ContractsProf Blog

Editor: D. A. Jeremy Telman
Valparaiso Univ. Law School

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Tuesday, December 9, 2014

California Goes after Shared Ride Companies

Jeremy Telman and I both recently blogged on the intense criticism of and focus on “shared economy” companies such as Uber, Lyft and airbnb.

In what seemed an inevitable turn of events, the Los Angeles and San Francisco district attorneys filed a consumer protection lawsuit on 12/9/2010 against Uber for making false and misleading statements about Uber’s background checks of its drivers.  George Gascon, the district attorney for San Francisco, calls these checks “completely worthless” because Uber does not fingerprint its drivers.  Uber successfully fought state legislation that would have subjected the company’s drivers to the same rules as those required of taxi drivers.  Allegedly, Uber has also defrauded its customers for charging its passengers an “airport fee toll” even though no tolls were paid for rides to and from SFO, and charging a “$1 safe ride fee” for Uber’s background check process.  California laws up to $2,500 per violation.  There are “tens of thousands” of alleged violations by Uber.  However, even that will likely put only a small dent in Uber’s economy as it is now valued at $40 billion (yes, with a “b”). 

Lyft has settled in relation to similar charges and has agreed to submit information to the state to verify the accuracy of its fares (although not its background checks).  It has also agreed to stop picking up passengers at airports until it has obtained necessary permits.  Prosecutors are continuing talks with Sidecar.

Time will tell what prosecutors around the nation decide to do against these and similar start-ups such as airbnb and vrbo.com, which are also said to bend or outright ignore existing rules.

The Los Angeles Times comments that the so-called “sharing economy” companies face growing pains that “start-ups in the past didn’t – dealing with municipalities around the world, each with their own local, regional and countrywide laws.”  It is hard to feel too sorry for the start-ups on this account.  First, all companies obviously have to observe the law, whether a start-up or not.  Today’s regulations may or may not be more complex than what start-ups have had to deal with before.  However, these companies should not be unfamiliar with complex modern-day challenges as that is precisely what they benefit from themselves, albeit in a more technological way.  Finally, there is something these companies can do about the legal complexity they face: hire savvy attorneys!  There are enough of them out there who can help out.  But perhaps these companies don’t care to “share” their profits all that much?  One has to wonder.  Sometimes, it seems that technological innovation and building up companies as fast as possible takes priority over observing the law. 

December 9, 2014 in Commentary, Current Affairs, E-commerce, Famous Cases, In the News, True Contracts, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, December 5, 2014

Driven to Extreme Lengths to Earn a Dollar

In today’s “sharing economy,” more and more private individuals attempt to earn some (additional) money in untraditional ways such as selling various things on eBay, driving cars for alternative passenger transportation services such as Uber and Lyft, and providing lodging in private homes on sites such as airbnb.  Not only do these services raise many regulatory, licensing, insurance zoning and other issues, they also present a real risk to many hopeful 1099 workers who – as the relevant companies themselves – can vastly misjudge the potential of new attempted products or services.

Take, for example, Lyft drivers.  In May, the shared ride company introduced luxury rides via its Lyft Plus program.   At least in San Francisco, the drivers had to pay $34,000 out of their own pockets for the large, “loaded” Ford Explorers required by Lyft for drivers to participate in the program.  The idea was that passengers would pay twice the normal Lynx rate to get the extra space and perceived luxury of being whisked around town in a large SUV.  A bit behind the curve, you think?  Indeed.  The program was an instantaneous fiasco in San Francisco (the company still advertises the program, but at “only” 1.5 times the price of a regular ride and touting the program as having space enough for six people).  Soon, drivers were back to simply getting regular rides– often just at $5 or $6 – just to stay busy.   This is obviously not viable in a city with expensive gasoline and cars that get only around $14 miles per gallon, not to mention the purchase price of the new SUVs. 

Responding to drivers’ initial concerns, Lyft had promised that they should “not worry about demand, we have that covered.”  Realizing that many of its drivers were upset about being stuck with a huge, new gas guzzler without a realistic return on investment, Lyft has offered their Plus drivers help selling the SUVs or a $10,000 bonus… subject to income tax, no less.   None of these options, of course, will bring the drivers back to the pre-contractual position.  Some drivers admitted to having borrowed money from family members, selling existing cars, even “forgoing other job opportunities for the chance to make more money with Lyft Plus.”  

A sad story all the way around.  Companies are continually trying to introduce new products and services to find the next “big thing.”  This, of course, is laudable, but not so much so when they seemingly cross the line and make unfounded promises to the less savvy or financially strong.  Of course, this also does not mean that workers or customers should not exercise a hefty dose of “caveat emptor” in connections such as this, but it is a somewhat concerning aspect of today’s sharing economy that failed product launches can simply be shared with “smaller fish” with less bargaining power and, apparently, a dangerously high risk-willingness bordering desperation in trying to make a dollar in these financially tough times.  Whether in this case, the promise that the demand was “covered” could be a contractual misrepresentation or whether it was simply puffery is another story best left to another forum.

December 5, 2014 in Commentary, Current Affairs, E-commerce, Labor Contracts, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, October 31, 2014

Posting a Positive Review on Yelp? Not Unless You Haven’t Posted Numerous Other Times Before

A few weeks ago, we blogged here about how some businesses may pay customers to remove negative reviews from sites such as TripAdvisor.

The blog raised the question of just how reliable online reviews are given this practice and, potentially, the business itself (or friends/family) posting numerous positive reviews, thus making for an entirely fake overall review.

Here’s a twist on that: Yelp will actually remove posts without notifying either the reviewed business or the review poster if the latter has not posted enough other reviews on Yelp.  Of course, Yelp decides just how many other reviews are “enough.”

This happened recently to my husband, who is an extremely busy IT professional, but who nevertheless got such a good experience from a small local business that he took the time to post a for him rare review of the business with pictures of the product we had bought.  A few days later, the business owner contacted him to ask why he had taken the review down again.  He had not, but Yelp had for the above reason.

