Monday, August 25, 2014
Students often ask me how they can improve their performance in my classes. There’s one thing they can do that will increase their learning with no additional work on their part: stop multitasking.
Multitasking is bad. The research is clear: students, even today’s students who grew up multitasking, learn less when they’re doing other things at the same time. See, for example, here and here. It’s a very simple point: if you surf the Internet, email, text, instant message, talk on the phone, or watch TV while you’re studying (or in the classroom), you learn less. Effective study (and work) requires focus.
It's such an easy, effortless way to improve learning: just focus exclusively on what you’re reading, without any distractions. Turn off instant messaging. Close the web browser and the email program. Silence your phone. Turn off the TV.
I make that point to my students at the beginning of my classes. but, for some of them, it just doesn’t sink in. I guess that shouldn't surprise me: people text while they're driving even as the casualties continue to mount.
I recently found an exercise on the Internet that illustrates the point in a straightforward, simple way. I’m going to distribute it to my students this year (with the author’s permission) and see if it helps. (For what it’s worth, it took me 34 seconds to complete the exercise without multitasking and 52 seconds to do it multitasking.)
Friday, August 22, 2014
I love a good debate and appreciate the opportunity (provided by Professor Bainbridge’s thoughtful post yesterday) to engage a bit more deeply on the thesis of Wednesday’s post suggesting an approach for how to incorporate Citizens United and Hobby Lobby into the survey BA/Corporations course.
By way of recap and ruthless summary, Stephen Bainbridge wants nothing to do with these issues (or other constitutional law questions) in his course because of the:
- Existing emphasis of public law over private law and resulting imbalance in law school curriculum;
- False impression that constitutional law is the holy grail of law teaching and practice;
- These cases present a hornet’s nest of controversial and divisive topics; and
- Coverage constraints. The menu options of what we can (should) teach is already more ambitious than time allows.
And to no surprise to anyone, anywhere: Stephen Bainbridge is right on the money with all of these points.
As a survey course and one that almost every student in my law school (Georgia State) takes, I feel a responsibility to provide context for the subject matter that we teach and to do my best to “hook” students who didn’t come to my class with an interest in corporate law.
First, hear me now when I say that corporate law matters. It matters to the business owners who form and operate a firm. It matters to the individuals and other businesses who interact with the firm as a supplier or customer or creditor or employee. These first two points are significantly incorporated into the traditional BA syllabus. Corporate law also matters to general members of society because corporations wield tremendous power in elections, in lobbying (regulatory capture anyone?), in shaping retirement savings, in religious and reproductive rights debates and setting other cultural norms around issues like corruption, sustainability, living wage, etc. Multi-national corporations with ubiquitous brand recognition aren’t the only powerful actors. The Hobby Lobby ruling tells us that those creatures governed largely by private law—the closely held corporation—also play a major role. To teach corporate law in a vacuum that ignores this broader context is to teach nuclear physics without discussing the atom bomb and its consequences (if I can use hyperbole). Should the broader context be the focus of the class? Absolutely not. Can it be woven into context setting discussions or used as a way to elicit student participation? In my class at least.
Second, not every student in BA enrolled out of pure self-interest; not everyone has a business background. I consider my course to be a great equalizer in law school: we take the health sciences majors, the B-schoolers, the political science and the anthropology kids and at the end of the semester everyone can explain basic financial concepts, the different menu options of firms, proxy fights, and even poison pills. We do this best when we can engage all of the students, which sometimes means helping students see why it might matter to them and how the subject connects with the things that they care about. For some that will be the clever ways you can use private agreements to shape outcomes and hedge against risk, for others it will be seeing why corporate law matters even if you don’t care about corporations (see paragraph above).
My last point is that being an effective classroom teacher generally requires a sense of self-awareness about your comfort zone, your strengths, and your weaknesses (among other things). I have lots of colleagues, at GSU and other institutions (many of them BLPB editors), whom I admire, but if I tried to teach class the way that they did, I would fall short of the mark. We teach to our own strengths and infuse classes with a sense of our own personality and passion. I don’t think I have convinced anyone not previously inclined to incorporate these materials; and I wonder if Stephen has caused any course corrections with his thoughts. We may have just reinforced the positions that you already held. Either way, happy teaching to all readers who have started or are preparing to start the new semester and the new school year.
On Wednesday, in my first set of fall semester classes, I mentioned Dweck’s descriptions of “fixed mindset” and “growth mindset” because I thought it might be helpful for students to consider.
Dweck says that those with a “fixed mindset” embrace a static view of intelligence, avoid challenges, get defensive in the face of obstacles and criticism, and are threatened by the success of others. People with a “fixed mindset” view failure as a negative verdict on their worth as a person. (pg. 244-46).
In contrast, Dweck says that those with a “growth mindset” believe that intelligence can be developed, embrace challenges, persist and learn in the face of obstacles and criticism, and are inspired by the success of others. People with a “growth mindset” view failure as an opportunity to learn and improve. (pg. 244-46).
To be clear, I (and Dweck) realize that there are limits to personal growth – otherwise I would be at an NFL practice right now instead of blogging – but it is helpful to realize that we can generally improve substantially with effort.
In the long run, Dweck finds that those with a “growth mindset” tend to outperform those with a “fixed mindset.” Dweck also finds evidence that people can change their dominant mindset over time.
