Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Pharma Company Fights Back on Off-Label Drug Use Prosecutions

We've written on this blog several times about successful prosecutions connected to so-called "off label" drug use, including the use of antipsychotics for agitation in dementia patients.  See here and here, for example.  Now, courtesy of a New York Times article, there is news of a pharmaceutical company's lawsuit to preempt such prosecutions, raising First Amendment free speech rights as grounds for off-label advocacy: 

On Thursday, Amarin Pharma took the unusual step of suing the Food and Drug Administration,  arguing that it has a constitutional right to share certain information about its product with doctors, even though the agency did not permit the company to do so. Lawyers for the company said that they believed their case was the first time a manufacturer had pre-emptively sued the agency over the free-speech issue, before it had been accused of any wrongdoing. Other companies have sued the agency only after they have gotten into trouble....

 

Lawyers for Amarin say the company is not proposing to market Vascepa to a wider population of patients, merely to share with doctors the results of a 2011 company-sponsored clinical trial that showed the drug lowered triglycerides in patients with “persistently high” levels....

More details about the suit available here

May 12, 2015 in Consumer Information, Crimes, Current Affairs, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, May 11, 2015

A Juror's Perspective from the Iowa Sexual Assault-Dementia Trial

I'm catching up on news items after being away for a few days.  There are additional insights about the sad trial of Henry Rayhons in Iowa, that ultimately resulted in his acquittal, from one of the jurors, who also happened to be a reporter.  Too often it is easy to focus about what is wrong with the court system, but here is a reminder of just how seriously most jurors take their duties. 

Read, "The Rayhons Trial: A Juror's Perspective," by Angela Nelson.  And my thanks to Bryan Gruley who made sure we did not miss this powerful coda to the trial. 

May 11, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, May 1, 2015

Criminal Record? Is Life-Time Ban from Care Industry Employment Necessary to Protect Older, Vulnerable Persons?

In 2003, in Nixon v. Commonwealth, Pennsylvania's Supreme Court struck down a provision of the state's Older Adult Protective Services Act that imposed an absolute bar on designated care "facilities," including nursing homes, personal care homes, and home health agencies, prohibiting them from hiring  "new" employees who had been convicted of certain crimes. The Court concluded that the prohibition, which affected only "new" employees, or those working at a covered facility for less than one year, did not bear a real and substantial relationship to the Commonwealth's interest in protecting the elderly, disabled, and infirm from victimization, and therefore unconstitutionally infringe[d] on the Employees' right to pursue an occupation." 

Twelve years later, the Pennsylvania legislature, despite consideration of many proposals to "fix" the "Nixon case problem," still had not amended the statute. (This is the second time in a week that Pennsylvania's speed -- or lack thereof -- in enacting important reforms has attracted media attention.) As explained by NPR in a feature story by Carrie Johnson, a new lawsuit again challenges Pennsylvania's employment ban:

In 1981, when he was just 18, [Tyrone] Peake was arrested with a friend for trying to steal a car to take a girl home after a long weekend. "No, we never got the car," Peake said. "We broke the ignition column and then the cops came."

 

Peake couldn't even drive back then. He says he was just along for the ride. He never went to prison. Instead, he got probation. But that single charge years ago still haunts him, sometimes even after he's gotten work....

 

"I've been fired from three jobs," Peake said, "because [of] having a criminal record. And my record is like 32 years old, and I haven't been in trouble since then." A lot's happened since the 1980s for Peake. He went back to school, and he's been working part time as a counselor for men addicted to drugs and alcohol. But the law prevents him from being hired full time to work in a nursing home or long-term-care facility because of that single criminal conviction.

Peake's history of attempting to get on the right side of the law presents a dramatic contrast between the law's laudable purpose of protection of vulnerable adults and its sometimes harsh effect.  For more, see NPR's Can't Get A Job Because Of A Criminal Record? A Lawsuit Is Trying To Change That. 

