Friday, August 4, 2017
Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced yesterday that DOJ will "tak[e] . . . into account" a city's "sanctuary" status in determining eligibility for the Department's new Public Safety Partnership program. AG Sessions accompanied the announcement with letters to Albequerque, Baltimore, San Bernadino, and Stockton--cities that had expressed an interest in participating in the PSP--asking for information related to their sanctuary policies.
The move adds a new program, the PSP, to some other Justice programs that are also unavailable to "sanctuary" jurisdictions--those jurisdictions that restrict their officers from communicating with federal authorities regarding the citizenship or immigration status of individuals in detention. In this way, the move is yet one more attempt by DOJ to encourage jurisdictions to drop their sanctuary policies.
AG Sessions initiated the PSP program in June. It provides training and technical assistance to local jurisdictions "to address violent crime in their communities." The Department initially selected twelve jurisdictions to participate in the program.
Earlier, the Department moved to clamp down on "sanctuary" jurisdictions by requiring them to drop their sanctuary policies as a condition of qualification for certain Justice grants. (In particular, DOJ said that jurisdictions that failed to comply with Section 1373 would not qualify for certain DOJ and DHS grants. Section 1373 says that "a Federal, State, or local government entity or official may not prohibit, or in any way restrict, any government entity or official from sending to, or receiving from, the Immigration and Naturalization Service information regarding the citizenship or immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual.") DOJ adopted this policy as a way to implement President Trump's facially overbroad sanctuary cities executive order.
AG Sessions didn't go so far as to categorically deny sanctuary jurisdictions from the PSP program, however. Instead, he said that "[b]y taking simple, common-sense considerations into account, we are encouraging every jurisdiction in this country to cooperate with federal law enforcement." Specifically:
In determining which jurisdictions to select, the Department will ask interested jurisdictions the following questions:
1. Does your jurisdiction have a statute, rule, regulation, policy, or practice that is designed to ensure that U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) personnel have access to any correctional or detention facility in order to meet with an alien (or an individual believed to be an alien) and inquire as to his or her right to be or to remain in the United States?
2. Does your jurisdiction have a statute, rule, regulation, policy, or practice that is designed to ensure that your correctional and detention facilities provide at least 48 hours advance notice, where possible, to DHS regarding the scheduled release date and time of an alien in the jurisdiction's custody when DHS requests such notice in order to take custody of the alien?
3. Does your jurisdiction have a statute, rule, regulation, policy, or practice that is designed to ensure that your correctional and detention facilities will honor a written request from DHS to hold a foreign national for up to 48 hours beyond the scheduled release date, in order to permit DHS to take custody of the foreign national?
AG Sessions tied the PSP program to the no-sanctuary-policies condition by arguing that sanctuary cities threaten public safety: "By protecting criminals from immigration enforcement, cities and states with so-called "sanctuary" policies make all of us less safe." AG Sessions presumably drew the connection at least in part in order to satisfy the relatedness requirement for federal conditioned spending programs under South Dakota v. Dole. (Under South Dakota, a federal conditioned spending program must (1) be in the "general welfare," (2) state the condition clearly, (3) be related to the condition, and (4) not turn pressure to participate into compulsion to participate.)