Tuesday, April 29, 2014
The May 2014 issue of Series B (Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences) of the Journals of Gerontology includes three articles addressing a "relatively understudied area for the psychological science of aging: older adults interacting the legal system." An editorial introducing the articles explains (minus the footnotes):
"In [this issue] the focus is on how aging affects what is known about cognition and eyewitness testimony. The first article by West suggests that, based on cognitive aging alone, age differences do not contribute to worsened eyewitness accounts. In fact, older adults may be less likely than young adults to interpolate details based on memory enhancement strategies. The second article by Henkel, however, provides evidence that when negative feedback about memory is provided and also with misleading questions, changes in eye witness accounts are more likely for both age groups. Among older adults, older ages were associated with lower accuracy and more changing of responses. The third article by Dukala and Pocyzk adds the effects of an abrupt interviewing style, misleading questions, and negative feedback as factors associated with age differences in inaccurate eyewitness descriptions of what occurred, with older adults more vulnerable to changes rooted in suggestibility. These effects were related to poorer memory rather than advanced age alone."
In his essay, Bob Knight, Ph.D. from University of Southern California, Davis School of Gerontology in Los Angeles, observes the range of results reported in the three articles demonstrates a need for "more work in this area." He concludes, "Care should be taken to make the legal system interviewers aware of potential distortions in eyewitness accounts due to memory changes that are more common in later life while also discouraging the stereotyping of all older adults as less reliable witnesses."