May 1, 2015 in Crimes, Discrimination, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Upcoming Webinar: U.S. Department of Justice and Fraud Schemes Targeting Older Americans

U.S. Department of Justice and Fraud Schemes Targeting Older Americans

  1. Wed, May 27, 2015 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM CDT

U.S. Department of Justice and  Fraud Schemes Targeting Older Americans Attorneys from the Department of Justice’s Consumer Protection Branch will describe fraud schemes targeting older Americans, including Jamaican lottery scams and large-scale psychic schemes. The crimes, perpetrated through mass mailings and telemarketing, affect hundreds of thousands of U.S. consumers. Presenters will describe how the scams contact victims, the manner in which they operate and the Consumer Protection Branch’s interception and prosecution efforts. The webinar will also address tips on how to avoid the scams and improve prevention efforts.

Presenters:
Rich Goldberg (Assistant Director, U.S. Department of Justice, Consumer Protection Branch); Kate Drenning (Trial Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, Consumer Protection Branch); Ann Entwistle (Trial Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, Consumer Protection Branch)

Additional sponsorship for this Webinar is provided by a grant from the Administration on Aging/Administration for Community Living. This webinar is part of a series of National Elder Rights Training Project webinars for the National Legal Resource Center.

There is no charge for this webinar.
All time listings are in Eastern Time.
If you have any questions email trainings@nclc.org

April 28, 2015 in Crimes, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Webinars | Permalink | TrackBack (0)

Friday, April 24, 2015

How Should Decisions Be Made About Sexual Rights During Facility-Based Care?

For me, a chilling moment in the trial of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons came during the prosecution's case-in-chief, with the reported testimony of a physician at Mrs. Rayhons' nursing home.  According to the coverage of the trial, the doctor testified that based on her decreasing score on the BIMS (Brief Interview for Mental Status), he determined Donna Rayhons lacked the cognitive ability to give consent to sex.  In contrast, a defense expert was reported to have testified it was a "medical mistake" to have used such minimal evaluations of capacity to draw an arbitrary line between permission to kiss or hug, as opposed to engaging in more intimate relations. 

The contrasting testimony put a spotlight on the very serious questions of who makes decisions -- and how decisions are made -- about "capacity" to engage in essential behaviors such as sex for persons with dementia. This topic is further explored, with great prescience, by a law student at the University of Illinois in the current issue of the Elder Law Journal, written well before the Rayhons trial.  Stephanie Tang, who was also the managing editor for the journal in 2014-15, writes:

To best balance the interests of the elderly with those of the states, states should develop and adopt a model assessment tool that employs a clinical perspective to evaluate a person’s capacity to consent to sexual activity. Model assessment tools provide courts with a clear and objective standard, which would increase predictability and uniformity of court decisions.

 

Moreover, identifying specific cognitive functions that need to be assessed would constitute a major step forward in those states that have not yet done so.This Note advocates for the use of two tests: 1) the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test (SSKAT) and 2) Cognisat. Authors have previously argued for the adoption of the SSKAT to assess sexual capacity to consent among mentally retarded patients. The American Bar Association and American Psychological Association cited use of Cognistat to assess cognitive capacity to consent to sexual activity among hypothetical patients with diminished capacity.

To put this simply, in her article,When "Yes" Might Mean "No": Standardizing State Criteria to Validate The Capacity to Consent to Sexual Activity for Elderly with Neurocognitive Disorders, Ms. Tang is arguing that far more sophisticated and appropriate tools are available and should be used to assist in evaluating capacity to participate in sex. Brava, Ms. Tang!

Ms. Tang's article draws in major part on the detailed factual reporting of Bryan Gruley for Bloomberg News, in his important series on rights of the elderly with dementia.  Mr. Gruley's articles began to appear as early as 2013, and became even more relevant with his investigation of the events underlying the 2014 charges against Mr. Rayhons.

April 24, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, Science, Statistics | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, April 22, 2015

Iowa Sexual Assault/Dementia Trial -- and the Jury Says....

On Wednesday, April 22, 2015, at approximately 2:30 p.m. central time, after almost two full days of deliberations on a single count of statutory sexual abuse of his wife, a nursing home resident with dementia, the jury found 79-year-old former Iowa legislator Henry Rayhons NOT GUILTY. 