I see students with both types of mindsets. You can spot the “fixed mindset” student easily – “I am not a C student!” The “growth mindset” student is just as easy to identify – “I got a C on this exam. I’d like to meet with you about my test and talk about how I can improve.”
Students are not the only ones who can learn from Dweck’s work. When faced with criticism, defensiveness feels natural to me, but I am, slowly, learning to unpack the criticism and look for lessons that could help me grow and improve.
Tuesday, August 19, 2014
At West Virginia University College of Law, we started classes yesterday, and I taught my first classes of the year: Energy Law in the morning and Business Organizations in the afternoon. As I do with a new year coming, I updated and revised my Business Organizations course for the fall. Last year, I moved over to using Unicorporated Business Entities, of which I am a co-author. I have my own corporations materials that I use to supplement the book so that I cover the full scope of agency, partnerships, LLCs, and corporations. So far, it's worked pretty well. I spent several years with Klein, Ramseyer and Bainbridge's Business Associations, Cases and Materials on Agency, Partnerships, and Corporations (KRB), which is a great casebook, in its own right.
I did not make the change merely (or even mostly) because I am a co-author. I made the change because I like the structure we use in our book. I had been trying to work with KRB in my structure, but this book is designed to teach in with the organization I prefer, which is more topical than entity by entity. I'll note that a little while ago, my co-blogger Steve Bradford asked, "Are We Teaching Business Associations Backwards?" Steve Bainbridge said, "No." He explained,
I've tried that approach twice. Once, when I was very young, using photocopied materials I cut and pasted from casebook drafts the authors kindly allowed me to use. Once by jumping around Klein, Ramseyer, and Bainbridge. Both times it was a disaster. Students found it very confusing (and boy did my evaluations show it!). It actually took more time than the entity by entity approach, because I ended up having to do a lot of review (e.g., "you'll remember from 2 weeks ago when we discussed LLCs most recently that ...."). There actually isn't all that much topic overlap. Among corporations, for example, you've got the business judgment rule, derivative suits, "duty" of good faith, executive compensation, the special rules for close corporations, proxies, and so on, most of which either don't apply to LLCs etc.... or don't deserve duplicative treatment.
I have great respect for Prof. Bainbridge, and his writing has influenced me greatly, but (not surprisingly), I come out more closely aligned with my perception of Larry Ribstein on such issues, and with Jeff Lipshaw, who commented,
I disagree about the lack of topic overlap, and suspect Larry Ribstein is raging about this in BA Heaven right now. . . .
This may reflect differences among student populations, but the traditional corporate law course, focusing primarily on public corporations, is less pertinent in many schools where students are unlikely to be doing that kind of work when they graduate. It's far more likely that they'll need to be able to explain to a client why the appropriate business form is a corporation or an LLC, and what the topical differences between them are.
I completely agree, and I would go another step to say that I find the duplication to be a valuable reinforcement mechanism that is worth (what I have seen as limited) extra time. I am teaching a 4-credit course, though, which gives me time I never had in my prior institution's 3-credit version.
One thing I am doing differently this year is my first assignment, which seeks to build on what I see as a need for students here. That is, I think many of them will need to be able to explain entity differences and help clients select the right option.
I had my students fill out the form for a West Virginia Limited Liability Company (PDF here). I had a few goals. First, I don't like to have students leave any of my classes without handling at least some of the forms or other documents they are likely to encounter in practice. Second, I did it without any instruction this time (I have used similar forms later in the course) because I thought it would help me tee up an introduction to all this issues I want them thinking about with regard to entity choice. (It did.) Finally, I like getting students to see the connection between the form and the statute. We can link though and see why the form requires certain issues, discuss waivable and nonwaivable provisions, and talk about things like entity purpose, freedom of contract, and the limits of limited liability.
If nothing else, the change kept things fresh for me. I welcome any comments and suggestions on any of this, and I wish everyone a great new academic year.
Monday, August 18, 2014
OK. So, I am stretching a bit here. But yoga may be considered a sport, athletic clothing is a kind of fashion, and securities fraud prohibitions and corporate director fiduciary duty involve law. So, I stand by my blog title in the face of any criticism that may follow this post.
I do yoga four times a week when I am not traveling. I also work out, sometimes on days when I am not doing yoga. So, I have a fair number of pieces of yoga wear and other athletic clothing. This means that I get regular mail and email solicitations from the firms that purvey these clothing items.
I recently received a catalog from one of my favorite athletic clothing brands, Sweaty Betty, which I discovered originally when I was teaching in Cambridge, England in one of our study abroad programs a few years ago. I noticed, with some amusement, that the new catalog harps on the opacity of the firm's yoga bottoms or trousers (as the British like to call them). The website does the same--"100% opaque" labels abound. As an astute consumer and securities lawyer, I immediately jumped to the conclusion, whether right or wrong, that this yoga-bottoms advertising campaign is a reaction to the see-through yoga pants debacle of one of Sweaty Betty's competitors, Lululemon (another of my favorite brands).