Of course, Yelp probably wants to avoid the occasional rage posting or an overly rosy review.  However, the above practice seems unethical and unreasonable.  Review sites will by nature have both good and bad reviews.  Yelp has chosen to believe that if a person only posts one thing, it must by definition by unreliable as being too far on either end of the spectrum.  However, the truth of the matter is that a lot of busy professionals do not have the time for or interest in posting a large amount of reviews.  That, of course, does not make an occasional review unreliable, perhaps quite the opposite: if you don’t post a lot of views, the ones you do must reflect truly good or bad experiences. 

Not only does Yelp waste reviewer’s time like this, but it does not even explain this policy on its guidelines section of its website.

A healthy dose of skepticism towards review websites seems warranted, which probably does not surprise too many of us.

October 31, 2014 in Contract Profs, Current Affairs, E-commerce, Web/Tech | Permalink | TrackBack (0)

Monday, October 6, 2014

Online Contracting Still Confusing for the Ninth Circuit

We earlier blogged on Nguyen v. Barnes and Noble in which the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals among other things found that where consumers do not affirmatively consent to online agreements by, for example, checking off an “I agree” button, “something more” than a mere hyperlink to the vendor’s Terms of Service is required to make sure that consumers have at least constructive notice of the agreement.  Said the Court: “Where a website makes its terms of use available via a conspicuous hyperlink on every page of the website but otherwise provides no notice to users nor prompts them to take any affirmative action to demonstrate assent, even close proximity of the hyperlink to relevant buttons users must click on – without more – is insufficient to give rise to constructive notice.”

This opinion is striking for a number of different reasons.  First, in this digital age, couldn’t online shopping in and of itself be said to constitute constructive notice of the online vendor’s terms of use?  In other words, online shoppers today must be said to have come to expect that when they buy from at least well-established vendors such as, here, Barnes and Noble, there will necessarily be terms to which the parties are bound (presuming, of course, that there is a contract to begin with).  This is especially so with the younger group of consumers.

Conversely, given the above and similar confusion, why in the world wouldn’t companies simply use an “I agree” box to be on the safe side?  Even after the case came out, the Barnes and Noble website does, granted, not feature its “TOS” hyperlink as conspicuously as other links on its website and certainly not as obviously as one would have thought the company would have learned to do after the case (see very bottom left-hand corner of website).

What is more, normally a failure to read a contract before agreeing to its terms does not relieve a party of its obligations under the contract.  In the case, however, the court said that in online cases, “the onus must be on website owners to put users on notice of the terms to which they wish to bind consumers … they cannot be expected to ferret out hyperlinks to terms and conditions to which they have no reason to suspect they will be bound.”  This is similar to a case we blogged about here.

However, it would probably be hard to find an online shopper in today’s world who would truly not expect that somewhere on the website, there is likely a link with terms that the corporation will seek to enforce.  The duty to read should arguably be extended to reading websites carefully as well.  Another medium is at stake than the paper contracts of yesteryear, but that doesn’t necessarily change the contents.  But that is not the law in the Ninth Circuit as it stands today, as evidenced by this case, which unfortunately fails to clarify exactly what the courts think would be enough to constitute constructive notice.  So for now, “something more” is the standard.  Perhaps this is an issue of “millenials” versus a slightly older generation to which some of the judges deciding these cases belong.

October 6, 2014 in Current Affairs, E-commerce, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack (0)

Thursday, October 2, 2014

Moving at the Speed of Facebook to Improve Experimentation on Consumers

As we learned from reading Michelle Meyer on The Faculty Lounge today, Facebook has issued a Press Release on Research at Facebook.  As we discussed previously here, Internet-based companies have decided that they will self-regulate their own research programs.  Here are the highlights:

  • The_Anatomy_LessonGuidelines: we’ve given researchers clearer guidelines. If proposed work is focused on studying particular groups or populations (such as people of a certain age) or if it relates to content that may be considered deeply personal (such as emotions) it will go through an enhanced review process before research can begin. The guidelines also require further review if the work involves a collaboration with someone in the academic community.
  • Review: we’ve created a panel including our most senior subject-area researchers, along with people from our engineering, research, legal, privacy and policy teams, that will review projects falling within these guidelines. This is in addition to our existing privacy cross-functional review for products and research.
  • Training: we’ve incorporated education on our research practices into Facebook’s six-week training program, called bootcamp, that new engineers go through, as well as training for others doing research. We’ll also include a section on research in the annual privacy and security training that is required of everyone at Facebook.
  • Research website: our published academic research is now available at a single location and will be updated regularly.

Based on the New York Times article we cited in our last post on this subject, we hoped that Internet companies would at least subject research designs to outside review.  It looks like Facebook's review process is going to be entirely in-house.  

October 2, 2014 in Commentary, Web/Tech, Weblogs | Permalink | TrackBack (0)

Monday, September 15, 2014

Video Surveillance and the Right to Privacy: The Case of Janay Palmer

VAWLast week, I was sitting in a waiting room while awaiting an oil change.  CNN was on (too loudly and inescapably for my tastes, but I know my tastes are idiosyncratic).  In urgent tones, the anchors repeatedly warned us that they had disturbing and graphic video that we might not want to watch.  And then they played it.  And then they played it again.  They played it at actual speed; they played it in slow motion.  They dissected it and discussed it, with experts and authorities, between commercial breaks and digressions into other "news," for the entire time I waited for the mechanics to finish with my car.  It took over an hour, but that's another story . . . 

The video showed a now-former NFL player hit a woman in an elevator, knocking her unconscious. The woman was his fiancee, Janay Palmer, and she is now his wife.  What are we to conclude based on the grainy images that we watch because we can't bring ourselves to look away?  My first conclusion is that Janay Palmer would not want us to be watching.  My more tentative conclusion would be that every time we watch that video, we add to her humiliation and degradation.

At what point did Ms. Palmer give her consent to be videotaped, and at what point did she give consent to have this videotape used in this manner?  Let's assume that the surveillance video had a useful purpose -- policing the premises to create a record in case a crime was committed.  Let's also assume that we all are aware that when we are in public spaces, we know that video cameras might be present.  If this video tape were shared with the police and used to prosecute a criminal, I think there would be strong arguments that Ms. Palmer gave implicit consent for the use of the surveillance video for such purposes.  But how did the tape get to TMZ and then on to CNN?  Did somebody profit from trafficking in the market for mass voyeurism?

