Tuesday, July 22, 2014
You may think of Warren Buffett as a savvy stock picker but his greater accomplishment is in configuring an exceptionally strong corporation that defies widespread conceptions of effective corproate governance.
Since early in his career, Buffett adopted what he calls the double-barreled approach to capital allocation, meaning both stock picking and business buying. He gained prominence primarily as an investor in stocks, championing a contrarian investment philosophy.
Attracting three generations of devoted followers to a school of thought called “value investing,” he doubted the market’s efficiency and deftly exploited it. Buffett bought stocks of good companies at a fair price, assembling a concentrated portfolio of large stakes in a small number of firms. Today, nearly three-fourths of Berkshire’s stock portfolio consists of just seven stocks.
But late in his career, beginning around 2000, Buffett shot more often through the other half of his double-barreled approach: buying 100 percent of companies run by trusted managers given great autonomy. True, Berkshire early on bought all the stock of companies such as Buffalo News and See’s Candies. But, through the 1990s, the first barrel dominated, with Berkshire consisting 80 percent of stocks and 20 percent owned companies. That mix gradually reversed and recently flipped, making subsidiary ownership the defining characteristic of today’s Berkshire.
Owning primarily subsidiaries rather than merely stocks gives Berkshire a different shape compared to its previous character as the holding company of a famed investor. After all, even for a buy-and-hold investor, stocks come and go. Berkshire has sold the stocks of many once-fine companies, including Freddie Mac, McDonald’s, and The Walt Disney Company.
In contrast, aside from a few Berkshire subsidiaries that it acquired from the Buffett Partnership in the 1970s, Berkshire has never sold a subsidiary and vows to retain them through thick and thin. Despite their variety, moreover, Berkshire companies are remarkably similar when it comes to corporate culture, which is the central discovery I document and elaborate in my upcoming book, Berkshire Beyond Buffett: The Enduring Value of Values.
When Berkshire consisted mostly of the stock portfolio of a famed stock picker, you could expect that, once that investor departed, the portfolio would naturally be unwound and the company dissolved. Now, however, with Berkshire made of companies not stocks, its life expectancy stretches out in multiple decades, not mere years. It certainly goes beyond the stock picker who founded it. That's not an accident either, as the dominant cultural motif at Berkshire and its subsidiaries is a sense of permanence--the longest possible time horizon imaginable.
Monday, July 21, 2014
A couple of weeks ago, I posted a review of an article on mutual fund fee litigation. In my post, I apologized for reviewing the article “late.”
I thought about the use of the word “late” after I posted. The article has been available on SSRN, the Social Science Research Network, since March, but it has not yet been published in a law review. But, in the world of blogs and instant access to everything, waiting until publication in print truly is late.
Most legal articles are now posted on SSRN as soon as they are finished, and I, like many other law professors, don’t wait until publication to read articles in my areas of interest. I pull those articles straight off SSRN. SSRN helpfully provides subject-specific emails with abstracts and links to newly posted articles.
My first crowdfunding article had hundreds of downloads before it appeared in print. It came out in a law review at almost the same time the final crowdfunding bill passed Congress; if I had not posted it on SSRN, it would have had no chance to affect the debate. (I’m not sure it had much effect anyway. The drafters of the final bill may have heard some of the notes of my composition, but they certainly missed the melody.)
So, in a world where articles are publicly available and read long before they appear in law reviews, what exactly is the value of law reviews? Most of their content is stale by the time it’s published.
Law reviews as filters
Law reviews certainly don’t do much to filter “unworthy” publications. Law reviews have proliferated to the point that almost anything can be published in a law review somewhere.
Law reviews as signals of quality
The law review in which an article appears may signal the article’s quality; if so, that signal usually comes too late. By the time an article appears in print, I and many others have already decided whether to read it. And reading an article’s abstract and introduction usually provides a much better sense of its quality than the journal name attached to it. Faculty members and expert practitioners are much better judges of the quality of articles in our fields than a student editor without significant expertise in the area. I know this is heresy, but even Harvard and Yale sometimes publish crap.
Law review placement also shouldn’t be used as a quality signal in evaluating untenured faculty members. Tenured faculty members who cede judgments of quality to second and third year law students, even the law review editors at prestigious law schools, aren’t doing their job.
Law reviews as editors
Law reviews provide editing, but, in my experience, that editing is as likely to reduce the quality of an article as to improve it. I can think of several instances where student editing made my article marginally better—including one brilliant addition to a footnote in a humorous article I wrote. (Thank you, Northwestern Law Review editors.) But I can also think of several edits inserted at the last minute without my approval that made articles significantly worse. I can’t think of a single instance where student editing kept me from making a serious substantive mistake.