What does business law have to do with this (apart from the many standard legal angles on the recall of products generally)? As my securities regulation students from last spring well know (since it was the subject of part of their final exam), stockholders of Lululemon brought a securities fraud class action suit against Lululemon, after the recall of the see-through pants, based on alleged misrepresentations of material fact in public disclosures touting the high quality of its yoga pants. Predictably (at least imho), the District Court dismissed the action back in April. The court's opinion and order resulted in a few interesting online law firm commentaries with colorful titles (including posts from, e.g., Orrick and Weil). The public fallout also includes (as most would guess) allegations of breaches of fiduciary duty and observations about insider trading and Rule 10b5-1 plans because of some well-timed trades by Lululemon's founder and then-CEO.
As we think about the new semester (ours starts on Wednesday), the Sweaty Betty catalog reminded me to bring the Lululemon matter to the attention of our law faculty readers. The facts and public reactions make for a nice case study of risk management in the context of securities regulation and fiduciary duty law. A Stanford "Closer Look" piece, as well as many news reports, make the use of the case reasonably easy. And for those of you who want to take a peak at my exam question, just ask . . . .
Thursday, August 14, 2014
A brief ten-question survey is one of the most effective tools I have used in my three years as an academic. I first used one when teaching professional responsibility and then used it for my employment law, corporate governance seminar, and business associations courses. I’m using it for the first time with my civil procedure students. I count class participation in all of my classes for a portion of their grade, and responding to the survey link by the first day of class is their first “A” or first “F” of the semester.
I use survey monkey but other services would work as well. The survey serves a number of uses. First, I will get an idea of how many students actually read my emails before next Tuesday’s first day of class—interestingly as of Thursday morning, 62% of my incoming 1Ls have completed their survey, while 42% of the BA students have done theirs. Second, my BA students work in mini law firms for a number of drafting exercises and simulations. The students can pick their own firms, but I designate a “financial expert” to each firm based upon the survey responses. I remind them that they should never leave the classroom thinking they are “experts” in the real world-- they are just experts compared to the "terrified." I use this tactic to avoid having all of the MBAs and bitcoin owners (yes, I had some last year) sit together and unintentionally intimidate the other firms with their perceived advantage.
Third, I get an idea of how students have learned about business prior to BA and what news sources they use. Fourth, I tailor my remarks and hypotheticals (when appropriate) to reach the litigators or those who plan to specialize in nontransactional work. I want them to know how BA will relate to the practice areas they think they will enter. I tell them on the first day that I went to Columbia for college because it didn’t have a math requirement and I planned to do public interest work, went to law school because the LSAT was the only graduate school entrance exam that had no math on it (ok- my professor Jack Greenberg at Columbia also said I should go). I tell them that I became a litigator to avoid business and spent my first years as a non-corporate person having to learn about FASB and the definition of a "security" because I was a big-firm commercial litigator. I tell them that when I went in-house I had to take accounting for lawyers and although I don’t love the accounting, we will discuss some basics because they never know where they will end up. Many of them mat even represent entrepreneurs. My first day speech is meant to reach the 79% of my students (as of this morning) who say they want to be litigators.
Finally, I feel as though I’m not walking in on the first day completely ignorant of my students. I often use the names or storylines from popular shows or movies in class when I can. The show Suits, by the way, is the runaway favorite for my 1Ls and I know my BA students watch it as well. My BA survey questions are below. If you are interested in seeing my Civ Pro questions, email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. Please enter your first and last name. If your name is hard to pronounce, please provide a phonetic spelling as well (rhymes with ___ or NUH-RHINE for Narine).
2. Have you had any experience working in a legal setting (firm, court, agency, clinic, other) BEFORE coming to law school or DURING law school? Please answer yes or no and then describe the experience if you answered "yes".
a) Yes- please complete comment box
Other (please specify)
3. Which type of practice appeals to you more?
a) Planning (e.g. transactional)
b) Dispute resolution (e.g. litigation)
c) I do not plan to practice law after graduation
Other (please specify)
4. Have you or a close family member ever owned a business?
Yes, and I have been completely involved in management and/or business discussions
Yes, and I have been somewhat or occasionally involved in management and/or business discussions
Yes, but I have had no involvement in management and/or business discussions
5. Do you own any stocks, bonds, other types of securities (individually or through a mutual fund or trust) or bitcoin?
6. Choose up to THREE fields of law in which you would most prefer to practice
b) civil rights/constitutional law
c) corporate and securities law (including business planning)
d) criminal law (prosecution)
e) criminal law (defense)
f) labor and employment law
g) trusts and estates
h) family law
i) health law
k) intellectual property
l) real estate/land use
m) litigation (plaintiff side)
n) litigation (defense side)
o) sports and entertainment
q) other, please describe
Other (please specify)
7. Do you have an MBA, business, finance, accounting, or economics degree?
8. Do you read any business related newspapers, magazines or blogs? Do you watch any business-related television shows or listen to podcasts or radio shows? If so, please name them.
9. Other than to pass the class, what are your learning goals for this course? Are there particular topics that interest or frighten you?
10. Please describe your level of familiarity with business, finance and/or accounting.
I am an expert and could teach this class
I have some experience, but could use a refresher
I have no experience, but am willing to learn
I am completely terrified
My goals this year: help my students think like business people so that they can add value, help them pass the bar, and most important, help them realize that business isn't so terrifying. Now I just have to get my Civ Pro students to realize that the show Franklin and Bash is probably not the best way to learn about legal practice.