It may be that we think that her consent is not required.  We all know that we can be digitally recorded whenever we appear in public.  That's just life in the big city in the 21st century.  But perhaps we think that because we suffer from heuristic biases and believe that we and people we care about will never end up being the one being shown degraded and humiliated over and over again on national television and the Internet.  Perhaps if we were less blinkered by such biases we would not ask whether Ms. Palmer has a right not to be associated with those grainy elevator-camera images.  We would ask whether we have any right to view them.

September 15, 2014 in Commentary, Current Affairs, In the News, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, September 12, 2014

Introducing the Virtual Symposium on "More That You Wanted to Know"

We begin our upcoming virtual symposium with this introduction provided by the authors of the book that we are subjecting to strict scrutiny, Omri Ben-Shahar and Carl E. Schneider.

Morethan  MORE THAN YOU WANTED TO KNOW: The Failure of Mandated Disclosure 

When he famously wrote 100 years ago, “Sunlight is the best of disinfectants,” Justice Louis Brandeis began a century of disclosure law.  How do we protect borrowers and investors? Disclosure! How do we help patients choose safe treatments and good health plans? Disclosure! How do we regulate websites’ privacy policies? Disclosure!

In area after area, mandated disclosure is lawmakers’ favorite way to protect people facing unfamiliar challenges.  Truth in lending laws, informed consent, food labeling, conflicts-of-interests regulation, even Miranda warnings, all arose because lawmakers rightly worried that uninformed and inexperienced people might make disastrous choices.

Brandeis was wrong. True, these laws have a worthy goal – equipping us to make better decisions. But in sector after sector, studies steadily show that mandated disclosure has been almost as useless as it is ubiquitous. Financial crises have bred mandates for decades — the Securities Act of 1933, truth-in-lending laws in the 60s and 70s, Sarbanes-Oxley in 2002, and, after the 2008 crisis, the Dodd-Frank Act.  But each new crisis occurred despite the old elaborate disclosure requirements.

In our new book MORE THAN YOU WANTED TO KNOW: The Failure of Mandated Disclosure, we explain that mandated disclosure has become the regulatory default.  It is politically easy for legislatures and convenient for courts. 

Sunlight doesn’t disinfect because mandated disclosure is so ill-suited to address the problems it faces – and, in fact, can do more harm than good. Consider one of the most heroic efforts to get disclosure right. “Know Before You Owe” is a new regulation issued by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the agency responsible to reform consumer credit markets. The Bureau recognized that people took bad mortgages because they misunderstood the terms. To prevent this, the Bureau heeded the Dodd-Frank mandate to promote “comprehension, comparison, and choice.” After much intelligent work, the Bureau has a new, simpler form that has done well in laboratory tests:

Bedsheet 1 Bedsheet 2

 

 

 

 

Gone are the tiny fonts and the overloaded lines of the old form (on right). The new form (on left) is a masterpiece of design, declaring the dawn of a new era of smart and simplified disclosure, designed by lawmakers schooled in decision sciences and cost-benefit analysis.

But mortgage disclosure has to work in the bank, not in the regulators’ lab. When borrowers arrive at a real-world loan closing, they will get the Bureau’s new form and almost 50 other disclosure forms about issues like insurance, taxation, privacy, security, fraud, and constitutional rights.  The new form is part of a stack more than 100 pages high, courtesy of many laws from many lawmakers over many years.  Nobody plows through all this. And no single agency has the authority to pare down the stack. 

Despite failures, disclosures are growing in number and in length. In health care, informed consent sheets now look like the fine print web users click “I Agree” to, thoughtlessly.  Just reviewing the privacy disclosures received in one year would take a well-educated fast reader 76 work days, for a national total of over 50 billion hours and a cost in readers’ time greater than Florida’s GDP. In banking law, to describe the many fees in a garden variety checking account, the average disclosure is twice as long (and quite as dismaying) as Romeo and Juliet (111 pages).

In internet commerce, if you want to buy an iTunes song you are told (as the law requires) to click the agreement to the disclosed terms.   Do you read before clicking?  Of course not.   Florencia Marotta-Wurgler and co-authors have showed that only one in a thousand software shoppers spend even one second on the terms page.  And if you do print out the iTunes terms, you confront 32 feet of print in 8-point font (See Ben-Shahar’s photo with the iTunes Scroll below).  Hard as you read, you can’t understand the words, what the clauses mean, or why they matter.

Omri 1

What about simplifying with just a few scores or letters, like A, B, and C grades for restaurant hygiene?  Alas, boiling complex data down to a manageable form usually eliminates or distorts relevant factors.  So a recent study by Daniel Ho at Stanford found that the volatility of restaurant cleanliness and the discretion given to inspectors make hygiene scores unreliable and even misleading – and do not detectably help public health.  There is almost no evidence that the simplest of all scores – the loan’s APR – has helped people make better loan decisions, and there is plenty of evidence that it didn’t. 

If disclosures are so futile, why do lawmakers keep mandating them?  Because disclosure mandates look like easy solutions to hard problems.  When crises occur, lawmakers must act.  Regulation with bite provokes bitter battles (often stalemate); mandated disclosure wins sweet accord (near unanimity).  Mandated disclosure appeals to both liberals (personal autonomy and transparency) and conservatives (efficient markets).   And as one financier admitted, "I would rather disclose than be regulated."  

But disclosures are not just inept. They can be harmful. Disclosure mandates spare lawmakers the pain of enacting more effective but less popular reforms.  Disclosures help firms avoid liability, even when they act deceptively or dangerously. Disclosures can be inequitable, for complex language is likelier to be understood by those who are highly educated and to overwhelm and confuse those who aren’t. Mandated disclosures can crowd out better information (time spent “consenting” patients cannot be spent treating them). 

We are often asked what should replace mandated disclosure.  If it does not work, little is lost in abandoning it.  And if it cannot work, the rational response is not to search for another (doomed) panacea, but to bite the bullet and ask which social problems actually require regulation and what regulation might actually lessen the problem. We do not envy lawmakers the hard work of helping people cope with the modern consumer’s life.  But persisting in mandating disclosures is, as Samuel Johnson said of second marriages, the triumph of hope over experience.

Ben-Shahar is Leo and Eileen Herzel Professor of Law, University of Chicago.

