lemington can’t easily reach. Rules relaxing that standard would bring badly needed revenue to vulnerable homes.

Congress could also require that all nursing homes accept a minimum number of Medicaid patients so as to spread the financial burden.

But to truly do the job, Medicaid should be federalized—taken out of the hands of state and local officials, many of whom use get-tough rhetoric in elections to stigmatize and punish often-deserving people...."

The full articles are interesting -- we will link to any future parts of this bold series.

February 4, 2015 in Current Affairs, Discrimination, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

New Series Examines Impact on Minorities of "Flawed Scheme" for Funding Long-Term Care (Part 1)

This Blog has followed the complicated recent history of bankrupt Lemington Home for the Aged, in Pittsburgh, with posts here and hereNew America Media, a national association of over 3000 ethnic media organizations, has begun an important, multi-part series examining the "impoverished history of race" in long-term care for persons of color.  The Lemington Home becomes a case study.  The series is titled The Death of a Black Nursing Home.

"[W]hat happened to Lemington is not uncommon. Researchers at Brown University found that more than 600 other nursing homes in African American, Hispanic and low-income neighborhoods also went bankrupt during this period.

Their study examined the closings of more than 1,700 independent nursing homes between 1999-2009 and found that those located in largely ethnic and low-income communities were more likely to have been closed, mostly because of financial difficulties.

Specifically, nursing homes in the zip codes with the highest percentage of blacks and Latinos were more than one-third more likely to be closed, and the risk of closure in zip codes with the highest level of poverty was more than double that of those in zip codes with the lowest poverty rate."

Observing that "Medicaid homes can't compete" successfully, the article examines reimbursement rates under Medicare and Medicaid and the disproportionate effect of underfunding on minority communities. 

"The principal authors of the study, Vincent Mor and Zhanlian Feng, both of Brown at the time (Feng is now at the Research Triangle Institute), noted 'closures were more likely to occur among facilities in states providing lower Medicaid nursing home reimbursement rates.' That left these homes without the resources they needed to compete successfully in an industry experiencing an oversupply of beds and intensified competition....

 

While Medicaid reimbursement rates vary by state, they are always below Medicare’s reimbursement levels or the fees charged to people who pay for their own care.  The demise of Lemington and other nursing homes in minority and low-income neighborhoods is a direct result of this flawed payment scheme. However, large for-profit nursing home chains, some of which are owned by private equity companies and real estate investment trusts, can maximize profits by using expensive and aggressive marketing practices to cherry pick the wealthier residents in a given area while reducing the number of their own Medicaid clients.

Medicaid’s payment structure also has impacted the quality of care in nursing homes with predominantly minority residents."

We will link to the next parts of the series as they become available.

February 3, 2015 in Consumer Information, Discrimination, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Saturday, January 31, 2015

And Now, Some Happier News About Nursing Homes...

It strikes me that a lot of my posts this week about long-term care have been "bad news," especially regarding nursing homes.  It is a good time for me to share a much happier view from a daughter who first wrote to me about her fears as an adult daughter -- with health care concerns of her own -- living 3,000 miles away from her father, who at 90+ was in crisis and needed daily help, but was unable to afford it. Loving Daughter and Dad 

Her dad had a local person as an agent, a long-time friend's child who held "power of attorney." But that individual seemed overwhelmed.  When the daughter wrote to me, I encouraged her to talk to her father, who still had capacity.  Four months later, the daughter wrote back to give the results, including the very good news that her father was happier. She gave me permission to share details here:

"Since last September ... I was able to get my father completely on Medicaid and everything went through well with his application, etc.  He got accepted the first time!  I hear that can be rare. Additionally, my Dad met with his attorney and revised his POA, making me his agent and allowing me to do many things, even from afar.

 

Dad's very happy now and quite healthy (at age 91) in his new skilled nursing home environment in Pennsylvania.  Even from 3,000 miles away, I am still very connected to him, as well as the wonderful staff at the nursing home.  My Dad is now 3rd generation of his family to stay at that same nursing home. Additionally, he now has the company of his youngest sister, my Aunt, who has been at the home for the last 10 years.  They are together and enjoying each other's company every day."

A short time later, the daughter wrote again:

"I have such peace of mind, and heart, knowing this is the right place for Dad, plus, he has so much more socialization now and is no long isolated and all alone in his apartment where he was before.  (I no longer lay awake every night worried about him with knots in my stomach.) Plus, I forgot to mention the facility has a resident dog on site, a golden retriever named 'Magoo,' and, boy, does he brighten everyone's day."

This daughter's words are an important reminder that the "right" place, including the right nursing home, can make dramatic improvement in the lives of older persons, especially where frailty and isolation are the concerns. Thank you, Patti, for sharing your "happier" news.

Postscript:  Patti allowed us to share a photo of her and her father, and the story of their relationship is written in their smiles. 

January 31, 2015 in Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)