August 14, 2014 in Business Associations, Corporate Governance, Corporations, Current Affairs, Entrepreneurship, Law School, Marcia Narine, Securities Regulation, Teaching, Television | Permalink | Comments (3)
Tuesday, August 12, 2014
Kinder Morgan, a leading U.S. energy company, has proposed consolidating its Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs) under its parent company. If it happens, it would be the second largest energy merger in history (the Exxon and Mobil merger in 1998, estimated to be $110.1 billion in 2014 dollars, is still the top dog).
Motley Fool details the deal this way:
Terms of the deal
The $71 billion deal is composed of $40 billion in Kinder Morgan Inc shares, $4 billion in cash, $27 billion in assumed debt.
Existing shareholders of Kinder Morgan's MLPs will receive the following premiums for their units (based on friday's closing price):
- Kinder Morgan Energy Partners: 12%
- Kinder Morgan Management: 16.5%
- El Paso Pipeline Partners: 15.4%Existing unit holders of Kinder Morgan Energy Partners and El Paso Pipeline Partners are allowed to choose to receive payment in both cash and Kinder Morgan Inc shares or all cash.
The most important man in the American Energy Boom wears brown slacks and a checkered shirt and sits in a modest corner office with unexceptional views of downtown Houston and some forgettable art on the wall. You would expect to at least see a big map showing pipelines stretching from coast to coast. Nope. “We don’t have sports tickets, we don’t have corporate jets,” growls Richard Kinder, 68, CEO of Kinder Morgan, America’s third-largest energy firm. “We don’t have stadiums named after us.”
August 12, 2014 in Business Associations, Corporate Finance, Corporate Governance, Corporations, Current Affairs, Financial Markets, Joshua P. Fershee, Merger & Acquisitions, Partnership, Teaching, Unincorporated Entities | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)
Monday, August 4, 2014
"[P]ushing its students to understand business and technology so that they can advise entrepreneurs in coming fields. The school wants them to think of themselves as potential founders of start-ups as well, and to operate fluidly in a legal environment that is being transformed by technology."
The article also highlights University of Colorado's Tech Lawyer Accelerator.
Fascinating stuff. What is your school doing, if anything, on this front?
Many of us are in the process of (perhaps frantically) wrapping up our summer scholarly activity and re-focusing our primary professional attention on teaching. As always, I am using the annual conference sponsored by the Southeastern Association of Law Schools (SEALS) to help me make this transition. Yesterday, I attended a discussion session led by law school associate deans and faculty who focus on faculty development--scholarship and teaching. It was an incredibly interesting and wide-ranging discussion.
Part of the conversation centered around summer research stipends, a topic that has been in the national news a bit over the past few years. Various participants in the discussion session addressed, each from his or her individual institution's vantage point, the reasons for/purposes of summer research stipends (which not every school represented at the session currently has) and how summer stipends actually work or should/could optimally work. I was surprised by the variations in approaches and ideas from school to school. While the individual models are too numerous to capture here, I summarize below the fold some of the top-level points made and thoughts shared during the discussion.
Friday, July 25, 2014
This post started off as a comment to co-blogger Haskell Murray's post Modifying the Law Review Submission and Review Process, and is perhaps overkill, but at least a few of us, thanks in part to Steve Bradford's post, are finding the conversation fruitful, so here we go:
In response to my suspicion that widespread law review changes could impact promotion and tenure (P&T) processes, Haskell writes: "I am not sure why the expectations for P&T would have to change if law reviews instituted blind review. It seems that all blind review would do is make the selection process more fair."
Maybe he is right, but here's my thinking: I believe expectations for P&T would change because I believe that widespread blind review would increase the (already long) turnaround time for getting pieces accepted for publication. If I am right (an open question) that it would increase the review time, it would make it harder for some faculty to get their pieces accepted, which is often required for it to "count" in the review process. Perhaps this would be a good thing, but I would see it as a potentially significant change.
This could also impact higher ranked schools even more. That is, Haskell has noted, people visiting at higher-ranked schools often find that visiting submission to be their most successful submission. (I’ve never had a top-20 or even top-40 school with my name for a submission, so I can’t say for certain.) It is my sense that higher-ranked schools get a bump with law reviews, and that's not always (ever?) fair, but if that bias went away, it could make it even harder to get through the P&T process at those schools without some modifying my understanding of some assessment measures. This is where I agree with Steve Bradford that if schools are using law review rankings as a proxy for quality, they are shirking their duties, but I still think many schools (or at least some people in schools) do. Again, a change may lead to a good shift over all, but it would still be a shift.
I concede it’s possible that blind review could increase the quality of journals, but I think that would also need peer review to go along with it, which could, again, extend the reviewing timeframe. For the current system, I think one of the reasons we don’t have blind review is that the system is full of proxies. These proxies have perhaps been deemed desirable given that we have already ceded publication decisions to 2Ls and 3Ls, and open review gives those students more information. I do think it may be more desirable and more fair to use blind review, though I think there’s also more likely we’d be swapping one problem for another if we don't add more seasoned reviewers to the mix. In one of my earlier posts (linked in my recent one) other disciplines indicate peer review alone won't fix the problem, and I don't think just blind review will either.
