Wednesday, July 13, 2005
1205: Archbishop Hubert Walter of Canterbury, the great justiciar who did much to revamp royal law administration in the reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry II, dies at Teynham, Kent.
1772: HMS Resolution, a privately owned North Sea collier bought by the Royal Navy for £4,151, sets sail under Captain James Cook to make the first true explorations of the Antarctic.
1787: The U.S. Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance, organizing the area that is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and half of Minnesota. It requires existing states to cede their claims to the territory and provides that new states will be created by the federal government.
1821: Nathan Bedford Forrest, whose career as a slave trader and planter will make him a millionaire and one of the South’s richest men, is born to a poor family at Chapel Hill, Tennessee.
1863: Crowds cheering for Jefferson Davis and crying, "vengeance on every n—" rampage through New York City, burning the Colored Orphan Asylum and beating or killing black man they run across. Eleven will be lynched, the death toll will reach 300, and 4,000 Federal troops will have to be brought in to restore order.
1925: A hitherto unknown comedian temporarily filling in for W.C. Fields at the Ziegfeld Follies wows the New York critics. His name is Will Rogers.
1972: Los Angeles Rams owner Robert Irsay and Baltimore Colts owner Carroll Rosenbloom agree to swap teams.
1977: A 25-hour blackout hits New York City; rioters cause $60 million in damage.
1978: Ford Motor Co. chairman Henry Ford II fires president Lee Iacocca, who will later join rival Chrysler.
1985: The 16-hour Live Aid phone-a-thon brings together the largest cast of famous acts ever to appear in a single broadcast. It will ultimately raise $144 million for Ethiopian famine relief.