As shown with pictures posted by KIMT.com Twitter, there are many tears in the courtroom.

Interestingly, as another indication of the State's aggressive prosecution of this case, the prosecutor filed a "Statement" with the court in Garner, Iowa yesterday, while the jury was still deliberating, asking that in the event of a conviction, Mr. Rayhons be taken immediately into custody. The explanation? The state contended that under Iowa law, sexual abuse in the third degree is covered by Iowa Code Section 709.4.(2)(a), and that any exception to "forcible felony" treatment for criminal sexual acts occurring between husband and wife does not apply, because they were not "cohabiting," at the time. 

Therefore, argued the state, if convicted Mr. Rayhons would have been barred from posting bail pending appeal.  Further, the prosecution argued the defendant would not have been eligible for a deferred or suspended sentence, and, once released, would be subject to restrictive, special parole terms for the rest of his life.  See Iowa Code Section 701.11(1) on "forcible felony."  See also Iowa Code Section 811.1.  See also Iowa Code Section 907.3.

Fortunately for this defendant, the incarceration arguments are now moot. 

This case has demonstrated, all too clearly, that we need better understanding of the relationship between dementia and legal capacity. The Rayhons case challenges us to consider carefully the appropriate balance between protection of individuals with Alzheimer's and recognition of fundamental human rights.

As additional details emerge, we'll supplement this post. 

Here are two early stories on the aftermath of the jury's verdict:

From Bloomberg News' Bryan Gruley: Iowa Man Accused of Raping Wife with Alzheimer's is Acquitted, noting that this case "offered a rare look at a complex dilemma that will become more common as the 65-and-over population expands."

From The Des Moines Register (Tony Leys): Jury finds Henry Rayhons Not Guilty.

And from Iowa Public Radio and the local Globe Gazette, a brief video interview with a tearful Henry Rayhons. (Note the comments posted by viewers after the interview.)

April 22, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

Closing Arguments in the Iowa Sexual Assault/Dementia Trial (Updated)

Coverage of the closing arguments on Monday, from State of Iowa v. Henry Rahons, including video excerpts from each side's attorney, is provided here by the Des Moines Register.

According to KIMT.com's twitter feed, attorneys and Mr. Rayhons went into the judge's chambers at about 3:30 p.m. Central time on Tuesday, the second day of deliberations -- could a jury verdict be close?

UPDATE:  Apparently the conference in the judge's chambers was to address jury questions. At approximately 4:15 on Tuesday, April 21, the jury "left for the day," to return to deliberations on Wednesday.

April 21, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Talking about Sexuality, Gender, Aging and Cognition


On April 20, while the jury was hearing oral arguments on the high profile case of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons, I joined an academic colleague, Dr. Claire Flaherty, a neuropsychologist from Penn State Hershey Medical Center, to discuss the implications of this criminal case, during a Smart Talk public radio program in central Pennsylvania.  Claire and I have been engaged in a cross-discipline dialogue for about two years about a host of legal questions that can arise with a diagnosis of any form of dementia, including FTD and Alzheimer's Disease.   This time we were talking about the challenges of finding the right balance between protection from harm and recognition of human rights when the issue is sexual intimacy. Dr. Flaherty's clinical background, including her experience counseling individuals and families who are coping with the realities of dementia, helped make this a very down-to-earth conversation on a sensitive subject for live radio.

Our half of the program, was preceded by Joanne Carroll, president of TransCentral PA, and therapist and social worker Alexis Lake, a therapist and social worker who counsels LGBT clients, who discussed challenges and rights for transgender, gay, lesbian, and bi-sexual people, and the progress that has been made in the last decade, even as more progress needs to be made.  I was struck by their frankness, both about their personal journeys, and the potential costs for anyone transitioning, including simple costs associated with new documents of identity, to bigger questions about how to pay for any surgeries, including whether Medicare will pay for the older person's surgery. 

To listen to the two half-hour segments, here's a link to the podcast of WITF'-FM's Smart Talk program for April 20, 2015.

UPDATE:  Here is an alternative link to the Smart Talk Program described above, on "SoundCloud," and available in three segments, each about 15 to 20 minutes in length.  Our discussion of dementia and consent to sexual relations starts at about the 9 minute mark of Segment B.