I maintain that a faculty- and practitioner-assisted process (including blind reviews) would benefit law reviews and legal scholarship, but it means we’d all have to pitch in even more. (I support that, but it would need widespread buy in.) My sense is that law reviews are slowly responding to the concerns and that we will see a better process result. I think this whole discussion is a net positive, and I hope we’ll see more of an evolution. As I have noted in my other posts, though, because I see value in many parts of law reviews, I think the coming changes should be an evolution and not a revolution.
Wednesday, July 23, 2014
As someone who teaches and researches both business law and energy law, I often focus on the overlap of the two areas, which I find to be significant. One of my most recent projects has been to write a new casebook, Energy Law: A Context and Practice Casebook, which will be available for courses taught this fall. I wrote a detailed description of the book in a guest post at the Energy Law Professor blog, but here I wanted to highlight the business aspects of the book.
The second chapter of my book is titled The Business of Energy Law. That chapter begins with some key vocabulary, and I then provide students with a client issue to frame the reading for the chapter. The issue:
Your firm has just taken on a new client who is a large shareholder in many companies. She is particularly concerned about her holdings in Energex, Inc., a publicly traded energy company. Energex was founded in 1977 by a oil and gas man from Louisiana who is still the CEO and a member of the board of directors. The client is concerned that the CEO is taking opportunities for himself that she thinks belong to Energex. As you read the following sections, consider: (1) What are the potential conflicts of interest the CEO might have? (2) Is it a conflict of interest if the activity is permitted under the CEO’s employment contract? (3) What kind of documents might be publicly available for review and where would you find them? (4) If it goes to litigation, what other information might you seek? From whom?
The first part of the chapter covers Business Organizations and Employment Law as Energy Law, including derivative suit and executive compensation contracts. The chapter also has the following sections: Antitrust as Energy Law, Mergers and Acquisitions, and Entity Structure and Fiduciary Duties.
Over the years, as I have taught my Energy Law Survey course and Business Organizations (as I do again this fall), I found that I can help make sense of things for students in each class when I borrow examples from the other class. My book helps make the connection concrete, and I hope it will help students understand more of the "why "to go along with the "what." As I often tell (preach to?) students, understanding business organizations is critical to all aspects of practice, regadless of where you intend to focus, whether it's energy law, environmental law, criminal law, or even family law.
This fall should be fun. For me, at least.
Tuesday, July 22, 2014
Steve Bradford yesterday posted a thoughtful (as is usual for his posts) critique of law reviews. I had drafted a comment, but Steve suggested that I should post links to my prior posts separately, so here goes, along with (what has turned out to be a lot of) additional commentary.
I think Steve has some valid (and compelling) points. As I have written before, though, I can’t go as far as he does. I won’t rehash all that I have written before on this subject, but one of my earlier posts, Some Thoughts for Law Review Editors and Law Review Authors covers a lot of that ground. Please click below to read more:
Thursday, July 10, 2014
In last week’s post about the business of the World Cup, I indicated that I would review Christine Bader’s book, The Evolution of a Corporate Idealist: When Girl Meets Oil. I have changed my mind, largely because I don’t have much to add to the great reviews the book has already received. Instead I would like to talk about how lawyers, professors and students can use the advice, even if they have no desire to do corporate social responsibility work as Bader did, or worse, they think CSR and signing on to voluntary UN initiatives is really a form of "bluewashing."
Bader earned an MBA and worked around the world on BP’s behalf on human rights initiatives. This role required her to work with indigenous peoples, government officials and her peers within BP convincing them of the merits of considering the human rights, social, and environmental impacts. She then worked with the UN and John Ruggie helping to develop the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, a set of guidelines which outline the state duty to protect human rights, the corporate duty to respect human rights, and both the state and corporations' duty to provide judicial and non-judicial remedies to aggrieved parties. She now works as a lecturer at Columbia University, where she teaches human rights and business and she also advises BSR, which focuses on making businesses more sustainable. Her book tells her story but also quotes a number of other CSR professionals and how they have navigated through some of the world’s largest multinationals.
Bader’s book has some important takeaways for all of us.
1) In order to have influence, we have to learn to speak the language that our audience understands and appreciates- I tell my students that when they write exams for me, it’s all about me. Other professors want their exams written with certain catchphrases using the IRAC method, and I may want something different. One size does not fit all. Attorneys learn (or get replaced) that some clients want long memos, others want executive summaries and bullet points and all want plain English. Talking to a venture capitalist is different than talking to a circuit court judge. Similarly, many law professors are behind the curve. If we only talk to each other in the jargon of the academy and insulate ourselves, the rest of the world won’t have the benefit of our research because they won’t understand or want to read it. Academics have a lot to contribute, but we need to adapt to our audience whether it’s policymakers, judges, our peers or law students.
2) Sometimes we have to be less passionate in making our arguments and appeal to what’s important to our audience- This point relates to Point 1. Bader regularly met with a number of constituencies and was understandably zealous in trying to convince others, internally and externally, about her positions. She and other “corporate idealists” from other firms often learned the importance of language- making a business case to certain internal stakeholders meant talking in terms of the bottom line rather than using the maxim “it’s the right thing to do” or “doing well by doing good.” Good attorneys know how to represent their clients without taking things personally because sometimes the passion can actually dilute effectiveness. As law professors, we need to teach our students to be more effective so that they know how and when to modulate their tone, and how to pivot and change the way they frame their arguments when they can’t convince the recipient of their message.
