Friday, March 10, 2017
The conference is over but the scholarship lives on. This is one of a series of posts highlighting several KCON XII presenters who graciously provided me with abstracts or summaries of their presentations.
Choosing “Choice” in the Age of ART: Designer Babies and the Case for Genetic Selection
Deborah Zalesne (City University of New York School of Law)
While rapidly developing Assisted Reproductive Technology (“ART”) such as in vitro fertilization, surrogacy, artificial insemination, IUI, fertility medication, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, cryopreservation, and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, offer new pathways to parenthood, this capacity has challenged our collective notions about family. Ethical questions that arise require rethinking the traditional view of family as something “organic” and “natural” and as a “self-contained unit.”
New technologies allow for far-reaching reproductive decision-making that was not possible even a generation ago. Parents can now select the sex, race, or other characteristics of an embryo to be implanted. Parents can also choose to cryopreserve their embryos to allow for implantation in the future, or choose to terminate or reduce a pregnancy because of birth defects or multiples. With the opportunities presented by reproductive autonomy and choice come legal and ethical chaos of sorts, and a division that pits consent against state and public interest.
As these technologies develop, questions arise as to whether, as a society, we should allow market forces and private contracting to control their use – in effect allowing the market to decide what is right or wrong. Is leaving development of reproductive technology to the demands of the market equivalent to saying nothing is right or wrong – only efficient or inefficient, wealth maximizing, or not wealth maximizing? Or, rather, does the market represent the natural course of change and the inevitable direction of society, with regulation of technology in these areas simply inhibiting progress? There is no single answer to these questions that can be applied across the board to all the various existing and emerging technologies. I argue, however, that where there is tension between individual reproductive choice and other moral values, the use of reproductive technologies is most often best left to the choice of individuals and the innovation of the market.
My presentation highlights some of the ethical issues that arise from the reproductive capabilities that have developed over the past decades, focusing specifically on the unique ethical issues that arise from pre-implantation genetic testing. (I will also briefly discuss ethical issues surrounding gamete donation and surrogacy, which can result in more than two legal or biological parents; the creation, selection, freezing, and destruction of embryos; and prenatal testing, selective abortion and selective reduction.) Much of the resistance to these technologies stems from long-held and deeply ingrained beliefs about the purity of reproduction and motherhood. As technology continues to create reproductive possibilities that were once unheard of or considered fantasy, the purity of motherhood, pregnancy, reproduction, and family are threatened, creating controversy and debate. My talk examines some potentially troubling contract clauses that can give reproduction choices to intended parents that did not exist before technology facilitated it. I attribute some of the resulting ethical concern to societal hesitance to deviate from traditional family norms, looking specifically at the sacredness of motherhood and primacy of biology in definitions of parenthood.
Ultimately, I argue for emphasis on consent and market freedom, and for more rigorous and consistent enforcement of reproductive agreements. The law, by its nature, is slow to respond and slow to capture societal mood, which is constantly evolving. Artificial insemination, for example, was originally, over a century ago, thought to be scandalous, but opinions softened eventually. Since law necessarily lags behind social momentum, family law and regulation are often ill equipped to address adequately the myriad ethical issues that have arisen and are likely to arise as technology advances further. Even as family law adapts, it will never be able to keep pace with the rapid developments happening in reproductive technology and accommodate all possible non-normative relationships, ever growing based on cultural and social shifts, and made even more accessible through technology. Regulation of new technologies can thwart progress, inhibiting the development of important medical procedures. Consent, market forces, and contract law, on the other hand, which are based on individual needs, individual desires, and societal demand, are the best arena for dealing with rapid technological momentum.
People have a fundamental right, both morally and legally, to privacy and freedom when it comes to reproduction, so intervention where there are private reproductive agreements is not usually justified. Individual choice should guide reproduction (whether natural or artificially mediated), and a free market and private contracting are the best vehicles for delivering assisted reproductive services and for responding to individual choice. Assisted reproduction, like sexual reproduction, is not a social enterprise. Although it often involves more than two parties, it is still based on private arrangements and should be governed by rules of privacy and autonomy.
The SSRN link to the full paper is: http//ssrn.com/abstract=2930290