Thursday, April 23, 2015
As summarized in a recent article in the Washington Post, a new study places Washington D.C. fourth in the nation for seniors at hunger risk:
"The report says that more than 20 percent of the District’s elderly have concerns about eating enough food or the right kind of food, compared with more than 24 percent of seniors in Mississippi.
The estimates of senior hunger range from about 8 percent in Minnesota to more than 26 percent in Arkansas, which was ranked highest among states where seniors face the threat of hunger. Virginia and Maryland both had rates of about 14 percent.
The analysis – conducted by two university researchers on behalf of the nonprofit National Foundation to End Senior Hunger and the National Association of States United for Aging and Disabilities – says nearly 15.5 percent of elders, or 9.6 million people, in the United States face the threat of hunger...."
My thanks to George Washington Law Professor Naomi Cahn for sharing this article. We agree -- depressing news.
As outlined by The Washington Post, AARP Public Policy Institute has a new "Livability Index" offered as a way to evaluate factors such as safety, security, ease of getting around, access to health care, and housing affordability.
More intangible factors are also assessed, such as WiFi, farmers' markets and "public policies that promote successful aging."
(After following the trauma of the trial in Iowa, I wonder whether "criminal laws on sexual relations between husband and wives if one has dementia" should be added as an express factor?)
Wednesday, April 22, 2015
Most of my family likes the PBS television show "This Old House." (Not me: I prefer "International House Hunters.") I have a good friend-- we'll call her Louise -- who is getting ready to celebrate her 90th birthday and has the ability to turn a good phrase. For years she has been saying her plan was to stay in her home, a lovely "old house" built in the 1920s, until "whatever happens next." (She also refers to my writings here for Elder Law Prof as my "blobs.")
Recently, however, Louise admitted to considering a new plan. One thing after another in "this old house" was going wrong. First it was her land-line phone that would intermittently crackle and pop, eventually making all calls impossible. Next it was seemingly random problems with loss of electricity to one side of the house or the other. Finally, when everything in the kitchen lost power, she got serious. Soon there was a big trench behind the house, as the electricians tried to locate the problem.
Eventually they found about a 4 foot length of burned wiring in the ground, inside of the buried conduit leading to the house (!). They explained the wiring in and to Louise's house was just "too old." Fortunately, my friend could afford the massive repairs (not cheap), but that still meant living with her daughter 45 minutes away, and commuting to meet with the workers during the weeks without any power. And as she asked, "what's next?" Her house is about 3 years older than Louise.
Louise's story plus a recent article from the Patriot News got me thinking. In Harrisburg, PA, the mayor was proposing a way to help a 92 year-old-woman get help to deal with sewer line repairs from the street to her house that cost $10,000. Helping one person -- the proposal was for $2,000 -- was just the tip of the iceberg (so to speak -- I'm running out of metaphors). The article explained:
Friday, April 17, 2015
Scott E. Townsley, a very bright attorney, an adjunct associate professor at UMBC's Erickson School of Aging Studies, and a principal with CliftonLawsonAllen LLP, invited me to join him recently for a presentation to the 2015 Mid-Atlantic Region Resident Council Conference in Silver Spring, Md. (The lovely D.C. area cherry trees were in full bloom that day.)
Our theme was "Hot Topics in Continuing Care." Scott, a regular consultant to nonprofit CCRCs, used his deep experience in senior housing to outline his perspective on the biggest issues facing CCRCs. In preparation for my part, I reached out to my contacts in resident groups around the country and asked them to share with me their biggest concerns.
We then trimmed down our two respective lists and used a Point/Counter Point approach to the debate. Do any of our readers remember 60 Minutes' James Kirkpatrick and Shana Alexander? (Okay, how about Dan Aykroyd and Jane Curtin's lampoon of the Point/ Counter Point format? I think it is fair to say that we were less political than the first combo, and more polite -- if less humorous -- than the SNL crew. But we had fun.)
With a tip of the hat to David Letterman in borrowing his "top ten" format, here is a very distilled version of my list of Resident Concerns:
10. What does it really mean to be a nonprofit CCRC in 2015?
9. Do we need to worry about conversions of nonprofit CCRCs to for-profit?
8. What is the right response to the trend that residents are older and more disabled, even when first entering the community?