Schneider is the Chauncey Stillman Professor of Law and Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan.

September 12, 2014 in About this Blog, Books, Recent Scholarship, True Contracts, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Craigslist’s Liquidated Damages Clause – Are Actual Damages Too Difficult To Calculate?

By Myanna Dellinger

Craigslist has decided to crack down on companies that use data from its websites to generate ads on competing websites. 

Technically, this can be and is done by various software programs (“spiders, “crawlers,” “scrapers” and the like) that look through craigslist and automatically cull information that can be reposted outside the Craigslist sites. 

Craigslists’ terms of use clearly state that “[b]y accessing our servers, websites, or content therefrom, you agree to these terms of use” and that “[r]obots, spiders, scripts, scrapers, crawlers, etc. are prohibited ….  You agree not to collect users' personal and/or contact information (‘PI’).”  Further, users are asked to pay Craigslist “for breaching or inducing others to breach the ‘USE’ section, not as a penalty, but as a reasonable estimate of our damages (actual damages are often hard to calculate): $0.10 per server request, $1 per post, email, flag, or account created, $1 per item of PI collected, and $1000 per software distribution, capped at $25,000 per day.”

Previously, a question may have been raised as regards whether this type of “click-through” acceptance would be valid or not.  However, as noted in another blog, online contracts are, modernly, not only valid, but also carry more force when the site requires a user to affirmatively click on an “I accept”-style button rather than when a site simply features the terms of use someplace on a website without any further action to be taken by the user as regards the contractual terms.

Courts broadly uphold liquidated damages clauses as long as they are not punitive in nature.   Some of the factors that play into this rule is whether actual damages would be difficult to calculate after the breach occurs and whether they are unreasonably large. 

In the Craigslist case, an issue may be whether actual damages would be difficult to calculate.  Craiglist’s statement in its terms of use that its liquidated damages are “not a penalty, but [] a reasonable estimate of our damages” is, of course, highly boot-strapping and thus won’t be given much, if any, weight in court.  But are damages easy to calculate in cases such as this?  For example, PadMapper is an apartment-finder site that allegedly uses data collected from Craigslist and similar sites.  But even if this can be proved (which would be easy if, for example, a user only posted his/her information to one site), what about the damages to Craigslist?  Since the company typically does not charge at least private users for posting “for rent” or “for sale” ads, and since its users arguably often cross-post listings anyway, how would Craiglist be able to trace damages for collecting “its” data to a specific, ultimate amount of damages?  Isn’t doing so in fact simply too speculative?  If so, liquidated damages seem to be in order.

With today’s many links to links to links, cross postings and machines retrieving data and using it for various purposes (not only commercial ones), contractual damages calculations may be too difficult and, for a court of law, too timeconsuming to be worth the judicial hassle.  Liquidated damages are known to, among other things, present greater judicial efficiencies, which is very relevant in these kinds of cases.  Perhaps Contracts Law needs to move towards an even broader recognition of such clauses and not be so concerned with the potential punitive aspect, at least as regards the “difficulty in calculation” aspect of the rule.  After all, damages also serve a deterrent function.  Sophisticated businesses operating programs specifically designed to retrieve data from other companies’ websites should - and logically must, in 2014 - be said to be on notice that they may be violating contractual agreements if they in effect just lift data from others without paying for it and without getting a specific permission to do so.

And what about consumer rights?  If a person for some reason only wants his or her information posted on one particular site, why should it be possible for other companies to override that decision and post the information on other sites as well? 

One thing is unavoidable technological change.  Quite another is violating reasonable consumer and corporate expectations.  Some measure of “stick” seems to be in order here.

 

September 10, 2014 in Current Affairs, E-commerce, True Contracts, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Intervening Illegality of Underlying Promises Does Not Cause Contract to Fail for Lack of Consideration; Does Not Breach Warranty

ImgresWhat happens when a party to an agreement terminates and begins to make quarterly termination (liquidated damage) payments as promised and then, while payments are being made, a law is past that makes the underlying promised performance illegal?  The parties are sorting this out in a case against Orbitz.

In 2005, Orbitz and Trilegiant entered into an agreement (“Master Service Agreement,” or “MSA”) for Orbitz to provide “DataPass” marketing services.  Pursuant to the MSA, Orbitz marketed Trilegiant’s services to Orbitz customers.  If a customer enrolled in Trilegiant’s services, Orbitz would transfer the customer’s billing and credit card info to Trilegiant and, thereafter, Trilegiant would charge the customer and pay Orbitz a commission.  As a result, customers were charged for Trilegiant’s services without ever affirmatively providing their credit card information to Trilegiant (though, they had arguably agreed to be charged when purchasing travel arrangements on the Orbitz site – I leave that part to Nancy Kim). 

Customers eventually complained about their credit cards being charged without their knowledge.  In 2007, Orbitz notified Trilegiant that it would be terminating the MSA.  The MSA allowed for early termination but required Orbitz to make a series of quarterly termination payments (totaling over $18 million) through 2016.

In 2010, Congress enacted the Restore Online Shopper Confidence Act (“ROSCA”), which made the DataPass marketing practice illegal.  Orbitz stopped making the quarterly termination payments to Trilegiant.  Trilegiant sued Orbitz in New York and a recent decision of the trial court (Supreme Court, New York County, Ramos, J.) granted Trilegiant summary judgment on 3 of Orbitz’s 17 affirmative defenses. 

First, the court rejected Orbitz’s defense of lack of consideration.  The court explained:

Orbitz contends that there had to be consideration for each quarterly termination payment and that Trilegiant's continued use of DataPass is necessary to its claim against Orbitz.  Orbitz argues that the consideration for the termination payments was supposed to be Trilegiant's forfeit of potential earnings, earnings that Trilegiant cannot forfeit if it is not in the business of DataPass (see Orbitz's Memorandum of Law at 8-9).

The law does not support Orbitz's argument. It is well settled that an agreement "should be interpreted as of the date of its making and not as of the date of its breach" (X.L.O. Concrete Corp. v John T. Brady and Co., 104 AD2d 181, 184 [1st Dept 2009]). Additionally, "[i]f there is consideration for the entire agreement that is sufficient; the consideration supports every other obligation in the agreement" (Sablosky v Edward S. Gordon Co., 73 NY2d 133, 137 [1989]).  A single promise "may be bargained for and given as the agreed equivalent of one promise or of two promises or of many promises. The consideration is not rendered invalid by the fact that it is exchanged for more than one promise" (2-5 Corbin on Contracts § 5.12).