Law reviews and accessibility
Once articles are published in law reviews, they’re available on Westlaw and Lexis, and thus more broadly accessible. But there’s no reason why availability needs to be tied to law review publication. If law reviews didn’t exist, Westlaw and Lexis would find a way to tie into the SSRN system. Or the free, publicly available SSRN system might eventually supplant Westlaw and Lexis, at least for law review articles.
Law review as an educational experience
I have been focusing on the needs of authors and readers. But what about the student editors? Don’t law reviews provide them with a valuable educational experience?
I see little value in educating students in the fine minutiae of Bluebook citation form, and most actual editing is done by students with little or no professional instruction or supervision. Advanced courses in writing, editing, and legal research could provide better instruction more efficiently.
So I repeat—what’s the value of law reviews?
As I promised on Friday, I am posting a question and answer segment with Larry Cunningham, author of the forthcoming book: Berkshire Beyond Buffett: The Enduring Value of Values. Larry will be guest blogging with us this week to talk more about the interesting findings he shares in the book and their implications for business and the research, teaching, and practice of business law.
Q: Why did you write this book and what did you find?
A: Widespread praise for Warren Buffett has become paradoxical: Buffett set out to build a permanent institution at Berkshire Hathaway and yet even great admirers, such as Steven Davidoff, doubt that the company can survive without him. I found that viewpoint intriguing since companies who are identified with iconic founders often have trouble after a succession, as Tom Lin has written. I wanted to investigate how the situation will look for Berkshire after Buffett leaves the scene, collapse and breakup or prosperity coupled with continued expansion? What I found was a culture so distinctive and strong, that the company’s future is bright well beyond Buffett.
Q: How did you reach that conclusion? What was your research method?
A: I focused on Berkshire’s fifty operating subsidiaries, which define the company today, representing 80 percent of its value. Incidentally, that is a flip from decades passed, when 80 percent of Berkshire’s value resided in minority stock investments. I began with Buffett’s historical statements about those subsidiaries and Berkshire’s corporate culture, research that in some ways dates to the 1997 Cardozo Law Review symposium I hosted on Buffett’s shareholder letters, which developed into my book, The Essays of Warren Buffett: Lessons for Corporate America. Still, for this project, focusing on the subsidiaries, I gathered and studied specific information about each—biographies, autobiographies, research reports, encyclopedic entries, press releases, public filings. Then, with Buffett’s permission, I surveyed all current Berkshire subsidiary chief executives and interviewed many, along with former managers and large shareholders of subsidiaries. In addition, I surveyed a large number of Berkshire shareholders to gain additional insight and to make sure I was asking the right questions.
Q: What culture did you find, what common traits do the subsidiaries share?
A: That’s the striking discovery. As I profiled each subsidiary, a pattern emerged in which the same traits began to appear repeatedly, nine altogether, including budget-consciousness, earnestness, kinship, entrepreneurship, autonomy, and a sense of permanence. Not every subsidiary had all nine, but many did, and the vast majority manifested at least five or six of the nine. A portrait of Berkshire culture crystalized, one that is distinctive and durable. And that culture, I argue in the book, will allow the company to thrive even after Buffett’s departure.
The discovery is suggested by the book’s subtitle: The Enduring Value of Values. “Value of values” refers to how the traits that bind Berkshire’s subsidiaries all share a common feature: all are intangible virtues that managers transform into economic gain. The most general manifestation of the “value of values” occurs in business acquisitions when the exchange of economic values measured using traditional standards leaves a wide gap—a price higher or lower than economic value.
A salient example from Berkshire’s history concerns Bill Child, patriarch of his family home furnishings company, RC Willey. He sold the company to Berkshire for $175 million, declining rival offers as high as $200 million. Why? Because his family valued the managerial autonomy and sense of permanence that define Berkshire culture.
The book contains more than one hundred examples of myriad ways that Berkshire subsidiaries translate intangible qualities into economic value, whether in research & development, customer service, employee compensation and benefits, corporate finance, or internal policies and practices.
Q: What makes the value of values enduring?
A: By reaping returns on capital from intangible virtues, Berkshire practices a philosophy of capitalism that does well by doing good, is sensitive but unsentimental, lofty yet pragmatic, and public-spirited but profitable. This attitude is neither altruistic nor moralistic, but practical, economic, and long-term. It’s a way of doing business that matches today’s zeitgeist, with its sense of stewardship and fair play, and also has a timeless horizon, as business leaders from Robert Mondavi to John Mackey of Whole Foods champion variations on these themes.
Q: What is the audience for the book?