April 17, 2015 in Consumer Information, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Discrimination, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, Property Management, Retirement, State Statutes/Regulations, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (4) | TrackBack (0)
Thursday, April 16, 2015
From the New York Times on April 14, an article from the business section, As Nursing Homes Chase Lucrative Patients, Quality of Care is Said to Lag.
Promises of “decadent” hot baths on demand, putting greens and gurgling waterfalls to calm the mind: These luxurious touches rarely conjure images of a stay in a nursing home.
But in a cutthroat race for Medicare dollars, nursing homes are turning to amenities like those to lure patients who are leaving a hospital and need short-term rehabilitation after an injury or illness, rather than long-term care at the end of life.
Even as nursing homes are busily investing in luxury living quarters, however, the quality of care is strikingly uneven. And it is clear that many of the homes are not up to the challenge of providing the intensive medical care that rehabilitation requires. Many are often short on nurses and aides and do not have doctors on staff.
Some colorful quotes here ("patients are leaving the hospital half-cooked"), but a lot of this well-written article nonetheless seems like old news to me (okay, perhaps that's because of my chosen research focus), with reporting on trends influenced by operating margins on the "nonprofit" side of care, and "return on investment" for shareholders on the for-profit side. Perhaps "intensity" of the pressures is the theme here?
Tip of the hat to George Washington University Law student Sarah Elizabeth Gelfand ('16) and GW Professor Naomi Cahn for making sure we saw this article!
Tuesday, April 14, 2015
The Washington Post reminds us that changes to federal law for government-backed reverse mortgages, adiopted in 2014, are about to kick in:
"Interested in a reverse mortgage without a lot of hassles? Better get your application in fast. As of April 27, the federal government is imposing a series of extensive 'financial assessment' tests that will make applying for a reverse mortgage tougher — much like applying for a standard home mortgage.
[D]uring the years of the recession and mortgage bust, thousands of borrowers fell into default because they didn’t pay their required property taxes and hazard insurance premiums. On top of that, real estate values plunged, producing huge losses on defaulted and foreclosed properties for the FHA. The losses got so severe that the Treasury Department had to provide the FHA with a $1.7 billion bailout in 2013, the first in the agency’s history since its creation in the 1930s.
All of which led to the dramatic changes coming April 27. Applicants are now going to need to demonstrate upfront that they have both the 'willingness' and the 'capacity' to meet their obligations. Reverse-mortgage lenders are going to pull borrowers’ credit reports from the national credit bureaus, just as they do with other mortgages.illion bailout in 2013, the first in the agency’s history since its creation in the 1930s."
For more details see the full Post article at Window Is Rapidly Closing to Get Hassle-Free Reverse Mortgage.
Saturday, April 11, 2015
One of the first assignments I give to law students in my Elder Law course is to visit a "nursing home" and to see if they can get a copy of the admission agreement or contract. (Most of the facilities in my area cooperate with these student visitors.) The lesson here, however, is revealed when the students bring the documents back to the classroom for discussion. We discover that the majority of the contracts are not for admission to "skilled nursing facilities."
More frequently the facilities in question are licensed as "continuing care retirement communities" or CCRCs, which are big in Pennsylvania, or personal care homes (PCs or PCHs), or assisted living (AL) communities, each of which have different state regulations applying to their operations. These are not "nursing homes," or at least, they are not "skilled nursing facilities." Further, in Pennsylvania, increasingly there may be no label at all -- at least not a label that the public is familiar with -- and that is often by design as the facility or community may be attempting to avoid a "higher" level of requirements.
The usual explanation is that the choice in label is not driven by concerns over "quality" of care, but by costs of having to meet some non "care" related regulation, such as AL state requirements for room size or physical accommodations. The facility makes the case that it can meet the real needs of its clientele without being tied to "higher care" and therefore more "costly" models for senior housing. Fair enough. Caveat emptor. If you are the customer, make sure you do your homework, ask questions, comparative shop, and avoid assumptions based on pretty pictures in marketing brochures. And try to do all of this before an emergency that accelerates the need for a move.
But, there can be significant differences triggered by a label (or lack thereof) that are not readily apparent to the public. A recent Policy Issue Brief published by Justice In Aging (formerly the National Senior Law Center) uses examples from California to shine a spotlight on subtle issues in labeling, as well as on the importance of regulations that are responsive and up-to-date. Merely changing an "identity" or label should not be the basis for failing to comply with minimum standards relevant to the clients' needs.
