Wednesday, April 23, 2014
Two funding inequity lawsuits were recently filed challenging New Mexico's education system. The first alleges that ELL and economically disadvantaged students are receiving a substandard education under the state's funding scheme and A-F grading system. In State v. Martinez, filed by the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, the plaintiffs assert that New Mexico's underfunding of public education and its school rating system violates the state's education clause, due process, and equal protection. The state's education funding formula, the plaintiffs allege, fails to allocate sufficient supplemental funds for areas were the needs are greatest for at-risk and special needs students. In spending per pupil, New Mexico reportedly spends $9,070 per student, ranking 37th in the nation. The suit also targets "unfair and non-transparent school accountability grading and teacher evaluation systems that drive quality teachers and leaders from schools disproportionately enrolling English Learner ("EL") and low-income students." The funding inequity, combined with the teacher evaluation system, results in experienced teachers avoiding lower-ranked schools. The MALDEF suit is here.
The New Mexico Center on Law and Poverty (NMCLP) is also challenging the state's funding scheme for families of New Mexican students. The CLP suit notes that New Mexico's student standardized test performance has fallen to the bottom of the nation. On standardized tests given in the last two years, New Mexico's students ranked at bottom of the country in 4th grade reading and are just ahead of the bottom -- Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana -- in math. Contributing to the problem is the state's high child poverty rate, which is the second highest in the nation. Given those factors, the CLP suit argues, New Mexico's education system is severely underfunded. The CLP suit is here.
Thursday, April 17, 2014
In a recent article, Philly.com (Philadelphia Inquirer) goes behind the numbers about recent comparisons of the amount of per-pupil spending in New Jersey’s Camden school district. Camden’s per pupil spending is the highest in New Jersey, but only 49 percent of its students graduate from high school. The story quotes David Sciarra of the Education Law Center, who points out that per-pupil figures are misleading because school districts must spend more per student in high poverty districts (43% of Camden residents live below the poverty line) on special needs costs. While there differing views about the impact of education budgets for student learning (see the recent report from the Cato Institute, Academic Performance and Spending over the Past 40 Years) and 2013’s Pew Center report showing unprecedented decreases in state education budgets), the article reminds of the complications of tracking money through education budgets and that per pupil school spending is not always what it seems.
Tuesday, April 15, 2014
Massachusetts Attorney General Sues Career College Corinthians for Predatory Practices and Subprime Student Loans
Massachusetts Attorney General Martha Coakley continues her office's focus on for-profit career schools that engage in predatory practices by filing a consumer protection complaint against Corinthian Colleges Inc. lists allegations against the for-profit education provider that will be familiar to observers of the lawsuit filed by the California Attorney General and the steps taken in Milwaukee to stop the for-profit education provider from expanding in that city. Coxley's office has sued two other for-profit career schools for allegedly misrepresenting job placement numbers and making misleading statements about its programs. The recent Massachusetts complaint charges that Corinthian, through its Everest Institute schools, engaged in deceptive marketing about employment and pay to prospective students, predatory practices such as requiring graduating students to sign statements that they had found jobs in order to receive their diplomas, enrolling students who did not have English language proficiency (and offering no ESL support) or who had criminal backgrounds that prohibited eligibility for careers in their degree programs. Everest boosted placement statistics by steps such as hiring 15-25 students of its students for its own two-day health fair. Massachusetts also alleges that Corinthians contributed to students’ loan debt by funding subprime loans “guaranteed and ultimately funded by Corinthian.” Although “89.8% of Corinthian's revenues were collected from Title IV funding,” the complaint alleges, “[m]uch of the remainder of Corinthian's reported revenue comes from a private loan program created by Corinthian.” Corinthian used the loans to meet the 90-10 rule, which prohibits schools from acquiring more than 90% of their funding from federal Title IV sources. The Corinthian loans, funded through third party agreements, had interest rates of 16 to 18% and origination fees of 6%, compared to federal students loans that have 5-7% interest rates and 1-2% origination fees. Overall, the 12% of students at for-profit schools nationally comprise about 48% of all student loan defaults. Read the Massachusetts complaint here.