Considerations of public policy also support this conclusion, because a promisor should not be permitted to renege on a promise either because that specific promise lacks textually designated consideration or because the promisor wants to avoid performance of multiple obligations when the promisee has already performed and has no further obligations concurrent with the promisor's performance (see 15 Williston on Contracts §45:7 [4th ed.]).

While Orbitz contends that Trilegiant has been unable to forfeit earnings from new DataPass customers since it ceased the practice in January 2010, that fact has no bearing on whether there was consideration for the termination payment provision in the MSA.  The termination payments were part of the original MSA (see MSA at Ex. B), and Trilegiant is correct when it asserts that the existence of consideration for the MSA itself, whether "consist[ing] of either a benefit to the promisor or a detriment to the promisee" (Weiner v McGraw-Hill, 57 NY2d 458, 464 [1982]), is not a disputed material fact in this case.

Additionally, courts do not look to the adequacy of consideration provided that there was consideration, "absent fraud or unconscionability" (Apfel v Prudential-Bache Sec. Inc., 81 NY2d 470, 476 [1993]). There are no allegations that the MSA was fraudulently agreed upon or that it is unconscionable.  Further, this Court has already held that the termination payments in the MSA do not constitute a penalty or unenforceable liquidated damages (see NYSCEF Doc. No. 97 at ¶5, Order entered 12/24/2013).

As this Court has previously stated, if these sophisticated parties to the original MSA wanted Orbitz's promise to pay each quarterly termination payment to be contingent on Trilegiant's continued use of DataPass and subsequent forfeiture of revenues, they could have so stipulated in the MSA (see NYSCEF Doc. No. 89 at p 6, Entered 10/7/2013).  This Court finds that Orbitz's promise to pay all quarterly termination payments is supported by the same bargained-for consideration given by Trilegiant in exchange for Orbitz's various promises in the MSA as a whole.

Second, the court rejected Orbitz’s argument that Trilegiant lacked standing because it could not show that it was “ready, willing and able” to perform its obligations.  The court reasoned:

Orbitz argues that its early termination in 2007 triggered the MSA liquidated damages remedy and that even though Trilegiant was relieved of its obligation to perform it still had to show it was able.  Orbitz further argues that Trilegiant has adduced "no evidence whatsoever to prove that it was ready, willing, and able to perform its obligations under the MSA as of the time Defendants stopped making payments in 2010" (Orbitz's Memorandum of Law at p 10).

Whether the remedy constitutes liquidated damages or a separate provision of the MSA that establishes new obligations for Trilegiant and Orbitz whereby Orbitz is obligated to make quarterly payments and Trilegiant essentially is obligated only to collect them, is irrelevant in light of the fact that Trilegiant claims only general damages, which "include money that the breaching party agreed to pay under the contract" (See Biotronik A.G. v Conor Medsystems Ireland, LTD 22 NY3d 799, 805, [2014] citing Tractebel Energy Marketing, Inc. v AEP Power Marketing, Inc., 487 F3d 89, 109 [2d Cir 2007]). 

Trilegiant is not required to show its ability to perform through September 30, 2016, the date of the final quarterly termination payment.  Even if, arguendo, Trilegiant was required to show it could have performed its obligations under the MSA, Orbitz's argument that those obligations would have included an ability to perform DataPass is unpersuasive.  Whether Exhibit B of the MSA constitutes liquidated damages or a separate provision of the contract, Trilegiant is not textually obligated to do anything except not market to Orbitz's customers.

Furthermore, liquidated damage clauses benefit both potential plaintiffs "who [are] relieved of the difficult, if not impossible, calculation of damage, item by item" and potential defendants "who [are] insulated against a potentially devastating monetary claim in the event" of a breach and "[t]hus, public policy is served by the implementation of such clauses" (X.L.O. Concrete Corp. at 186).

Finally, the court rejected Orbitz’s argument that Trilegiant violated a warranty provision in the MSA in which the parties promised that performance of the agreement did not violate any law.  The court reasoned:

While Orbitz contends that Trilegiant and similar DataPass practitioners "violated the rights of millions of Americans" (Orbitz's Response at 13), ROSCA does not refer to the violation of consumers' "rights" when it describes the actions of third party sellers, such as Trilegiant, who purchased consumers' credit card information (15 U.S.C. §8401 at Sec. 2).  ROSCA's findings instead refer to DataPass as something that undermined consumer confidence and "defied consumers' expectations" (id. at Sec. 2(7)).

This Court has already held that ROSCA does not make any violating contracts unenforceable and the MSA is enforceable despite DataPass being presently illegal (see NYSCEF Doc. No. 89 at p 5, Entered 10/7/2013). Moreover, as this Court has already explained, "the primary purpose of ROSCA was to protect consumers (15 U.S.C. §8401), not marketers that were using DataPass as a tool" (NYSCEF Doc. No. 89 at p 4, Order entered 10/7/2013, citing Lloyd Capital Corp. v Pat Henchar, Inc., 80 NY2d 124, 127 [1992]).

Orbitz claims that Trilegiant has failed to show that it was not in violation of Section 6.1 of the MSA, based on the concept that an "express warranty is as much a part of the contract as any other term" (CBS, Inc. v. Ziff-Davis Pub. Co., 75 NY2d 496, 503 [1990]).

A breach of warranty claim is established "once the express warranty is shown to have been relied on as part of the contract," and the claiming party then has "the right to be indemnified in damages for its breach [and] the right to indemnification depends only on establishing that the warranty was breached" (id. at 504).

Orbitz argues that there are disputed issues of fact as to Trilegiant's alleged breach of warranty, but Orbitz has not alleged damages for which it could be indemnified nor has it alleged any evidence of Trilegiant's breach of warranty that is not rooted in ROSCA's condemnation of DataPass. This Court has already held that ROSCA's enactment and findings do not relieve Orbitz from its obligations under the MSA, holding that "as a general rule also, forfeitures by operation of law are disfavored, particularly where a defaulting party seeks to raise illegality as a sword for personal gain rather than a shield for the public good" (NYSCEF Doc. No. 89 at p 4, Entered 10/7/2013, quoting Lloyd Capital Corp. at 128 [internal  quotations omitted]).