A: Everyone involved in shaping American business: managers, entrepreneurs, owners, shareholders, directors, policymakers, scholars of corporate stewardship—and business lawyers and business law professors, of course. It’s a broad audience because Berkshire’s approach is distinctive but not inimitable and valuable yet underappreciated.
Q: What surprises did you find?
A: Many, mostly concerning the various subsidiaries, but several rising to the level of Buffett and Berkshire. As a recent headline in USA Today put it, “New Book Rewrites Buffett Legacy in Three Ways.” The book explains why Buffett’s place in American history is even more significant than currently assumed. Besides being a “legendary investor,” as he is often identified by journalists, Buffett has built a formidable corporation, demonstrated unsung managerial prowess, and chartered a course for American capitalism that widens the meaning of “value investing.”
While everyone knows that Buffett owes a lot to Ben Graham, his investments teacher at Columbia Business School, this book also makes clear his debt on the management side to Tom Murphy, the legendary corporate icon and head of ABC who is now a Berkshire director. When I asked Buffett who should write the foreword to this book, he instantly suggested Tom, and I’m grateful that Tom accepted the invitation—his foreword alone is worth the price of the book!
Q: Care to give us a thumbnail sketch of the book’s outline?
A: Sure. The opening chapters cover Berkshire’s origins and foundations, with surprises even for those most familiar with this terrain, including rich connections between Berkshire’s early acquisitions and the conglomerate today. While Berkshire appears vast, diverse, and sprawling, this synthesis of corporate culture shows instead a close-knit organization linked by discrete values.
The middle chapters, the heart of the book, take a series of deep dives into fifty Berkshire subsidiaries to illuminate each of the traits and how they give Berkshire its identity and destiny. I was delighted that, when circulating the manuscript for comment among Berkshire devotees, even the most avid readers found new facts, fresh insights, and a whole new way of thinking not only about Berkshire but about Buffett.
The closing chapters reflect on what Berkshire’s corporate culture means for Buffett’s legacy. They explore the elaborate succession plan at Berkshire, which most people misunderstand, and identify challenges Berkshire will face. I also draw specific lessons for investors, managers, and entrepreneurs who can benefit from Berkshire’s distinctive approach—lessons that business lawyers and policymakers will want to learn as well.
Q: Can Berkshire Beyond Buffett be assigned for any university classes?
A: Yes, and I think it will be a good companion to The Essays of Warren Buffett, which has been adopted at many law and business schools for courses on corporate governance, investments (portfolio management), and mergers & acquisitions. This book would suit those courses as well as courses in business ethics and corporate social responsibility. I am planning a seminar next spring in which these two books will be on the reading list, along with other contemporary books offering fresh examinations of venerable themes, such as Eric Orts’ Business Persons; Lynn Stout’s Shareholder Value Myth; or Curtis Milhaupt & Katharine Pistor’s Law & Capitalism.
Q: Berkshire Beyond Buffett appears to be full of lessons and important principles. Which do you propose to explore for us during the coming week?
A: I’m looking forward to sharing insights on topics such as corporate governance, corporate purpose, and succession planning. Among the book’s many lessons, these will likely be of greatest interest to readers of the Business Law Prof Blog, and I thank you for the opportunity to introduce the book and these themes here this week.
Q: Thanks so much, Larry. Those certainly are all topics that interest me (and infuse my ongoing scholarship and teaching). I look forward to your posts this week.
A: You're welcome. I am grateful for the opportunity to share what I have learned.
Sunday, July 20, 2014
All of us here at the Business Law Prof Blog join all those inside and outside the legal blogging community who are today mourning the loss of Dan Markel. Our thoughts and prayers go out to all the loved ones he left behind.
From PrawfsBlawg (here):
We Have Lost Our Beloved Friend, Dan Markel
We write this together, all of us, as a community. Our friend Dan Markel has been taken from us, suddenly and terribly. His law school, the Florida State University College of Law, will issue an announcement in due time. We do not have all the details, but our understanding is that Dan was shot and killed. Painful as it is to say that, and as little as we know, the early news reports left enough room for speculation that it seemed necessary to say that much. The terrible, senseless nature of his loss makes it all the harder to bear.
All of us here on Prawfsblawg live in different places and come from different backgrounds. What we have in common, with many others, is Dan. His network of friends and loved ones--and he had a great deal of love for all his many friends, as we did and do for him--is enormous. His boundless energy was at the center of this community; it made it run, it gave it life. We are stunned and bereaved by his loss, and our thoughts go to his two little boys, who were precious to him, and to his family. Many, many people loved him and are grieving today. Baruch dayan emet.