Tuesday, April 8, 2014
Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama seeks an assistant professor to teach education law and finance in its Educational Foundations, Leadership and Technology department. For the tenure-track position in the in the Education Administration/Leadership K-12 program, Auburn requires a doctorate in Education Administration, Leadership, or a related field. The school will begin reviewing resumes on May 1; the position starts in August 2014. The announcement is here. Tip of the hat to Edjurist for the information.
Friday, April 4, 2014
Media on all stops of the political spectrum – from the Washington Post’s Answer Sheet to the National Review have predicted that the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) would go the way of No Child Left Behind. This week, Oklahoma’s legislature passed a bill to withdraw from Common Core. If Governor Mary Fallin signs the bill, Oklahoma will be the second state to withdraw from the Common Core, following Indiana’s move last month. Like Indiana, however, Oklahoma will still use parts of the CCSS curriculum, but would revise the standards and testing at the state level. Some predicted that the 46 states that implemented CCSS would find it difficult to balance the standards with what they actually require: equitable funding. One writer uses the example of New Jersey’s long-running education equity funding case, Abbott v. Burke, that in essence, “adopting ‘high expectations’ curriculum standards was like passing out a menu from a fine restaurant. Not everyone who gets a menu can pay for the meal.” Now New Jersey, as Derek noted last week, has announced plans to abandon one of the country’s most equitably weighted funding schemes next year. Given that other states have even less balanced funding in public education, states may be realizing that they lack the ingredients to make the dish.
Monday, March 31, 2014
Education Secretary Arne Duncan downplays his influence in educational policy and curriculums, saying that "[t]he best ideas in education will never come from me or anyone else in Washington, D.C." Others, including a post on this blog, contend that Duncan is the deFacto United States School Superintendent. The Learning Matters has PBS News Hour profile of Secretary Duncan noting that he has "unprecedented power" and that "his critics on the right and the left are enraged but seem powerless to stop him." The site also has comments from Congressman John Kline, Diane Ravitch, and NYU Professor Jonathan Zimmerman.
Wednesday, March 26, 2014
Indiana Governor Mike Pence signed legislation Monday to drop Indiana from the Common Core State Standards Initiative, saying that "the state's students are best served by education decisions made at the state and local level." Indiana's State Board of Education will now draft new standards outlining what students should be learning in each grade, AP reports. About half of the new standards will still be based on Common Core standards, though, and Indiana will continue to meet its No Child Left Behind waiver requirements. Also, because the SAT plans to modify its content to reflect the Common Core standards, states will feel that they must include Common Core content in their own standards to prepare students for the college admission exams. Other states are expected to join Indiana in deserting Common Core, but the question that is still being answered is what is driving the moves now. A good (but unlikely) reason could be that the Common Core materials need work as educational tools, and districts need more time to figure out how to implement them. Another fine reason could be that the cost of implementation could leave states as hostages of commercial education publishers for years on (in many states) diminishing public education budgets. While educators are pointing this out throughout the country, given the recent political stance of teacher-bashing, state legislatures are unlikely to be moved by them. Tea-party conservatives have pressured state legislatures for years to dump the standards because of perceived federal influence, but states cannot afford to thumb their noses at federal funds. So what will be driving Common Core departures--political pressure, educational policy, implementation costs--or the story of New York, which towed the Common Core line and got slammed in its first-year student testing results?
Monday, March 24, 2014
Running out of time to hold on its No Child Left Behind waiver, Washington State may face sanctions—but the question is what will the Obama administration want to do about a state that actually is making substantial efforts to turn around low-performing schools—just not in the way that federal policy mandates. For Washington State, loss of its NCLB waiver could mean that $38 million in Title I funds in the 2014-2015 school year could be diverted to school choice, voucher programs, and private tutoring efforts. Losing the waiver would also place many of the state’s public schools into the failing-to-make-adequate-yearly-progress category, the Tacoma News Tribune reported last month. Washington’s NCLB renewal has been on high-risk status since last August, joining Arizona, Kansas, and Oregon in the ED’s NCLB waiver doghouse. Earlier this year, Washington State officials met with Education Secretary Arne Duncan who insisted that teachers and principals’ evaluations include statewide assessments, not just local or regional ones, before the ED would renew the state’s NCLB waiver. Washington State’s teacher evaluations already include students' scores on district-level assessments, but the ED wants the state legislature to mandate the use of statewide tests for teacher accountability. Washington Governor Jay Inslee tried to get a bill passed this February to require that students' statewide test scores be used to measure teacher effectiveness, but those attempts failed. While EdWeek points out that the ED has given some states an extension, those extensions applied to how student assessment scores factor in teacher hiring and firing, not whether a state uses statewide or local standardized tests as the accountability measure.