Orbitz tries to use ROSCA's findings that DataPass was bad for consumers and the economy and Trilegiant's cessation of DataPass activity as evidence of conduct that would violate the MSA Section 6.1. These allegations do not create a question of fact. This Court has already held that "ROSCA does not provide that any violating contracts are rendered unenforceable or that its provisions were intended to apply retroactively" (see NYSCEF Doc. No. 89 at p 5, Entered 10/7/2013), and Trilegiant ceased DataPass almost a year before ROSCA made the practice illegal.

A case worth watching.

Trilegiant Corp. v. Orbitz, LLC, 2014 NY Slip Op 24230 (Sup. Ct. N.Y. Cty. Aug. 20, 2014)(Ramos, J.).

August 26, 2014 in E-commerce, In the News, Recent Cases, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, August 25, 2014

Browsewrap Decision out of the Ninth Circuit

HP_TouchPad
http://www.flickr.com/photos/
traftery/5532966191/ 

Towards the end of 2011, Barnes & Nobles (B & N) decided to liquidate its inventory of HP Touchpads (left), by offering them for sale at deep discounts at a "fire sale."  Kevin Khoa Nguyen (Nguyen) acted quickly to take advantage of this opportunity and purchased two units through the B & N website.  He first received an e-mail confirmation of the transaction and then an e-mail cancellation of the transaction due to unexpectedly high demand.

Nguyen sued and attempted to do so on behalf of a class of plaintiffs who had had their HP Touchpad purchases cancelled.  B & N responded in the now-expected it manner.  Pointing to the link to its Terms of Use, visible on multiple pages visited by Mr. Nguyen, B & N moved to compel arbitration, which in accordance with its Terms of Use (the familiar story continues), requires that claims be adjudicated on an individual basis with no possibility of class actions or class arbitration.

Nguyen argued that he did not read or otherwise have notice of B & N's terms and did not assent to them.  The District Court agreed and denied B & N's motion to compel arbitration.  In Nguyen v. Barnes & Noble Inc., the Ninth Circuit affirmed.  In so doing, the Ninth Circuit began by explaining the difference between clickwrap and browsewrap contracts:

Contracts formed on the Internet come primarily in two flavors: “clickwrap” (or “click-through”) agreements, in which website users are required to click on an “I agree” box after being presented with a list of terms and conditions of use; and “browsewrap” agreements, where a website’s terms and conditions of use are generally posted on the website via a hyperlink at the bottom of the screen. 

Wrap ContractsHere, we are dealing with a browsewrap agreement, which the Ninth Circuit subjects to a more searching inquiry than clickwrap.  According to the Ninth Circuit, clickwrap requires consumers to affirmatively consent to an agreement, whereas with browsewrap, they are simply given notice that their transaction is subject to an agreement.  Whether or not that notice is effective, says the Court, depends on the facts of the case.  But in cases such as this one, where Nguyen never clicked on the links or otherwise had an opportunity to see B & N's terms of use, he had neither actual nor constructive notice of the terms and thus could not have agreed to them.  

Over on the Technology and Marketing Law Blog, Venkat Balasubramani has a great post on this case called "What's a Browsewrap? The Ninth Circuit Sure Doesn't Know -- Nguyen v. Barnes & Noble.  The post is less snarky than it might appear (or much more so), for as Eric Goldman's contribution to the post makes clear, nobody is able to draw sufficiently clear distinctions between clickwrap and browsewrap.  Goldman suggests that the time has come to retire the clickwrap/browsewrap language entirely.  Fortunately, our readers are far better informed than most courts about wrap contracts!

August 25, 2014 in Recent Cases, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (3) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

Researcher Behind Facebook's Emotions Experiment to Help Design Ethical Guidelines

Today's New York Times features an article aptly titled (in the print version) "Under the Microscope."  The article describes researchers' attempts to grapple with the ethical issues relating to projects such as Facebook's experiment on its users, about which we have written previously  here and here.  According to the article, researchers both at universities and at in-house corporate research departments are collaborating on processes to formulate ethical guidelines that will inform future research that makes use of users' information.  

The article states that Facebook has apologized for its emotion experiment, in which it manipulated users' feeds to see if those users' own posts reflected the emotional tone of the posts they were seeing. It's not really clear that Facebook apologized for experimenting on its users.  As quoted on NPR, here is what Facebook's Sheryl Sandberg  said on behalf of the company:

This was part of ongoing research companies do to test different products, and that was what it was; it was poorly communicated . . . . And for that communication we apologize. We never meant to upset you.

As the Washington Post noted, Sandberg did not apologize for the experiement itself.  Seen in its full context, Sandberg's statement is more akin to OKCupid's in-your-face admission that it experiements on its users, about which Nancy Kim posted here.

But the Times article focuses on Cornell University's Jeffrey Hancock, who collaborated with Facebook on the experiment.  He seems to have no regrets.  For Hancock, researchers' ability to data mine is to his field what the microscope was to chemists.  Or, one might think, what the crowbar was to people doing research in the field of breaking and entering.  Hancock is now working with people at Microsoft Research and others to lead discussions to help develop ethical guidelines applicable to such research.

The Times quotes Edith Ramirez, Chair of the Federal Trade Commission on the subject.  She says:

Consumers should be in the driver’s seat when it comes to their data. . . . They don’t want to be left in the dark and they don’t want to be surprised at how it’s used.

By contrast, here is the Times's synopsis of Professor Hancock's views on how the ethical guidelines ought to be developed:

Companies will not willingly participate in anything that limits their ability to innovate quickly, he said, so any process has to be “effective, lightweight, quick and accountable.”

If the companies are subject to regulation before they can experiment on their users, it does not really matter whether or not they willngly participate.  And the applicable standards have already been established under Institutional Review Board (IRB) rules.  Significantly, as reported here in the Washington Post, although Professor Hancock works at Cornell, his participation in the Facebook study was not subject to Cornell's IRB review.  In our previous posts, we have expressed our doubt that the Facebook study could survive IRB review (or that it yielded the information that it was supposedly testing for).  