3) Almost everything comes down to risk management- Bader often had to focus on risk management and mitigation when her moral arguments fell on deaf ears. Those who teach business should make sure that students have a basic understanding of the pressure points that business people face. For some it may be tax liability. For others it may be the appropriate exit strategy. In essence, it all comes down to understanding the client’s risk profile and being able to advise accordingly. Litigators should also understand risk profiles so that they can develop an appropriate settlement strategy and help their client’s work their way through some of the unexpected pitfalls that may arise over the course of the case.
4) Building relationships is a critical skill- Bader learned that social interactions with her peers at BP and the external stakeholders after hours greatly increased her effectiveness in dealing with thorny issues that arose during business hours. Lawyers often believe that if they have the substantive knowledge, they are the smartest people in the room. Law firms don’t teach young associates about the importance of emotional intelligence and building relationships with peers, opposing counsel, and clients. In fact, many law students and lawyers believe that having the reputation as a “shark” is the best way to represent clients. We need to teach our students that it’s better to be respected than feared or hated, and that they can disagree without being disagreeable. Those of us in the academy should model that behavior more often.
5) We must learn to compromise and recognize that incremental changes are important too- Bader and other corporate idealists often want to change the world but quickly learn that internal and external stakeholders aren’t ready to move that fast. She discussed “nudging” her client toward the right direction. Law school and law-related television shows lead students to believe that the end game is to win and to win big. In the business world, sometimes there are no big wins. Lawyers and business advisors often take two steps forward and one step back, and that’s ok. Students and attorneys who take classes in alternative dispute resolution learn this valuable skill. Bader and other corporate idealists also realized that you have to work with people on the opposite side who feel just as strongly that their position is on the side of the angels. Lawyers who know how to build relationships and refocus their messaging can influence those on the other side if they are willing to listen, and when necessary compromise and accept small victories.
6) We can compromise but shouldn’t compromise our values- When Bader felt that her work was no longer fulfilling, she looked for other positions that aligned with her world view. With rising student debt and many lawyers living beyond their means, it’s difficult for lawyers to walk away from a job or client that they don’t like. That’s understandable. It’s more problematic to stay in a situation where there is criminal or ethical misconduct without speaking up or leaving because of the financial handcuffs. It’s also unacceptable to remain in a culture that stifles a lawyer’s ability to raise issues. In some cases, as alleged with some of the GM lawyers, failure to speak up could literally be a matter of life and death.
I enjoyed this quick read because it reminded me so much of my years in corporate life. Bader’s story can teach all of us, even the non corporate-idealists, valuable lessons about coping and thriving in the business world.
Friday, June 27, 2014
Previously, I have written about making MOOCs more effective and online v. in-person classes. Today, I am writing about MOOCs, online classes in general, and the future of education. This will be a relatively short post because, of course, I don’t know what the future holds. But, after the break, I will take a few guesses based on what we are already seeing.
Friday, June 20, 2014
I’ve recently returned from taking a course on negotiation at Harvard Law School. This was an in-person course where I was a student, which gives me something to compare my MOOC experiences to as I address the topic of online v. in-person classes. I provide a few of my thoughts on the topic after the break.
Friday, June 6, 2014
If you were designing a massive open online course (a "MOOC"), how would you make it as effective as possible?
This week I am not looking at how MOOCs compare to in-person courses, but rather I am looking at how various MOOCs compare to one another.
A few of my thoughts are below.
Studio Filming. Some of the earlier MOOCs, like Ben Polak's Game Theory class at Yale, simply set a camera in the room and recorded the class. Even with a dynamic professor like Polak, this strategy did not seem to fit the medium well. Later MOOCs, like Northwestern University's Law & Entrepreneurship course, were filmed specially for the MOOC, in what appears to be a studio of sorts. The studio, edited versions of a course seem to produce a much more efficient and engaging experience. To increase engagement even further, some have asked whether celebrities like Matt Damon should teach MOOCs (presumably from a script prepared by professors in the field)...or maybe professors should take acting classes.
Deadlines and Certificates. It is well-known that the completion rate for MOOCs is miserable. The completion rate has been reported as less than 7%. I imagine that rate would increase significantly if the online courses were not free. Also, while I have not seen the data, I think MOOCs with deadlines for various sections of the course and courses with certificates encourage students to stay on track and finish classes they start.
Assessments. I preferred the MOOCs that had online questions as you went along with the video lectures (every 10-15 minutes) rather than those that just had questions at the end, but this can be overdone if it cuts up the flow of the lecture too much. I did not mind if the MOOC had questions during both the presentations and at the end of the unit, and it was probably good to be tested on the same material twice.
Focused Discussion Boards. The discussion boards I have seen on MOOCs seem to be mostly a waste of time, at least the way the vast majority of the boards are currently configured. The discussion boards are mostly the blind leading the blind and there is too much noise and too little value. Perhaps the discussion boards could be divided by geographic location or level of education. I’d be interested in a discussion board of MOOC users in middle Tennessee (perhaps the group would meet in person once or twice) or in a discussion board of academics from around the world. Perhaps they could still have the “all-comers” discussion board for those who wanted to engage with the entire class, but I would have found a more limited and selected group to be more useful.
Next week, I will talk about MOOCs v. In-Person Courses. The New York Times recently looked at this issue in the context of Harvard Business School; I will dig into the issue and the article next week.