Download 150420 SHOW A

 Download 150420 SHOW B

Download 150420 SHOW C 

April 21, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Discrimination, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicare, Science, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, April 20, 2015

Day 8 Report from the Iowa Sexual Assault/Dementia Trial

On Monday, April 20, prosecution and defense made closing arguments in the trial of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons, a former state legislator, for alleged sexual abuse of his wife with Alzheimer's.

KIMT.Com's twitter account has photos combined with excerpts from the arguments, here

Over the weekend, reporter Sarah Boden at Iowa Public Radio ran a report on the trial, with the podcast available here.

Bryan Gruley, whose detailed December 2014 feature article for Bloomberg News on the Rayhon couple's history and the charges, remains the best account of the anticipated issues, has written a follow-up story for Bloomberg News about the trial itself, pointing to the potential long-range impact from the case.  See today's Questions about Sex and Dementia Go to Jury for the First Time. 

As before, if new details become available on public media about the trial, including any jury verdict today, we'll capture them on this post, with an update.

UPDATE: According to Iowa media sources, the jury adjourned for the day about 5 p.m. central time, after approximately an hour and a half of deliberations, including two questions from the jury.  

April 20, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, April 17, 2015

Day 7 Report from the Iowa Sexual Assault/Dementia Trial

On  April 17, the trial continued in State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons.  The evidence included:

  • Testimony by a Des Moines geriatrician, Robert Bender: Testified as an expert witness for the defense to explain that Alzheimer's patients often retain sexual desire, even after losing other brain functions such as speech or memory, and can make a "meaningful decision" to be intimate with the person.  According to the Des Moines Register, Dr. Bender testified that it would be a "medical mistake" for a doctor to draw an arbitrary line between allowing a patient to kiss and hug but not allowing her to have sex, unless there was evidence the patient was being harmed by the activity.

Further, the defendant Henry Rayhons testified, giving his memory of key events, stating he did not have "sexual intercourse" with his wife on the night in question, while also describing what he means by their "playing."  A  video segment of his trial testimony is available here. Additional print media coverage of the final day of testimony on Friday is available here

Additional audio-recording evidence was reportedly presented, from a care conference between Henry, his wife's daughters, and the nursing home staff at which the prosecution alleges Mr. Rayhons was advised of the doctor's conclusion about his wife's inability to consent to sexual activity.  Both parties rested their cases on Friday, and according to media reports, the trial is scheduled to resume on Monday, April 27, with closing arguments by both the prosecution and defense. 

As additional media reports from the trial today become available, I will supplement this post. 

Additional, more comprehensive coverage of the testimony of Henry Rayhons is provided by Bloomburg News' Brian Gruley in Sex with your Wife or Rape? Husband of Alzheimer's Patient Takes the Stand.

In addition, Bloomberg News has "Let's Talk About Sex ... in Nursing Homes," an infographic that charts state policies on sexual rights of nursing home residents and other relevant demographics on population aging.

April 17, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack (0)

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Day 6 Report from Iowa Sexual Assault-Dementia Trial

April 16, 2015 was the sixth day of trial in the criminal prosecution for sexual abuse in the third degree, in State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons.  The prosecution completed its case-in-chief, the trial judge denied defense counsel's motion for judgment of acquittal, and the defense counsel called several witnesses for Mr. Rayhons.  Today's evidence, as described by various media sources linked below, included:

  • Final Witness for the Prosecution:  The state called a state criminologist to explain testing on various items of physical evidence,from the night in question.  According to media coverage of the trial, the criminologist  testified that "she did not find any seminal fluid in the sexual assault kit [on swabs from Donna taken on the night in question] but says that is not uncommon." She testified there "appeared to be a seminal fluid stain in the inside of Donna’s underwear," the same underwear that was alleged to have been deposited in a laundry hamper by the defendant on the night in question. Tests on the stain "detected DNA from [the defendant]."
  • The First Witness for the Defense, the "Roommate:" The woman who shared Donna Rayhons' room in the nursing home the night on question, was reported as testifying that  "Donna had become a good friend. Someone who she could count on to go to activities and speak with."  She is reported to have testified she’s "uncomfortable talking about that day but says she does remember something happening, but only assumed that it was sex on the other side of the curtain."
  • A Clinical Physician (and Assistant Professor of Medicine from the University of Iowa):  The defendant's expert witness is reported as having given opinion testimony to the effect that based on review of evidence, ""I believe Donna would've been more likely to give consent than not."
  • Patricia Wright, a Daughter of Donna Rayhons (called by the Defense): Reported as saying her mother "lit up" whenever Henry Rayhons entered the room.
  • The Son and Daughter of Henry Rayhons:  Describing their relationship with their father, their  father's relationship with Donna, and their own respect for Donna.

As described by the Globe Gazette, there appeared to be especially poignant testimony from one of Donna's daughters, Patricia: 

In July, Donna Lou Rayhons asked her daughter, Patricia Wright, if she had seen Henry. “He can’t come anymore,” Wright remembered her mother saying.

 

“Mom was talking very softly. Much more softly than she usually did and she kept putting her hand to her head. My impression was she was very sad,” Wright told the jury. “Then she would say things like ‘I love him. I love my girls. I love him. I love my girls.’ And she would say that kind of repeatedly.”

As more reports are published from the 6th day of the Rayhons trial, I will try to capture them here with a supplement to this Blog Post. 

UPDATE: Here is a link to a more detailed account of the trial testimony on Thursday from The Des Moines Register, explaining that Donna Rayhons had three daughters, including Patricia, from a prior marriage.  One of the other daughters testified for the prosecution.

April 16, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Day 5 Report on Iowa Sexual Assault-Dementia Trial

UPDATE:  The jury trial of  State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons is scheduled to continue on Wednesday, April 15.  There were no proceedings on Tuesday, April 14.  In the meantime, here are additional relevant discussions, from several sources:

QUOTATION OF THE DAY

"So much of aging and so much of being in a long-term care facility is about loss, loss of independence, loss of friends, loss of ability to use your body. Why would we want to diminish that?"

DANIEL REINGOLD,   chief executive of the Hebrew Home in the Bronx, which pioneered a   "sexual rights policy" for residents in 1995.

 

  • From the Washington PostWhen the Mind Falters, is Sex A Choice? by Marie-Therese Connolly, a thoughtful opinion piece written in 2009, discussing several challenging scenarios, some involving more casual relationships, or arguably more "extreme" facts, such as a "Wisconsin minister who regularly came to the nursing home to have sex with his comatose wife."  

 

I'll supplement the "Trial Reports" as additional information becomes available. Check back on Wednesday.

April 14, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, April 13, 2015

Day 4 Report on Iowa Sexual Assault-Dementia Trial

On April 13, the fourth day of the trial of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons, the prosecution continued presenting evidence in the state's case-in-chief.  Here are links to news sources covering the day's events, including:

  • From KIMT.com: Testimony of a physician from the care facility regarding his opinion regarding  Donna's mental capacity, plus a description of video surveillance of the husband on the night in question, in which "you can see Donna being redirected to her room by Henry, after she had wandered through the halls.  Nearly  30 minutes later, Henry is seen leaving the room [and depositing her underwear in a hamper]."
  • From KIMT's Twitter feed: Excerpts of testimony from nurses and several staff members at the care center, including a report that a Care Center physician testified that "Just like an infant, a person can respond to stimuli. That doesn't involve any consent given."
  • From the Des Moines Register: Reporting that a total of three doctors testified today and that "Dr. John Brady, who is medical director of Concord Care Center, testified that Donna Rayhons had severe dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. He said any positive reaction to her husband's affectionate advances could be termed a 'primal response,' not a conscious decision to reciprocate."

Further, from the Des Moines Register, an account of the testimony of one of the physicians, a neurologist: "One of the doctors, neurologist Alireza Yarahmadi, disputed any notion that such an Alzheimer's patient could vary greatly in her ability to understand what was going on around her. 'When they're severe, they're going to stay severe,' Yarahmadi testified." 