The Times article does not indicate that any of the people involved in devising rules for their own regulation have any expertise in the field of ethics.  Why is letting them come up with their own set of rules in which they will "willingly participate" any better than expecting the wielders of crowbars to design rules for their safe deployment?

August 13, 2014 in Commentary, In the News, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Online Contracts Here and Now

Here is my interview  with  Jeremy Hobson of NPR's Here and Now on the subject of online contracts. 

August 6, 2014 in Commentary, Current Affairs, In the News, Miscellaneous, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

Aereo Loses in Supreme Court and so do Consumers – for Now

By Myanna Dellinger

Recently, I blogged here on Aereo’s attempt to provide inexpensive TV programming to consumers by capturing and rebroadcasting cable TV operators’ products without paying the large fees charged by those operators.  The technology is complex, but at bottom, Aereo argued that they were not breaking copyright laws because they merely enabled consumers to capture TV that was available over airwaves and via cloud technology anyway. 

In the recent narrow 6-3 Supreme Court ruling, the Courts said that Aereo was “substantially similar” to a cable TV company since it sold a service that enabled subscribers to watch copyrighted TV programs shortly after they were broadcast by the cable companies.  The Court found that “Aereo performs petitioners’ works publicly,” which violates the Copyright Act.  The fact that Aereo uses slightly different technology than the cable companies does not make a “critical difference,” said the Court.  Since the ruling, Aereo has suspended its operations and posted a message on its website that calls the Court’s outcome "a massive setback to consumers."

Whether or not the Supreme Court is legally right in this case is debatable, but it at least seems to be behind the technological curve.  Of course the cable TV companies resisted Aereo’s services just as IBM did not predict the need for very many personal computers, Kodak failed to adjust quickly enough to the digital camera craze, music companies initially resisted digital files and online streaming of songs.  But if companies want to survive in these technologically advanced times, it clearly does not make sense to resist technological changes.  They should embrace not only technology, but also, in a free market, competition so long as, of course, no laws are violated.  We also do not use typewriters anymore simply to protect the status quo of the companies that made them.

It is remarkable how much cable companies attempt to resist the fact that many, if not most, of us simply do not have time to watch hundreds of TV stations and thus should not have to buy huge, expensive package solutions.  Not one of the traditional cable TV companies seem to consider the business advantage of offering more individualized solutions, which is technologically possible today.  Instead, they are willing to waste money and time on resisting change all the way to the Supreme Court, not realizing that the change is coming whether or not they want it. 

Surely an innovative company will soon be able to work its way around traditional cable companies’ strong position on this market while at the same time observing the Supreme Court’s markedly narrow holding.  Some have already started doing so.  Aereo itself promises that it is only “paus[ing] our operations temporarily as we consult with the court and map out our next steps.”

 

 

July 9, 2014 in Commentary, Current Affairs, E-commerce, Famous Cases, Film, In the News, Music, Recent Cases, Television, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Monday, July 7, 2014

23andMe's Wrap Contracts

H/T to Eric Goldman for sharing with the list a new case from Judge Lucy Koh of the federal district court of Northern California.  Tompkins v. 23andMe provides a detailed analysis of 23andMe's wrap contracts.  The case involves the same Terms of Service presented as a hyperlink at the bottom of the website's pages, and then later, post-purchase and at the time of account creation, as a hyperlink that requires a "click" in order to proceed (which I refer to as a "multi-wrap" as it's neither browsewrap nor clickwrap but a little of both).  The court says the former presentation lacks notice, but the latter constitutes adequate formation.  Eric Goldman provides a detailed analysis of the case here.  

Not surprisingly, the Terms contained a unilateral modification clause which was briefly discussed in the context of substantive  unconscionability.  It was not, however, raised as a defense to formation, i.e. to argue that the promises made by 23andme were illusory.  

July 7, 2014 in Commentary, E-commerce, Famous Cases, Miscellaneous, Web/Tech, Weblogs | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Friday, July 4, 2014

Follow-up on Nancy Kim's Post about Facebook's Creepy Experiment

Michelle-meyerMichelle Meyer (pictured) has a very detailed post on this subject over at The Faculty Lounge.  Her approach is different from Nancy's, focusing narrowly (but thoroughly) on the question of whether an Institutional Review Board (IRB) could have approved the FB experiment. There Meyer arrives at a different conclusion than I think Nancy would arrive at.  Meyer thinks an IRB could have and should have approved the FB experiment based on informed consent (although she recognizes that one could dispute whether such consent was actually present), and Nancy, I think correctly, questions whether there are very strong arguments that FB users knowingly agreed to this kind of experiment when they agreed to FB's terms.  

July 4, 2014 in About this Blog, Web/Tech, Weblogs | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack (0)

Thursday, July 3, 2014

About That Facebook User Manipulation Study

By now, most of you have probably heard about Facebook's study which tweaked users' news feeds to see whether doing so affected their moods.  The study was aparently conducted in response to reports that some FB users were getting bummed out by reading all the wonderful things happening to their shiny friends.  According to FB's study, this was not true.  They found that happy news led to happier posts and negative news resulted in more negative posts, leading the researchers to conclude that moods were contagious.  (My take on the results of that study below).  Facebook claimed that users consented to being part of this experiment when they agreed to the company's terms of service.  Public outrage ensued but even among the outraged, there was a consensus that Facebook "legally" had a right to do this because of the terms of use even if ethically, they should have refrained (or at least obtained active consent).

Such is the rhetorical power of a contract, even one that nobody reads.

I think it's at least questionable whether Facebook's terms of use gave it the right to conduct this user manipulation study and not just, as  Kashmir Hill of Forbes points out, because the word "research" didn't appear in their Data Use Policy until four months after the study took place.  As contracts profs know, the under-utilized and under-enforced implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing applies to contracts and is recognized under California law (which governs FB's Terms).  The broad language of the data usage policy makes it sound like Facebook will use data to improve its services, not to test whether their users get happy or sad if they manipulate news feeds.  Other provisions of FB's agreement with users make it reasonable to reach that conclusion (to keep its services "safe and secure"; to provide users with location features and services, "to make suggestions to you, for internal operations").  Even the language regarding research -- "for internal operations, including troubleshooting, data analysis, testing, research and service improvement" -- when read in context (which it should be), indicates that the purpose of using the data is to enhance the user experience, not to manipulate user behavior. 