Thursday, March 20, 2014
Recent stories out of New York City note the continuing decline of black and Latino students admissions to elite area high schools such as Manhattan's Stuyvestant High School, Staten Island Tech, Brooklyn Tech, Bronx Science, and Queens Science. The Staten Island Post reports that "[o]f the 5,096 students accepted by eight specialized schools, just 5 percent were black and 7 percent were Hispanic." This year, Staten Island Tech is concerned that it will have no black students in its upcoming freshman class; this year it had five freshman. Other NY elite high schools are reporting similar numbers. Because the criteria used for admission to elite specialized high schools throughout the city is the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test (SHSAT), black and Latino students' performance on that test predict their admission to the city's science and tech high schools. Two years ago, the Legal Defense Fund filed a lawsuit with the Department of Justice about the low numbers of black and Latino students, and New York City implemented a tutoring program to help increase admissions to the city's elite schools. The declining numbers of black and Latinos in high science and tech programs will inevitably affect the admissions of such students admitted to top science universities.
Tuesday, March 4, 2014
Immigrant Children File DOJ Complaint Challenging Barriers to Enrollment in Two N.C. School Districts
A civil rights complaint was filed with the Justice Department last month alleging that two North Carolina school districts are discouraging immigrants from enrolling in public school. Cribbing from the complaint, plaintiff “C.V.,” a 17-year-old Honduran immigrant, attempted to enroll in high school in Buncombe County, N.C. But school officials twice application telling her that she was too old, even though North Carolina law says all students under 21 are entitled to a public education in the school district in which they live. Plaintiff “F.C.,” a 17-year-old native of Guatemala tried to enroll in high school in Marshville, N.C. last year, but was told that he was too old and was referred to a GED program at a local community college. The community college told F.C. he was too young and suggested that he try enrolling in high school again. At the high school, F.C. was told that he could not enroll until after he took an ESL exam even though his English-speaking skills were limited at the time. Unable to pass the ESL exam in Marshville, F.C. eventually enrolled in the Union County school district. The Southern Poverty Law Center, which is co-counsel for the plaintiffs, says that the two incidents are symptomatic of a larger problem in school districts across the state. Immigrant children – who arrive in the United States without a parent or legal guardian and are placed in the care of a sponsor, such as a family member – are being discouraged from enrolling in public school because of limited English proficiency, age or national origin. The plaintiffs are asking the Justice Department to require the districts to adopt a nondiscrimination policy and to provide training to ensure that the civil rights laws and the constitutional protections in Plyler v. Doe are being followed. Read the complaint, filed jointly by the Southern Poverty Law Center, Legal Services of Southern Piedmont, the North Carolina Justice Center, and the Southern Coalition for Social Justice, here.
Thursday, February 20, 2014
The Guilford County Board of Education recently voted to challenge a new North Carolina law requiring the board to choose teachers who will get new contracts in exchange for tenure. The North Carolina law requires school district leaders to choose 25% of its teachers and offer them new four-year contracts in exchange for tenure and $500 compounding salary increases over four years. Jill Wilson, the attorney for the Guilford County school board members told the Greensboro News-Record that the law is unconstitutional because “state law protects teachers from having their status changed or salary reduced without due process.” A board member objected to the law because it “represents yet another thinly veiled attack on public education and educators.” The board says that it will refuse to recommend which of the county’s teachers should be offered contracts and instead will sue to challenge the law. Although twenty states have passed laws restricting teacher tenure, local boards suing to opt out of such laws is uncommon.
Friday, January 24, 2014
Given the recent tumultuous times for the Philadelphia school district, this week’s announcement that 130 city educators have been implicated in a cheating scandal is not earth shattering. The cheating investigation, conducted by state education officials and the Pennsylvania Office of Inspector General, found a suspicious number of erasures and corrections of wrong to right answers on state standardized math and reading tests taken from 2009 to 2011. The test improprieties are alleged to have occurred at 53 Philadelphia area schools, about 20 percent of the total number of schools in the city. The 130 educators have been accused of providing students with answers, erasing wrong answers or supervising those who did without reporting them.