Saturday, July 19, 2014
As Haskell Murray previously noted, after Justice Jack Jacobs of the Delaware Supreme Court announced his retirement, Governor Jack Markell quickly nominated a replacement – Karen Valihura – who would be only the second woman justice in the Court’s history. Valihura was confirmed on June 25.
But shortly after Justice Valihura’s nomination was announced, Justice Carolyn Berger – Delaware’s first woman justice – announced her own retirement. Subsequently, Justice Berger stated that she was retiring because Governor Markell had not taken her seriously as an applicant for the Chief Justice slot, which was eventually filled by Leo Strine. She further stated that women face an uneven playing field in judicial nominations in Delaware.
I won’t even begin to speculate about the truth behind Justice Berger’s comments, but I will say that these issues highlight, for me, the extremely problematic nature of Delaware’s dominance in shaping the nation’s corporate law. Most public companies are incorporated in Delaware; companies reincorporate in Delaware when they expect to undergo large transactions likely to be challenged by shareholders, and other states tend to follow Delaware’s lead when interpreting their own law. (In response to a claim that Delaware is only one state, Stephen Bainbridge rejoined with "Which, in context, is sort of like saying Delaware is only one 800-pound gorilla.")
It’s an old issue, and scholars have extensively debated the substantive merits of Delaware’s law. But my concern is a democratic one: I am deeply troubled by the suggestion that sexism may play a role in who gets nominated to such an important court (which I take to be Justice Berger's implication), but I don’t get a vote in Delaware. I have no voice. Even though Delaware’s law has national implications, and its judiciary is incredibly important in shaping national policy, I cannot express my views at the ballot box.
The importance of Delaware’s corporate law is even more apparent in light of decisions like Citizens United and Hobby Lobby. As Elizabeth Pollman observed, the Supreme Court seems to be placing a lot of weight on the mechanisms of state corporate law, and shareholder democracy, to decide complex political and moral issues.
For example, shareholder voting mechanisms, the Court is confident, will control corporate speech, including campaign donations. State corporate law may decide whether a director does – or does not – violate fiduciary duties to the corporation when he places religious concerns among profit motive (assuming, of course, that the First Amendment does not mandate a particular outcome). State corporate law may decide required disclosures regarding the religious attitudes and intentions of controlling shareholders.
The Supreme Court has delegated these decisions to the states – and in no small part, that means to Delaware, which houses about 3% 0.3% of the nation’s population.*
If Delaware is going to have that kind of power, I want a vote.
*that'll teach me to do math on Saturdays
Friday, July 18, 2014
At the risk of overdoing what may have been a good thing, I contributed a disclosure-oriented post to the Hobby Lobby symposium on The Conglomerate earlier today. It includes new information about a U.S. Department of Labor Q&A posted yesterday, among other things. Enjoy or not, as you so please . . . .
The Business Law Prof Blog is delighted to have as a guest blogger next week our friend and colleague Lawrence A. Cunningham (known to me as Larry!), of George Washington University Law School, who has just finished writing a new book being released in October called Berkshire Beyond Buffett: The Enduring Value of Values. He will offer a few posts about aspects of the book during the week. We will kick it off Monday with some questions and answers.
Larry is the Henry St. George Tucker III Research Professor at GW. He teaches accounting, contracts, and corporate governance and has written extensively in all those areas. He previously taught at Boston College Law School, where he served a term as Academic Dean, and Cardozo Law School, where he directed the Samuel and Ronnie Heyman Center on Corporate Governance.
Among his most cited articles are these scholarly jewels:
The Sarbanes-Oxley Yawn Heavy Rhetoric, Light Reform (And it Might Just Work) (Connecticut Law Review, 2003)
All are great reads. Among his most notable books other than Berkshire Beyond Buffett (which is sure to be a hit!) are the following:
The Essays of Warren Buffett: Lessons for Corporate America (self-published and distributed by Carolina Academic Press, 3d ed. 2013)
Contracts in the Real World: Stories of Popular Contracts and Why They Matter (Cambridge University Press, 2012)
Berkshire Beyond Buffett is now in the production and pre-ordering phase, garnering early attention among readers in both the investing and corporate governance communities, including: The Motley Fool (which also posted a written interview and video interviews here, here, here, and here); BeyondProxy; and USA Today. We look forward to our Q&A with Larry next week followed by his posts!
James Woulfe, who was involved in the legislative process around Connecticut benefit corporations, and I have had a number of interesting conversations about social enterprise law over the past few years. Recently, I asked James to share his thoughts on the new Connecticut benefit corporation law for the blog. His contribution is below.