They also say "your trust is important to us." 

Did Facebook act in bad faith by manipulating users' data feeds?  It's at least arguable that they did. 

Now, about the research results - as far as what the results showed, I'm not sure that the study did prove that positive posts enhanced users moods (and vice versa).  A user may have changed the nature of a post in order to conform to the prevailing mood, but that doesn't mean they actually felt happier.  Positive posts from others might have forced users to "fake it" by writing more positive posts and vice versa.  So I'm not convinced that the research refuted the claim that happy Facebook posts depressed some FB users...

 

 

July 3, 2014 in Current Affairs, True Contracts, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Symposium Issue on Contract Law in 2025

The Duquesne Law Review recently published a symposium issue on "Contract Law in 2025" -- I've pasted links to the contributions below:

 

Back Home

 

Drafting Our Future: Contract Law In 2025

SYMPOSIUM ARTICLES

The Judicial Vision of Contract: The Constructed Circle of Assent and Unconscionability
John E. Murray, Jr.

 

The Future of Fault in Contract Law
Robert A. Hillman

 

Two Alternate Visions of Contract Law in 2025
Nancy S. Kim

 

The Future of Many Contracts
Victor P. Goldberg

 

A Eulogy for the EULA
Miriam A. Cherry

 

The Death of Contracts
Franklin G. Snyder & Ann M. Mirabito

 

July 1, 2014 in Miscellaneous, Recent Scholarship, Web/Tech | Permalink | TrackBack (0)

Friday, June 27, 2014

Maybe That Non-Disparagement Clause Wasn't Such a Good Idea....

Several months back, I blogged about KlearGear's efforts to enforce a $3500 nondisparagement clause in their Terms of Sale against the Palmers, a Utah couple that had written a negative review about the company.  It was a case so bizarre that I had a hard time believing that it was true and not some internet rumor.  Even though the terms of sale most likely didn't apply to the Palmers --or to anyone  given the improper presentation on the website-- KlearGear reported the couple's failure to pay the ridiculous $3500 fee to a collections agency which, in turn, hurt the couple's credit score.  The couple, represented by Public Citizen, sued KlearGear and a court recently issued a default judgment against the company and awarded the couple $306,750 in compensatory and punitive damages.  Consumerist has the full story here

Congratulations to the Palmers and Scott Michelman from Public Citizen who has been representing the couple.  And let this be a warning to other companies who might try to sneak a similar type of clause in their consumer contracts....

June 27, 2014 in Current Affairs, In the News, Miscellaneous, True Contracts, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, June 10, 2014

Your Kids as a Free Facebook Marketing Tool Against Your Will

By Myanna Dellinger

What would you say if you found out that Facebook used your kids’ names and profile pictures to promote various third-party products and services to other kids?  Appalling and legally impossible as minors cannot contract?  That’s just what a group of plaintiffs (all minors) attempting to bring a class action lawsuit against Facebook argued recently, but to no avail. Here’s what happened:

Kids sign up on Facebook, “friend” their friends and add other information as well as their profile pictures.  Facebook takes that information and display it to your kids’ friends, but alongside advertisements.  The company  insists that they do “nothing more than take information its users have voluntarily shared with their Facebook friends, and republish it to those same friends, sometimes alongside a related advertisement.” How does this happen?  A program called “Social Ads” allows third parties to add their own content to the user material that is displayed when kids click on each other’s information. 

The court dismissed the complaint, finding no viable theory on which it could find the user agreements between the kids and Facebook viable.  In California, where the case was heard, Family Code § 6700 sets out the general rule for minors’ ability to contract: “… a minor may make a contract in the same manner as an adult, subject to the power of disaffirmance.”  The plaintiffs had argued that as a general rule, minors cannot contract.  That, said the court, is turning the rule on its head: minors can, as a starting point, contract, but they can affirmatively disaffirm the contracts if they wish to do so.  In this case, they had not sought to do so before bringing suit. 

Plaintiffs also argued that under § 6701, minors cannot delegate their power to, in effect, appoint Facebook as their agent who could then use their images and information.  Wrong, said the court.  Kids signing up on Facebook is “no different from the garden-variety rights a contracting party may obtain in a wide variety of contractual settings.  Facebook users have, in effect, simply granted Facebook the right to use their names in pictures in certain specified situations in exchange for whatever benefits they may realize from using the Facebook site.” 

In its never-ending quest to increase profits, Corporate America once again prevailed.  Even children are not free from being used for this purpose.  The only option they seemed to have had in this situation would have been to disaffirm the “contract;” in other words, to stop using Facebook.  To me, that does not seem like a difficult choice, but I imagine the vehement protests instantly launched against parents asking their kids to stop using the popular website.  Of course, kids are a highly attractive target audience.  Some already have quite a bit of disposable income.  They are all potential long-time customers for products/services not directed only at kids.  Corporate name recognition is important in connection with this relatively impressionable audience.  But is this acceptable?  After all, there is an obvious reason why minors can disaffirm contracts.  This option, however, would often require intense and perhaps undesirable parent supervision.  In 2014, it is probably unreasonable to ask one’s kids not to be on social media (although the actual benefits of it are also highly debatable). 

Although the legal outcome of this case is arguably correct, its impacts and the taste it leaves in one’s mouth are bad for unwary minors and their parents.

June 10, 2014 in Commentary, Current Affairs, E-commerce, Recent Cases, True Contracts, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Author Meets Reader Salon on Wrap Contracts

Law and Society Association's Annual Meeting is only a few days away.  There will be an Author Meets Reader Salon on my book, WRAP CONTRACTS on Friday, 5/30, 8:15am-10:00am in the Duluth Room. Shubha Ghosh (Wisconsin), Danielle Kie Hart (Southwestern) and Juliet Moringiello (Widener) will be joining me in what promises to be a lively discussion about those pesky clickboxes and pop-ups on your screens.  If you are attending the meeting, please stop by and join us!  

May 27, 2014 in Books, Conferences, Contract Profs, Miscellaneous, Web/Tech | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)