The Philadelphia school system, the nation’s eighth largest school district, has been under tremendous pressure for much of the year. As Derek has covered in this blog, Philadelphia’s schools were hard-hit by the state’s decision to change its education-funding formula from one based on the local costs of educating the district’s children to one based primarily on enrollment. Twenty-three schools were closed. Coupled with an overall $1 billion cut in the state education budget, Philadelphia schools came up well short of the money needed to operate and had to borrow $50 million to open its remaining schools in September. Principals were reduced to asking parents to pay hundreds of dollars per child to attend public schools. The budget crisis led to a $350 million deficit this school year, which created shortages of school nurses, counselors, security officers, and reduced special education services throughout the district.
Like their counterparts in the Atlanta cheating indictments last year, Philadelphia’s educators are under pressure to show gains in proficiency on high-stakes standardized tests. When those gains do not happen within a year or two, the incentive to cheat is strong. Cheating can mean saving jobs, avoiding being branded as a “failing” school, and winning bonuses and federal incentive funds when the students are deemed to be proficient in reading and math.
Tuesday, January 7, 2014
No-show college courses and grade changes for student-athletes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill were back in the news this week following a grand jury’s indictment of a former professor for obtaining property by false pretenses. This story has been around since the NCAA’s investigation in 2010, but UNC has held firm on its position that only two employees in the Department of African and Afro-American Studies, department chair Julius Nyang’oro and his assistant, were responsible for academic fraud. This week’s Bloomberg Businessweek is more skeptical about the scope of the misconduct in its article, The Scandal Bowl: Tar Heels Football, Academic Fraud, and Implicit Racism. For the writer, Paul Barrett, the university’s lack of commitment to educating black student-athletes that it woos to play sports and the cynical choice of the Afro-American studies department as the incubator for academic fraud shows implicit racism. In an internal investigation in 2012, headed by former NC Governor Jim Martin, UNC reported that the academic anomalies (about 200 no-show or one-meeting courses and grade change rates that were three to six times higher than the university average) went on for fourteen years without the university's knowledge. The investigation found no connection between the high percentage of black college athletes in “phantom” Afro-American Studies courses and the school’s athletic program.
Interestingly, Nyang’oro had taught the course that reportedly is the basis of the indictment, “Blacks in North Carolina,” for years but never sought payment. A university dean insisted that Nyang’oro be paid for the course in summer 2011. In August 2011, the Raleigh News and Observer received a student’s transcript showing that an incoming student took a 400-level class with Nyang’oro the summer before taking English 100 in his freshman year, which ultimately led to Nyang'oro's resignation. Barrett predicts, “[F]urther investigation will reveal that the fraud reached deep into the Tar Heel athletic hierarchy and that senior academic officials will also turn out to have been at least aware of improprieties.” Perhaps, although a lot of dominos will have fall in Chapel Hill for this case to mirror the Penn State inquiry. Click the links to read more about the UNC case in the New York Times and Businessweek.com.
Thursday, December 19, 2013
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) released its decade-long study showing an increase in reading and math scores for urban districts. NAEP is the organization that produces the "Nation's Report Card." Cribbing from the press release about the report: "Ten years after The Nation’s Report Card began measuring progress in America’s urban school districts, the 2013 Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) shows that most districts that participated in the first reading or math assessments scored higher this year at both grades 4 and 8, and none of the participating districts scored lower than in the first testing year. The District of Columbia Public Schools was the only one of the 21 districts that participated this year to show gains in both mathematics and reading at both grades compared with 2011. In Los Angeles, scores improved in reading at both grades, and in mathematics at grade 4."
NPR ran a story this morning about the report. Focusing on the District of Columbia Public Schools, which was the only city to improve in all four grade and subject combinations, the news is being hailed as a barometer of the success of the education reform movement. D.C. Schools Chancellor Kaya Henderson told reporters that the city's new curriculum is making a significant difference: " We actually shifting our work to the not-sexy stuff. We're bringing the revolution to the classroom. We're changing what we're teaching and learning." Some observers are less impressed. While D.C.'s overall scores improved, the achievement gap between white and black students is the largest of all the tested cities. Others point to D.C.'s changing demographics (including a decrease in black residents) as affecting its scores, but there is no evidence yet of any demographic effect.