In How California's Assisted Living System Falls Short in Addressing Residents' Health Care Needs, Justice in Aging (JIA, to make our circle of acronyms almost complete), provides a sample job notice for a California facility and asks "can you spot the legal violations in this Assisted Living job announcement?" The notice, appears to be hiring for a "certified med aide," despite the fact that there is no such thing in California, and more importantly, if the facility calling itself "Assisted Living" is actually a RCFE (residential care facility for the elderly), the California regulations do not permit staff to administer medications. Outside of Medicare/Medicaid standards for skilled nursing facilities -- the "nursing homes" of the past -- there are no national standards for labeling of "assisted living" or the many alternatives.
JIA's issue brief dated April 7, 2015 is part of a series that explores how California's system functions and points to ways it could be modified to help assure residents their expectations and needs will be satisfied.
The lessons in the JIA brief -- with a few tweaks to respond to any given state's set of acronyms -- seem equally relevant in all states.
Tuesday, March 31, 2015
In DeCambre v. Brookline Housing Authority, decided by a federal district court in Massachusetts on March 25, the issue was whether a disabled adult living in Section 8 housing becomes ineligible for the housing subsidy because of disbursements to her from a special needs trust, funded as the result of a personal injury settlement.
Although the court affirmed the Bureau of Hearings and Appeal ruling on her income and expenses, thus disqualifying her for public housing benefits, the court also called for clearer federal guidelines to permit better planning for needy beneficiaries:
"[This case demonstrates the serious problem that beneficiaries of irrevocable trusts face; in particular, those that seek to pour lump-sum settlement funds into irrevocable trusts. But until the rules and regulations are clarified, public housing authorities should provide clear guidance and instruction for potential tenants with regard to their financial planning and spending. A more thorough and thoughtful analysis is required by public housing authorities when determining Section 8 eligibility, until further guidance is provided by the HUD."
Sunday, March 29, 2015
Leonard M. Alexander, in conjunction with his son, my good friend and former Dickinson School of Law faculty colleague, Peter Alexander, is the author of It Takes A Village: The Integration of the Hillburn School System. The brief, inspiring book provides another timely look at the challenges of desegregation and demonstrates the important roles played by persistent local leaders in moving towards integration. Leonard Alexander also reminds us that opposition to change was not solely a "southern" problem:
"Hillburn, New York, has always been a simple, quiet community. Part of its charm was the appearance that people of different races lived in harmony. The harmony, unfortunately, was attributable only to the social norms of the time. The white men in the village controlled everything -- jobs, banks, land -- and the colored people, as we were known and referred to, would be taken care of as along as we stayed in our place.
'Our place' meant we should not be too vocal or too uppity. Also, 'our place' meant that we would live on the colored side of town (with the dividing line being Route 17). 'Our place' also meant that we would attend a separate school from the main grammar school in the village. Since 1889, four years before the village of Hillburn was chartered, the colored children attended grammar school that was set aside for us. The school was situated alongside a babbling brook and it was known as Brook School. Unofficially, it was the colored school."
The book describes the efforts of Leonard Alexander's father, working with others in "the village," to obtain a key NAACP investigation and report in 1931 about the so-called "separate but equal" treatment of the town's two grammar schools. The evidence included the fact that new classroom texts were purchased only for the white school; the white's school's old books might then be sent to Brook School.
Leonard's book is also a testament to the importance of memory and storytelling. This is the story of multiple generations of the Alexander family's involvement with community action, education and civil rights.
In reading the book in one sitting, I was intrigued by the role that jobs played in the ability -- or understandable reluctance -- of community members to challenge inequality. Leonard's father worked for the New York City General Post Office, and that gave him the financial independence from the local factory owners to challenge their "Jim Crow" system. A small, poignant detail suggests the consequences of activism, as a white business owner and politico would attempt to curry favor (and, probably, votes) by passing out candy to local black children, unless he learned their last name was Alexander.
Congratulations to Leonard Alexander, and to proud son and co-author, Peter. And, by the way, how many of us have parents with "unheard" stories to share?
Monday, March 16, 2015
Justice in Aging (formerly the National Senior Citizens Law Center) has released an issue brief, How California’s Assisted Living System Falls Short In Addressing Resident’s Health Care Needs The Problem: Pretending that Medication Is Always “Self- Administered” According to the brief, the issue of safe medication administration has
been overlooked for decades. “Assistance with self-administration” is too often a code word for medication administration by a poorly-trained non-nurse. As explained above, other states already have addressed this issue. California has not, due to factors such as the no-health-care orientation of California’s assisted living law, and important concerns about changing state laws related to nurses’ scope of practice. Stakeholders (including nursing representatives) should work together to consider the options to improve medication administration in assisted living. DSS to its credit has taken initial steps to work with stakeholders to identify problems and solutions related to the current RCFE system.