The trial is expected to continue on Wednesday, April 15 (corrected, after learning no proceedings on Tuesday).

April 13, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, April 10, 2015

Day 3 Report on Iowa Sexual Assault-Dementia Trial

On April 10, the third day of the trial of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons, the prosecution offered its first witnesses.  According to news sources, the evidence included:

  • Testimony by an adult daughter of the alleged victim, the defendant's wife. She is reported as saying that she did not disapprove of the 2007 marriage between her widowed mother and the defendant, but that "in the years after the wedding, her mother began showing troubling signs of mental decline."  By the spring 0f 2014, her mother appeared "very confused" and the daughter, who runs an agency for people with intellectual disabilities, observed disturbing behavior, including incidents of her mother's inappropriate and inadequate clothing, inability to use silverware, and an attempt to use a toilet to wash her hands.  At a meeting a few weeks after her mother was moved from the couple's home to a care facility, the "doctor told the family," including the defendant, that Donna Rayhons "was no longer capable of consenting to sex."  She is reported as testifying she did not remember Rayhons' exact response, but that "he indicated it wouldn't be a problem."
  • Testimony of a doctor who met with Donna Rayhons in March 2014 He reportedly testified she was unable to answer "basic questions, including the names of her daughters." According to one news report, he testified that "it wouldn't be likely that a 78-year-old suffering from dementia would be able to consent to sex."
  • Testimony of a social worker from the care center where Donna Rayhons was a resident. According to news reports, the social worker testified about a staff meeting with the family in May, saying that she "wrote up a one-page list of suggestions, including limits on outside activities, and had Donna Rayhon's doctor go over it beforehand." At the bottom of the document, the social worker reportedly wrote: "Given Donna's cognitive state, do you feel she was able to give consent to any sexual activity?"  And according to the news reports, it was the doctor who wrote, "No." She is reported as testifying that she'd "never written such a statement for a family in 18 years on the job," but that she also said she never had a spouse seem to want to continue having sexual contact with a resident who was severely cognitively impaired." According to the Des Moines Register, on cross examination, the social worker said that no one at the meeting explained to Henry Rayhons what sexual activity meant, and that "she never saw any evidence that Rayhons harmed his wife, or that she was afraid of him or angry with him." She was reported as saying his wife was "always pleased to see Henry," and were very affectionate.

The testimony on Day 3 appears to raise interesting questions about the admissibility and effect of opinion testimony regarding the mental capacity of the alleged victim, potentially bringing into play prior Iowa case law.

Continue reading

April 10, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Dementia/Alzheimer’s | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Third Circuit Affirms Geriatrician's Conviction for Violation of Anti-Kickback Law

ElderLawGuy Jeff Marshall alerted us to this week's ruling by the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, affirming the conviction of Eugene Goldman, M.D. for several counts of taking "kickbacks" for referral of Medicare and Medicaid patients for hospice services.  Dr. Goldman's sentence of 51 months, followed by three years of supervised release during which he is barred from practicing medicine, was affirmed.  The facts, as set forth in the opinion, are interesting:

"Goldman had a geriatric medicine practice in Northeast Philadelphia. In December 2000, he secured the position of Medical Director of Home Care Hospice ('HCH'). Alex Pugman served as Director of HCH, and his wife, Svetlana Ganetsky, was the Development Executive, responsible for marketing HCH to doctors and other healthcare professionals. According to his contract, Goldman was responsible for quality assurance, consultations, and the occasional meeting. In reality, his job was to refer patients to HCH.

 

Goldman was paid for the number of patients he referred to HCH and the length of their stay. Early in his relationship with HCH, Goldman was paid $200 per referral. By 2011, he received $400 per referral, with an additional $150 for each patient who stayed longer than a month. Ganetsky paid Goldman each month by check. Between 2002 and 2012, Goldman referred more than 400 Medicare patients to HCH and received approximately $310,000 in return.