The new superintendent of Camden, NJ, said that yesterday's reports that only three Camden high school students scored as "college ready" on the recent SATs was a "kick in the stomach." The College Board, which administers the SAT, defines "college readiness" as achieving a score of 1550, which it predicts will give students a 65% probability of maintain a B- average or higher in college. Students with scores of 1550 or higher, the College Board says, are more likely to enroll in a four-year college and to be retained for their second and third year than those students who did not attain that benchmark. Paymon Rouhanifard was appointed superintendent of Camden City Schools by Gov. Chris Christie this summer in a state takeover of the troubled school district. Camden's troubles are well documented as highlighted in a Rolling Stone magazine story this week. Approximately 42% of the city's 80,000 residents are living below the poverty line, and Camden frequently appears on the most dangerous cities in America list.
Tuesday, December 17, 2013
Eight Kansas school districts have applied for innovative status under the state’s 2013 Coalition of Innovative Districts Act that would exempt them from most state education laws and from Kansas Department of Education regulations. The Innovative Districts Act allows ten percent of the state's school districts to opt out of most state laws if they can show how flexibility will improve student outcomes. The eight districts announced plans to use more college- and career-focused goals instead of state achievement assessments. Critics say that the Act clears the way for districts to replace veteran teachers with unlicensed (and less expensive) ones and are concerned that student outcomes would suffer without consistency in instructors. Kansas Education Commissioner Diane DeBacker told the Lawrence Journal World that allowing unlicensed teachers in innovative districts could also expose the state DOE to complaints that students are not being taught by legally-required “highly qualified teachers.” DeBacker says that her agency “might be on the hook for that” even though it will have little say in approving or monitoring the innovation districts’ plans. Second, the Act allows the innovative district to define what is student achievement for five years (until the renewal period), so it may be some time before anyone recognizes whether the innovation program is working. And some of the plans to improve student outcomes give pause. One district plans to offer multiple ways for students to get a high school diploma, including one that would require only two full years of classroom work in core subjects of English, math, science and social studies, followed by career training at community college or technical school, and “a year of on-the-job work experience that would involve only minimal supervision by the district to ensure the training program is meeting academic standards.” There may be nothing wrong with this proposal on its face, but it may be tricky in application when turning students over to unmonitored voc-tech programs and jobs to fulfill public education goals. Cutting out two years of high school instruction may also be troubling if low achieving students are steered into alternative job programs rather than education classes. One district leader indicated that its program may do just that—“we were trying to raise our test scores in the state more than what was best for the kids.” He told the Lawrence Journal World that “students can gain the additional skills and knowledge through job training and work experience as well as they can through classroom instruction.” The Kansas DOE has asked the state attorney general for an opinion of the statute’s constitutionality. State Attorney General Derek Schmidt declined to issue an opinion because the issue is part of pending school finance litigation. Read the story here.
Homeless Students Living in Campground Outside of School District Can Stay Put Pending Lawsuit's Outcome
The Easton, Pennsylvania school district takes residency requirements very seriously. On December 9, the Easton school district controversially disenrolled two homeless students because the camper they were living in was at a campground just outside of the district. Yesterday, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania ordered that the children be re-enrolled while the court decides if the Easton Area School District violated federal law. The students were attending the eighth and twelfth grades in Easton schools when their family lost its home due to foreclosure. Their parents, with the assistance of the Education Law Center of Pennsylvania, filed suit last December 10 challenging the legality of the school district’s decision under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance Improvements Act of 2001. 42 U.S.C. § § 11431-11435 (2002). (I have not yet seen the pleadings in this case, so I am relying on media reports of the complaint’s allegations.) The McKinney-Vento Act mandates that children who become homeless are entitled to a free public education in the district where they are living for the duration of the school year. The Act defines homeless children as “individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence ... and includes—(i) … children and youths who are are living… camp grounds due to a lack of alternative adequate accommodations.” Responding to media questions about the move, Easton Schools Solicitor John Freund wrote in an email that the district had “made a studied determination that this family, living outside the boundaries of the district, no longer qualified as homeless for the purpose of free public education in Easton.” The school district vigilantly tracks and disenrolls students that it calls “illegals.” In 2011, the district hired two investigators to follow students and their parents around to track out-of-district students. The district found and disenrolled a dozen students in that effort and had parents prosecuted for lying about their residences. Read more about the campground case here.