The issue brief is the first in a series to be released by Justice in Aging. More information about Justice in Aging is available here.
Tuesday, March 10, 2015
University of Florida Professor Stephen M. Golant has a new book, Aging in the Right Place. The gerontologist advocates examining a host of modern options, and urges resistance to an overly simplistic mantra of "aging in place" as the only goal. For example, he examines assisted living, co-housing, supported "independent living" environments, the "village" movement and CCRCs.
Interviewed for a Washington Post article, Golant explained:
“It’s not an all-or-nothing situation, obviously,” Golant said in an interview about aging-in-place. “But I just wanted to point out the imperfections, and the weaknesses in some of the arguments. . .I want to point out that sometimes there’s too much hype.”
It’s the sort of hype that has surrounded what he calls the New Gerontology, a long running trend that sometimes seems to imply that if people follow certain regimens of diet, physical exercise, social activity and cognitive training, they might avoid aging altogether.
As I have also suggested here, it is important for individuals and families to be realistic about what it will take to stay at home safely, making it important to be open to a larger definition of "home" in order to emphasize better quality of life.
Friday, February 27, 2015
Check out Volume 48, Issue 1 of the Indiana Law Review which contains articles from the 2013 Program on Law & State Government Fellowship Symposium: State Governments Face the Realities of Aging Populations. Three articles are included from the symposium, all of which are available on-line. The articles include Introduction: Governing Choices in the Face of a Generational Storm, Aging Populations and Physician Aid in Dying: The Evolution of State Government Policy, and What the Future of Aging Means to All of Us: An Era of Possibilities.
Monday, February 16, 2015
The themes for the two day conference are:
November 12 (Day 1): Connecting Across Discipline and Geography:
Join practitioners from law, social work, health care, finance, non-profit and other sectors from across the country and around the world to talk about the challenges and issues involved in working with older adults. Particular topic areas we are seeking include:
- elder abuse,
- assisted living and retirement housing,
- financial abuse,
- age friendly communities, and
- outreach strategies.
November 13 (Day 2): Key Practice Challenges and Hot Topics in Legal
Explore issues engaged in powers of attorney and substitute decision-making, health care decision-making and end of life care, mental capacity and dementia, elder abuse and neglect, and other challenging subjects that arise in representing older adults and their families.
Contact National Director Krista Bell with any questions, and additional details, including submission information are available here.
February 16, 2015 in Consumer Information, Current Affairs, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Estates and Trusts, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, International, Retirement, Social Security | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)
Wednesday, February 11, 2015
The Center for Retirement Research at Boston College has a nifty pamphlet on Using Your House for Income in Retirement. The booklet covers home ownership in retirement and options, including downsizing and reverse mortgages. The booklet includes graphics and checklists, helpful examples and list of other helpful "decision aids" available on their website.
Saturday, February 7, 2015
Driving home last evening, I had one of those "driveway" moments, where you don't want to shut off the car -- and thus the radio -- because a program on NPR is so compelling.
This time it was the Invisibilia story of Iggy Ignatius, born in India, but living in Florida. He decided to create a retirement community that looked like home, with low buildings, a courtyard, Bollywood movies, lots of Indian food, and lots of ... Indians. At first, his creative timing seemed all wrong, as he was opening the doors in 2008, on the threshold of what turned out to be a deep recession, hitting many Florida housing ventures hard. But, in fact, he sold out the first condo wing almost immediately, and success has apparently continued. Iggy has a theory for the popularity of his Indian retirement community:
"And at that time, he thinks, it's beyond your control. No matter who you are, you'll experience a deep primal desire to withdraw, like a salmon swimming upstream to the place of its birth to spawn and die. 'I think that is an animal instinct which we as human beings seem to have.'"
Hmmm. I'm not sure spawning salmon are experiencing the same motivations as elderly individuals, regardless of ethnicity. But, the story continued with a potential science-based explanation:
"Iggy is absolutely right, according to Jeff Greenberg, a professor of psychology at the University of Arizona. If you raise the specter of death in a person's mind, he says, Christians like Christians better; Italians like Italians better. Even Germans, who are usually pretty lukewarm about other Germans, if you get them to contemplate their own mortality, suddenly they really like Germans...."