 

In 2006 the FBI and Department of Health & Human Services began investigating HCH for Medicare fraud. The FBI followed up in 2008 by obtaining a search warrant and seizing over 500 boxes of documents and information from HCH’s servers. Shortly after the raid, Ganetsky and Pugman approached the FBI and agreed to cooperate in the investigation. Ganetsky then recorded several meetings at which she paid Goldman for his referrals. Ganetsky made these payments with funds drawn from an account opened by the FBI for the investigation."

Continue reading

April 10, 2015 in Crimes, Ethical Issues, Federal Cases, Federal Statutes/Regulations, Health Care/Long Term Care, Medicaid, Medicare | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Web-Cameras in Nursing Homes: Do They Invade Privacy (and Whose Privacy or Interests are Paramount)?

In Philadelphia, the decision of a nursing home to remove the compact video camera attached to a computer owned by a 59 year-old disabled resident has triggered a debate about legal issues associated with the resident's broadcasts.  On the one hand, the resident, who had lost the ability to speak and who had limited mobility associated with cerebral palsy, used the camera to facilitate communications with his family.  But, to the nursing home:

... where he has lived for decades, the camera was a watchful eye, scrutinizing its staff's every move and capturing images of people whose privacy they're responsible to protect.

 

Stu's computer equipment was abruptly removed in mid-December, and he was asked to write a note defending his access to it. Family members called it a "cruel hurdle" for a man with limited mobility who selects each letter by pushing the back of his head against a switch.

 

In another note pleading for his webcam to be returned, Stu, 59, wrote: "WE ARE NOT SPYING ON ANYBODY!" The Sandersons unwittingly became part of a splintered national debate about the role of video cameras in long-term care facilities.

Additional coverage, outlining the delicate case, and suggesting broader issues, is available here and here.  Part of the background for the current issues includes a 2012 investigation of suspected abuse of a resident in a different nursing home in Pennsylvania, where a web camera reportedly led to criminal charges against nursing home employees.

April 10, 2015 in Crimes, Discrimination, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, Health Care/Long Term Care, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Day 2 Report on Iowa Sexual Assault-Dementia Trial

During the second day of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons, the court seated a jury of 6 men and 8 women.  According to early news reports, during voir dire both the prosecution and the defense gave hints of their theories of the case, where the 79-year-old former state legislator is accused of sexual abuse on his wife, who had Alzheimer's.  The Des Moines Register reported:

Several potential jurors indicated they'd read or seen some of the extensive news coverage of the unusual case. [Prosecutor] Krisko told them that if they are picked to hear the case, they will be expected to set aside concerns about how their decision would be viewed or what punishment it might bring to the defendant. "We're not here about making public policy. We're here about one incident — one man, one woman," she said.

 

On Thursday afternoon, defense lawyer Joel Yunek talked extensively to potential jurors about the issues of dementia and sex among the elderly. Yunek noted that his mother has Alzheimer's disease, and he asked how many of the potential jurors had someone in their families with the disease or other types of dementia. Many raised their hands. The defense lawyer expressed sympathy as he led them through discussion of the effects.

 

When one man recounted how a relative with dementia has good and bad periods, Yunek said: "It's a baffling disease, isn't it?" "Yes, sir," the man replied.

Later on the same day, the two attorneys gave their opening statements, as reported here.

The trial is expected to last about a week.

April 9, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

Day 1 Report of Iowa Sexual Assault-Dementia Trial

Day one of the sexual abuse trial of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons was Wednesday, April 8.  News report of the first day here.  Coverage of pretrial motions here, with the husband's lawyer describing potential  expert testimony about how individuals with Alzheimer's could be capable of consent, while the prosecution argues consent is impossible as a matter of law, making an analogy to sexual contact with a minor or an individual who was unconscious or passed out.  More background here

April 8, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Sad Trial Begins in Iowa for Husband Charged with Sexual Abuse of Wife with Dementia

Today, April 8, is the scheduled day for jury selection to begin for the trial of State of Iowa v. Henry Rayhons.  We've written about the charges here and here, but to summarize, Mr. Rayhons, now age 79, was charged last year with "sexual abuse" of his wife, Donna Rayhons (78 at the time), who was residing in a nursing home with Alzheimer's.  Iowa law has several different ways in which a "sexual act without consent" between a "husband and wife" can constitute "sexual abuse in the third degree."  See Iowa Code Section 709.4(2).