Thursday, December 12, 2013
The City of Hoover, Alabama rescinded its decision this week to stop school bus service in the next school year, which serves around 5,700 students. The local board of education is in talks with the U.S. Department of Justice and other organizations to find money for the bus system while still addressing the district’s $12 million deficit. If alternative funding cannot be found, the school district may ask parents to pay the difference between what bus service costs and the amount of state funding allocated for transportation. When Hoover City Schools, a district in suburban Birmingham, AL, decided this summer to terminate bus service, parents and community leaders challenged whether the move would mean significant cost savings. Groups such as the Save the Hoover Bus System formed to protest the move. As we noted in earlier posts, some felt that the decision was motivated by a desire to drive out low income families and recent Latin American immigrants by eliminating their children’s transportation to school. For now, however, the buses will be back.
Tuesday, December 10, 2013
The Kansas City Star has revealed emails showing that Missouri Education Commissioner Chris Nicastro made plans with an educational consulting firm to "wipe the slate" on the unaccredited Kansas City Schools system. Those secret plans and a questionable bidding process for the firm has some education officials calling for Nicastro's resignation. We have been closely following the troubled year for Missouri's Kansas City and St. Louis districts, so more controversy is no surprise. That the state had already made a deal to set a new agenda for the schools, however, was unknown until the emails were uncovered by the Star. The plans includes familiar education reforms: new leadership and an office for innovation and charter school expansion. The emails show that the state started planning to takeover Kansas City Schools as early as April and contracted an Indianapolis education consulting firm, CEE-Trust, to overhaul the district. State officials worked on an memorandum of understanding with CEE to that end, but it failed when the Kansas City Schools rejected it and called instead for open bidding. CEE drafted its bid based on its memorandum (which Nicastro's staff helped draft) and got the nod over a highly-rated Massachusetts company whose bid was one-third of CEE's. Kansas City Public Schools Superintendent Stephen Green is calling foul on the entire process, saying that the state had made up its mind before the district's August report card came out showing dramatic progress on recent proficiency tests. In the past, Nicastro has acknowledged the district's gains, but appears to have concluded that it was too little-too late, particularly as 70 percent of the district's student are below proficiency in reading and math and district has been been unaccredited since 2012 and twice in less than 15 years. Yesterday, Missouri State Board of Education President Peter Herschend stated that he supports Nicastro's decisions, but Missouri Gov. Jay Nixon said Monday "that it was a good time for the state Board of Education to 'monitor and evaluate' concerns' raised about her." Read more here.
Friday, December 6, 2013
The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) results came out last week and prompting the annual reflection about the U.S.' rankings (17th in reading, 21st in science, and 26th in math). The PISA is coordinated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to test the math, science, and reading skills of 15 year-olds in 34 countries. Education Secretary Arne Duncan said that "the United States’ performance on the 2012 PISA is a picture of educational stagnation. This is a reality at odds with our aspiration to have the best-educated, most competitive workforce in the world.” Michelle Rhee of Students First responded to the PISA results this week in Time Magazine, saying that we will have "more mediocrity for American education" unless the nation fully embraces educational reform.
As we read the results and ponder what they mean for American education, we should keep in mind that some countries played by different rules. Tom Loveless, a senior fellow with the Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings pointed out that the top scores from China are meaningless because "China does not take the PISA test." The results from China are really from the country's most elite educational systems, such as Shanghai:
Shanghai has an economically and culturally elite population with systems in place to make sure that students who may perform poorly are not allowed into public schools. Second, the media should not present Shanghai’s scores as if they are indicative of China’s national performance in education. They aren’t, and no one will know how well China can perform on an international test until it participates, as a nation, under the same rules as all other nations.
An unlevel playing field with some countries does not mean that the United States should be complacent--there are countries on the list such as Japan and Estonia that have a diverse group of students doing better than America. In fact, improving education is the only thing that everyone agreed on in this divisive year. But as we look back at the year in education, the education reform movement must also be held accountable for results.