Thus, if true, there is a potential dark side to a "return to kind," both in terms of the subconscious fears that may drive it, and the impact on community and society.
Does this make sense to you? To read or listen to the whole story, go to "Being With People Like You Offers Comfort Against Death's Chill."
Wednesday, February 4, 2015
Part 2 of the provocative New America Media series on "Death of a Black Nursing Home," describes a pervasive, discriminatory impact by states in deciding how to use Medicaid funding for health and long-term care. In "Why Medicaid's Racism Drove Historically Black Nursing Home Bankrupt," Wallace Roberts writes:
"About 90 percent of Lemington’s residents were Medicaid recipients. The industry’s average, however, is 60 percent, so Lemington’s mission of providing care for low-income people from the area put it at a competitive disadvantage.
Lemington’s over-reliance on Medicaid was the principal reason its debt grew from a few hundred thousand dollars in 1984, to more than $10 million, including a $5.5 million mortgage on a new facility in 1984.
Pennsylvania’s Medicaid payments for nursing home reimbursement were too low to enable the home to hire enough trained staff. Lemington’s former human resources director, Kevin Jordan, noted that the home was “always scrambling to cover payroll” and spent lots of money on 'legal fees fighting the union.'”
The article details serious mistakes made by individuals in the operation of Leimington Home for the Aged, but also points to essential problems in Medicaid funding that doomed the facility to failure. The author calls for reforms, including a consistent, national approach to long-term care funding, to eliminate -- or at least reduce -- the potential for misallocation of money by states:
"Although the leadership of Lemington Home must bear the responsibility for those legal judgments and the fate of an important institution, the racist history imbedded in Medicaid’s rules for the past 80 years should share the brunt of the blame for bankruptcies at hundreds of long-term care homes largely serving black, latino and low-income elders.
One needed change would be to award nursing homes in African American, Hispanic and low-income neighborhoods serving large numbers of Medicaid recipients larger “disproportionate share payments.” Under the law, such homes receive additional reimbursements for serving a larger-than-usual proportion of very poverty-level residents. But the higher rate also doesn’t kick in unless a facilty has at least a 90 percent occupancy rate, which many homes like Lemington can’t easily reach. Rules relaxing that standard would bring badly needed revenue to vulnerable homes.
Congress could also require that all nursing homes accept a minimum number of Medicaid patients so as to spread the financial burden.
But to truly do the job, Medicaid should be federalized—taken out of the hands of state and local officials, many of whom use get-tough rhetoric in elections to stigmatize and punish often-deserving people...."
The full articles are interesting -- we will link to any future parts of this bold series.
February 4, 2015 in Current Affairs, Discrimination, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Housing, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)
Tuesday, February 3, 2015
This Blog has followed the complicated recent history of bankrupt Lemington Home for the Aged, in Pittsburgh, with posts here and here. New America Media, a national association of over 3000 ethnic media organizations, has begun an important, multi-part series examining the "impoverished history of race" in long-term care for persons of color. The Lemington Home becomes a case study. The series is titled The Death of a Black Nursing Home.
"[W]hat happened to Lemington is not uncommon. Researchers at Brown University found that more than 600 other nursing homes in African American, Hispanic and low-income neighborhoods also went bankrupt during this period.
Their study examined the closings of more than 1,700 independent nursing homes between 1999-2009 and found that those located in largely ethnic and low-income communities were more likely to have been closed, mostly because of financial difficulties.
Specifically, nursing homes in the zip codes with the highest percentage of blacks and Latinos were more than one-third more likely to be closed, and the risk of closure in zip codes with the highest level of poverty was more than double that of those in zip codes with the lowest poverty rate."
Observing that "Medicaid homes can't compete" successfully, the article examines reimbursement rates under Medicare and Medicaid and the disproportionate effect of underfunding on minority communities.
"The principal authors of the study, Vincent Mor and Zhanlian Feng, both of Brown at the time (Feng is now at the Research Triangle Institute), noted 'closures were more likely to occur among facilities in states providing lower Medicaid nursing home reimbursement rates.' That left these homes without the resources they needed to compete successfully in an industry experiencing an oversupply of beds and intensified competition....
