ContractsProf Blog

Editor: Myanna Dellinger
University of South Dakota School of Law

Monday, May 14, 2018

Secondary-market ticket brokers, "derivative works," and preliminary injunctions

In a copyright-ish case falling under the contract umbrella, Broker Genius, Inc. v. Volpone, 17-cv-8627 (SHS), a recent case out of the Southern District of New York, is a contract case where the likelihood of irreparable harm leads to the court granting a preliminary injunction. 

The case involves software used by secondary-market ticket brokers. Broker Genius owns a particular application, and those who use the application agree to terms of use that prohibited them from creating and distributing "derivative works" of the application. 

The court found that the defendants in this case agreed to be bound by the terms of use: They were required to expressly consent to the terms, which were readily viewable by hyperlink, in order to use the website. The defendants might not have had any memory of clicking their assent, but Broker Genius's evidence was sufficient to establish that the parties had entered into a contract. 

The parties agreed that the "derivative work" clause in the terms of use was not a noncompetition clause. Broker Genius's customers were allowed to compete against Broker Genius; they just couldn't develop a "derivative" software application. The parties agreed to use the dictionary definition of "derive" to interpret the contract: "something that originates from something else." 

The court concluded this meant that the products would be similar and that the similarities in the second product would be traceable to the first. The court found the defendants' software to be "extraordinarily similar" to Broker Genius's software, and those similarities were traceable to Broker Genius, due to the defendants' access to Broker Genius's software and the fact that the defendants' creation of their software happened "immediately" after accessing Broker Genius's software. The court acknowledged that some of the similarities predated Broker Genius's software, or were "logical or obvious," and that defendants had prior knowledge and experience in the industry. However, the weight of the evidence led to a finding that Broker Genius was likely to succeed on its breach of contract claim. 

The court also found that defendants' derivative product was causing Broker Genius to suffer a loss of reputation and good will, which could not be compensated with monetary damages. Therefore, the court issued a preliminary injunction. 

http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/contractsprof_blog/2018/05/secondary-market-ticket-brokers-derivative-works-and-preliminary-injunctions.html

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