Here, because the husband and wife were not "cohabitating," a conviction would appear to depend on the state's ability to prove that the sex act was with a person suffering from a "mental defect or incapacity which precludes giving consent." It appears the state takes the position that "consent" was impossible because Mrs. Rayhons had been diagnosed with a mental defect, the advanced stages of Alzheimer's.  Further, it appears the state expects to prove that her husband was aware of the diagnosis, and further, that at some point before the evening in question, he "agreed" she was incapable of giving consent because of her condition.  But at the core, isn't there still an essential question about whether, assuming the state can prove those statutory elements, the law is intended to prevent a married couple from having "consensual" relations because one partner has Alzheimer's? 

There apparently was no evidence of physical or emotional damage to Mrs. Rayhons, including no evidence of cries for help or protestations on her part. It appears there will be testimony about the close and loving relationship the couple had before the night in question.   It will be interesting -- and sad -- to hear whether there is evidence of a "sexual act."  

The Washington Post's Sarah Kaplan has drawn together a history on the case to this point, including details first reported by Bryan Gruley for Bloomberg News.  At one point the prosecution tried to get a change of venue for the trial -- a very unusual request from a prosecutor -- which the trial court denied. 

I've been hearing from a lot of folks lately about this case, including several medical professionals. I think that after the charges were first announced in August 2014, many people expected the case to quietly disappear, especially as Mrs. Rayhons has passed away, and her husband, then a state legislator, had retired from office. 

Yesterday, I had the interesting experience of being interviewed for a KABC radio show in Los Angeles by "Dr. Drew." It was pretty clear that with his background, board certified in internal medicine and a clinical professor of psychiatry at USC, Dr. Drew Pinsky was troubled by the possibility that a medical diagnosis could, without more, be treated as prohibiting legally effective consent to sexual relations. (A guardian was appointed for Mrs. Rayhons, but those proceedings were begun after the night in question.)  As Dr. Drew commented during the radio show, even in advanced dementia, there may be core functions that a person continues to be able to enjoy and therefore seek, including eating, drinking and ... intimacy.   

April 8, 2015 in Cognitive Impairment, Crimes, Current Affairs, Dementia/Alzheimer’s, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, Ethical Issues, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, April 6, 2015

Oregon A.G. Urges Lawmakers to Authorize Special Prosecutor for Elder Abuse

From KTVZ.COM news in Oregon, a report that the state's top prosecutor, joined by citizen groups, is calling for appointment (and funding) of a special prosecutor to pursue elder abuse cases:

"Ten organizations wrote letters or testified Monday before the Subcommittee on Public Safety of the Oregon Legislature’s Committee on Ways and Means in support of funding for the state's first statewide Elder Abuse Resource Prosecutor. The position would be housed within the Oregon Department of Justice’s Criminal Division, and would increase Oregon’s capacity to stop elder financial and physical abuse by providing training, technical assistance and legal expertise to district attorneys, law enforcement and others who work with seniors. 

 

If funded, Oregon would be the second state in the country with a statewide prosecutor devoted to elder abuse.

 

'Oregon has specific laws that criminalize the abuse, neglect and exploitation of older adults. However, these cases can be difficult to prosecute.  Many involve the victimization of older adults by family members or others with whom they have an ongoing relationship. Victims may also be slow to recognize and report abuse, and reluctant to cooperate with criminal justice professionals,' said Attorney General Ellen Rosenblum.

 

Elders in Action, the Office of the Long-term Care Ombudsman, AARP, Legal Aid Services of Oregon, the Oregon State Bar, Alzheimer’s Association, the Oregon Department of Veteran Affairs, the Governor’s Commission on Senior Services, Campaign for Oregon’s Seniors & People with Disabilities, and the Residential Facilities Advisory Committee all voiced their support for the new position."

If this position would be the "second" in the country, which state already has a special prosecutor for elder abuse?

April 6, 2015 in Crimes, Elder Abuse/Guardianship/Conservatorship, State Cases, State Statutes/Regulations | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)