While Medicaid reimbursement rates vary by state, they are always below Medicare’s reimbursement levels or the fees charged to people who pay for their own care. The demise of Lemington and other nursing homes in minority and low-income neighborhoods is a direct result of this flawed payment scheme. However, large for-profit nursing home chains, some of which are owned by private equity companies and real estate investment trusts, can maximize profits by using expensive and aggressive marketing practices to cherry pick the wealthier residents in a given area while reducing the number of their own Medicaid clients.
Medicaid’s payment structure also has impacted the quality of care in nursing homes with predominantly minority residents."
We will link to the next parts of the series as they become available.
From WGEM.com in Hannibal, Missouri, coverage on "2,000 Veterans Waiting in Line to Get Into Missouri Nursing Homes,"
"Some wait more than a year to get full care covered through veteran's benefits, and it's even harder for veterans without a state home close to where they live because they have even fewer options.
'I had to have a place to go, so they got me in,' Army veteran Robert Johnson said. Johnson is at Beth Haven Nursing Home in Hannibal for the time being. He had to choose a private care facility because there are relatively no veteran's homes in the area. 'Oh yeah, it's pretty expensive to stay here,' Johnson said. 'I think they ought to have something to help veterans out. A lot of people have a pretty hard time anymore.'
Veterans who pay for private care do get supplemental money through benefits, and those using Medicaid also get personal allowance, but sometimes it's not enough. Beth Haven CEO Paul Ewert says there are some cases where families have to either pay out of pocket or travel hours away for full care."
Wednesday, January 28, 2015
LeadingAge, an senior housing and senior care organization that often takes a prominent advocacy role on behalf of nonprofit Continuing Care Retirement Communities, has a "NameStorm Survey" underway. The survey explores whether another name (and presumably an acronym other than CCRC) would better "resonate with consumers?" Everyone is invited to weigh-in, including current residents at CCRCs.
Here's the link to the reasons for the brainstorming of names, and here is a link to the on-line survey, that takes just a few minutes. The survey window closes on February 15, 2015.
Wednesday, January 21, 2015
Catching up with three new elder law-related articles from SSRN that look very interesting:
"The Universality of Medicaid at Fifty" by University of Kentucky Law Professor Nicole Huberfeld, forthcoming in the Yale Journal of Health Policy Law & Ethics:
"This essay, written for the Yale Law School symposium on The Law of Medicare and Medicaid at 50, explores how the law of Medicaid after the ACA creates a meaningful principle of universalism by shifting from fragmentation and exclusivity to universality and inclusivity. The universality principle provides a new trajectory for all of American health care, one that is not based on individual qualities that are unrelated to medical care but rather grounded in non-judgmental principles of unification and equalization (if not outright solidarity). This essay examines the ACA's legislative reformation, which led to universality, and its quantifiable effects. The essay then assesses and evaluates Medicaid’s new universality across four dimensions - governance, administration, equity, and eligibility. Each reveals a facet of universality that underscores this new principle’s importance for health care into the future."
"This paper analyzes nursing home failures in light of the federal regulatory regime that oversees them. Section II provides a framework for the discussion of nursing homes by describing the choices seniors have for their living arrangements. In order to establish context for the current social and legal space inhabited by nursing homes, Section III traces the historical development of the modern nursing homes, with a particular focus on the landmark laws of the 1960s that paved the way for late-twentieth century proliferation of nursing homes. With this background in mind, Section IV explores the federal regulatory regime that governs nursing homes, and Section V details the bodies and mechanisms that enforce federal rules and regulations. Section VI provides evidence and statistics regarding the prevalence of abuse and neglect in nursing homes and argues that these data evidence a troubled regulatory system. Section VII examines the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which has been heralded as the most significant legislation affecting the healthcare industry in decades, and concludes that the law does not contain provisions that will serve to reduce elder abuse and neglect in any significant way. Section VIII offers recommendations to improve nursing home care in light of the foundation provided by PPACA. Section IX discusses potential blowback that these and other solutions may present and urges reformers to proceed carefully and thoughtfully before enacting any proposed reform."
"This Article explores the impact of federal law on a state fiduciary’s management of digital assets. It focuses on the lessons from the Stored Communications Act ('SCA'), initially enacted in 1986 as one part of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act. Although Congress designed the SCA to respond to concerns that Internet privacy posed new dilemmas with respect to application of the Fourth Amendment’s privacy protections, the drafters did not explicitly consider how the SCA might affect property management and distribution. The resulting uncertainty affects anyone with an email account."