Friday, May 30, 2014
Last year, Harvard Business School Professor Clayton Christensen said “15 years from now half of US universities may be in bankruptcy.”
So, I guess half of our schools have about 14 more years to go, according to Christensen.
At least part of the reason for Clayton Christensen’s prediction is the rise of online education, including so-called “massive open online courses” or “MOOCs.”
Recently, I completed a few MOOCs, mostly because I wanted to learn about MOOCs first-hand. I also picked subjects that interested me.
The courses I took were:
I will share some of my thoughts on MOOCs during my normal Friday posting slot, in three installments: (1) Effective MOOCs? (2) MOOCs v. In-Person Courses, and (3) MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education.
Tuesday, May 27, 2014
A New York Times article this weekend explained that many U.S. Supreme Court decisions are altered after they have been published, sometimes quickly and other times much later. Article author Adam Liptak explains:
The Supreme Court has been quietly revising its decisions years after they were issued, altering the law of the land without public notice. The revisions include “truly substantive changes in factual statements and legal reasoning,” said Richard J. Lazarus, a law professor at Harvard and the author of a new study examining the phenomenon.
The court can act quickly, as when Justice Antonin Scalia last month corrected an embarrassing error in a dissent in a case involving the Environmental Protection Agency.
But most changes are neither prompt nor publicized, and the court’s secretive editing process has led judges and law professors astray, causing them to rely on passages that were later scrubbed from the official record.
I have followed this particular change because of my interest in the EPA case, but I suspect this article is the first many people had heard of it. It makes some sense that articles would be fixed before going to final print, but the idea that opinions have been changed years later is rather remarkable to me, especially without some sort of formal notice. Now that we all know they can go back and fix opinions, though, I have one I’d like the court to revisit.
In 1992, the court heard Quill v. North Dakota, 504 U.S. 298, deciding that a state may not impose a tax collection obligation on a business that lacks a physical presence in the state. The court noted, though, that Congress could change that reality with legislation. In Quill, in declining to apply a bright-line rule, the court referred to an energy law case, Public Utils. Comm’n of R.I. v. Attleboro Steam & Elec. Co., 273 U.S. 83 (1927).
In Attleboro, that Court determined that a Rhode Island Commission order allowing an electricity seller to increase its price in a wholesale electric requirements contract between a Rhode Island utility (seller) and a Massachusetts utility (buyer) “place[d] a direct burden upon interstate commerce.” Id. at 84. The Court stated that neither state could regulate the interstate transaction because such regulation was only permissible at the federal level. This decision led Congress to pass the Federal Power Act (FPA), which was created (in part) to close what was dubbed the “Attleboro Gap.”
The U.S. Supreme Court has confirmed this more than once:
[T]he original FPA did a great deal more than close the gap in state power identified in Attleboro. The FPA authorized federal regulation not only of wholesale sales that had been beyond the reach of state power, but also the regulation of wholesale sales that had been previously subject to state regulation.”
New York v. FERC, 535 U.S. 1, 20-21 (2002) (citing Attleboro).
Similarly, in another case, the Court stated that the FPA
intended to “fill the gap”—the phrase is repeated many times in the hearings, congressional debates and contemporary literature—left by Attleboro in utility regulation. Congress interpreted that case as prohibiting state control of wholesale rates in interstate commerce for resale, and so armed the Federal Power Commission with precisely that power.
United States v. Public Utils. Comm’n of Cal., 345 U.S. 295, 307-08 (1953). (For a detailed description of Attleboro’s history, see Frank R. Lindh & Thomas W. Bone Jr.’s Energy Law Journal article, State Jurisdiction Over Distributed Generators (pdf here).
Returning to the Quill case, there Court stated:
Attleboro distinguished between state regulation of wholesale sales of electricity, which was constitutional as an "indirect" regulation of interstate commerce, and state regulation of retail sales of electricity, which was unconstitutional as a "direct regulation" of commerce.
Id. at 317. As I see it, this statement is wrong, though I admit I find this exerpt useful for getting students to discuss these concepts in Energy Law. Again, Attelboro held that direct regulation of retail sales was permissible, but that the regulation of interstate wholesale rates was not permissible by either state. As the cases above show, Quill did not change the state of the law, but Quill still mischaraterizes the law of Attleboro. So, this is my request: Should any Supreme Court Justices or their clerks (or others who can help) be reading the Business Law Prof Blog, please consider putting pen to paper and cleaning up Quill. Or, as Oscar Rogers likes to say, "Fix it!"
Tuesday, May 20, 2014
The New York Times ran two articles this week about administrator and executive pay that struck a chord with me. One piece was about a new report linking student debt and highly paid university leaders. The article discusses a study, “The One Percent at State U: How University Presidents Profit from Rising Student Debt and Low-Wage Faculty Labor.” The study reviewed “the relationship between executive pay, student debt and low-wage faculty labor at the 25 top-paying public universities.”
Then-Ohio State President E. Gordon Gee was the highest-paid public university president for the time period review. The study found that
Ohio State was No. 1 on the list of what it called the most unequal public universities. The report found that from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2012, Ohio State paid Mr. Gee a total of $5.9 million. [$2.95 million per year.] During the same period, it said, the university hired 670 new administrators, 498 contingent and part-time faculty — and 45 permanent faculty members. Student debt at Ohio State grew 23 percent faster than the national average during that time, the report found.
[In the interest of full disclosure, I should note that President Gee is the president of my institution, for the second time, and he’s my neighbor. He also makes considerably less money here.]
The other article was about the health care industry, titled: Medicine’s Top Earners Are Not the M.D.s. That article reports that doctors, “the most highly trained members in the industry’s work force,” are in the middle of the pay scale for medical salaries. The article explains:
That is because the biggest bucks are currently earned not through the delivery of care, but from overseeing the business of medicine.
The base pay of insurance executives, hospital executives and even hospital administrators often far outstrips doctors’ salaries, according to an analysis performed for The New York Times by Compdata Surveys: $584,000 on average for an insurance chief executive officer, $386,000 for a hospital C.E.O. and $237,000 for a hospital administrator, compared with $306,000 for a surgeon and $185,000 for a general doctor.
And those numbers almost certainly understate the payment gap, since top executives frequently earn the bulk of their income in nonsalary compensation.
Is there a place where it isn't the case that administrators make more than those actually carrying out the endeavor? Maybe sports and entertainment, to a degree. There has been a significant change in those areas over the past 30 or so years. Owners (and production entities) often still make tons of money, but top player salaries often dwarf those of key executives, coaches, and managers. That was not always the case. Take the NBA for example. The average NBA salary in 1970 was $35,000 (equal to about $207,000 today.) Today’s average salary: $5 million. Actors and musicians take home a lot more than they used to, also, at least among those at the top.
I am not one to bash educational administrators. I have been one, so that may be part of it, but even before that, I appreciated that there are things that need to happen to deliver the full educational experience that are not part of the classroom. Still, it also seems that the number of people who are there to support the delivery of services, like education and medicine, continue to grow at an absurd rate. Even counting contingent and part-time faculty, Ohio State hired more than 1.23 new administrators for every new teacher in the test period.
Law faculty members can legitimately disagree about the best way to educate law students. But our goal should be to provide the best education we can, within the cost constraints we face. If professors at some law schools don’t take that responsibility seriously, we might lose students to schools focusing more on enrollment than education. If so, it’s sad for the profession, but at least we’ll go down fighting for what we know is right.
The same is true at the administrative level in law schools. We should commit to allocating resources to administrative support that supports the educational process of preparing students for practice and for ensuring students actually get to practice, if that is what they seek. This is often true for areas like career services, bar passage, and experiential learning. We should be educating students to be able to be good lawyers and sound professionals, but we also need to help ensure they have things they need to practice (e.g., bar admission) and the ability to practice (i.e., a job).
Sometimes that means new administrators in new or expanded roles, but that may mean reallocating resources from one area to another rather than adding new roles. The challenge, of course, is knowing whether the new administrative hires are delivering services that our students need or are they jobs that are serving the institution at the expense of our students. All institutions need to make a serious attempt to answer that question because it's not just about the number of administrators. It's also about what those administrators do.
Doing what’s right for our students is not always the same as doing what they want. Still, as faculty and administrators, we also need to be clear that doing what we want is often not the same as doing what is best for our students.
Thursday, May 15, 2014
1) I was not the only person who went to law school because I was terrified of math and accounting. Many of my students did too, which made teaching this required course much harder even after I explained to them how much accounting I actually had to understand as a litigator and in-house counsel.
2) I will always make class participation count toward the grade. Apparently paying tens of thousands of dollars a year for an education is not enough to make some students read their extremely expensive textbooks. A 20% class participation grade is a great incentive. Similarly, I will never allow laptops in the classroom. The subject matter is tough enough without the distraction of Instagram, Facebook and buying shoes on Zappos.
3) Students come to a required course with a wide range of backgrounds- some have never written a check and others have traded in stocks since they were teenagers and use Bitcoin. Teaching to the middle is essential.
4) As I suspected, when students are allowed to use an outline for an exam, they won't study as hard or as thoroughly, and I will grade harder.
5) Never underestimate how little many students know about the basics of how businesses operate. No matter how smart they are, many students have simply had no exposure to any kind of business. For some of them it's almost like taking civil procedure all over again in terms of difficulty. (I taught that for the first time too).
6) Balanced public policy discussions can get even the quietest students to participate. On the last day of class we debated the purpose of the corporation using benefit corporations, Citizens United and Hobby Lobby as vehicles for discussion. They did all of the readings and watched the assigned videos for class, leading to some of the richest discussion of the year.
7) Law students say they hate to work in groups, but many of them thrive and take leadership roles they wouldn't normally assume, especially when they know that this work also counts toward their class participation grade. They also learn to take risks in small group discussion that they might not normally take in front of the whole class.
8) Using a game for a review works really well. I used a modified Jeopardy format and allowed groups to work in teams. The competitive nature of the students came out and it also provided a more interesting and lively review than the standard lecture.
9) It's really important to match your textbook to teaching style, learning objectives and type of student.
10) Even the most "terrified" law student can learn to like business associations. I have had several students email me to say they miss the course because they have no one with whom to discuss current business issues. That warms my heart.
There are a number of things I will change next semester. I'm looking forward to learning from more seasoned business law professors at the Emory Conference on Teaching Transactional Law in 2 weeks.