After two previous tries, Connecticut recently became the 24th state in the Union to pass benefit corporation legislation. While some may argue that the fact it took Connecticut so long to pass the bill is a sign of problems with the legislature, our state’s business climate, etc., coming a little late to the game was actually an asset. Waiting to pass the legislation gave lawmakers an opportunity to take a look at national and international trends in social enterprise legal structures, and experiment. As a result, Connecticut tweaked the “model” benefit corporation legislation passed in other states, and included an innovative first in the nation clause in Connecticut’s statute, called a “legacy preservation provision.”
Connecticut’s legacy preservation provision gives social entrepreneurs the opportunity to preserve their company’s status as a benefit corporation in perpetuity, despite changes in company leadership or ownership. In other words, the (optional) provision locks in the company’s social or environmental mission as a fundamental part of its legal operating structure. The provision may be adopted following a waiting period of two years and unanimous approval from all shareholders, regardless of their voting rights. Once the provision is adopted, it requires the company, if liquidated, to distribute all assets after the settling of debts to one or more benefit corporations or 501(c)3 organizations with similar social missions.
To learn more about Connecticut’s benefit corporation statute, and to take a look at the specific language of the legacy preservation provision, you can visit CTBenefitCorp.com.
About the Author:
James Woulfe is the Public Policy and Impact Investing Specialist at reSET - Social Enterprise Trust, a Hartford, Connecticut-based 501(c)3 non-profit organization whose mission is to promote, preserve and protect social enterprise as a viable concept and a business reality. You can contact James at Jwoulfe@socialenterprisetrust.org.
Cross-posted at SocEntLaw.
Thursday, July 17, 2014
Anne Tucker recently blogged about the relationship between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance. She discussed the 2009 article “Does it Pay to Be Good?” in which the authors found a small positive effect on financial performance based upon a meta-analysis of 251 effects in 214 manuscripts.
In the course of my summer research, I came across a 2014 working paper entitled "Everybody's Talking But is Anybody Listening? Stock Market Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility Communications.” Professors Kun Yu, Shuili Du and C.B. Bhattacharya assert that theirs is the first to examine whether and how the stock market reacts to voluntary non-financial disclosure, namely stand-alone CSR reports. They conclude that non-financial CSR reports “play a critical role in supplementing firm financial disclosure and enhancing information transparency to investors and other important stakeholders.”
For those who aren’t familiar with CSR reports, they typically include information about firm performance in human resources, the environment, corporate governance, suppliers, customers, community engagement, and other relevant factors. Examples of some good CSR reports are here. The study’s sample size consisted of Fortune 500 companies that released CSR reports between 2005-2011-- 139 firms with 328 release dates during the relevant period.
The authors note that although many CEOs believe that investors do not care about CSR, 722 institutional investors representing $87 trillion in assets use data from the Carbon Disclosure Project, which examines environmental performance. Additionally, whether or not CEOs think they have value, over 5500 companies issued CSR reports in 2011, even though the authors acknowledge that stakeholder awareness of these reports is generally low.
The authors cite studies indicating that benefits of releasing stand-alone CSR reports include: enhancing relationships with customers and employees; cultivating research and innovations; reducing employee recruitment, retention and training costs; attracting and keeping customers; and preempting government regulation. Durable manufacturing firms released the most CSR reports followed by the food and retail industry. Mining and construction issued the fewest. Notably, ExxonMobil, Walmart and Tyson Foods had the lowest CSR scores based upon the authors’ stated methodology and Texas Instruments, Xerox, Proctor & Gamble and Gap scored the highest. The authors also concluded that smaller firms would likely reap the most benefits from issuing CSR reports, perhaps because larger firms regularly interact with their institutional investors and may share information with them more often and on more subjects.
Many of us have blogged on this site about “disclosure overload” and the need for reform (see here, here, here, and here for example). This article shows that many investors value non-mandatory disclosures.
The abstract for this article is below:
This research investigates stock market reactions to corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications, specifically, the release of standalone CSR reports. We develop and test a theoretical framework predicting that (1) CSR performance drives abnormal stock returns to the release of a firm’s CSR report, (2) information environment and R&D moderate the positive relationship between abnormal returns and CSR performance, and (3) CSR reporting enhances the value relevance (i.e., helps predict firm value) of CSR performance. Based on a large-scale secondary dataset, the results show support for this framework. Specifically, the positive association between abnormal returns and CSR performance is stronger for firms in a weak information environment, suggesting that investors of these firms rely more on CSR reports to incorporate CSR performance information in the stock price revaluation. The positive relationship between abnormal returns and CSR performance is stronger for firms with high R&D, indicating that R&D enhances the business value of CSR. Our results offer important implications for CSR theory and practices.
Wednesday, July 16, 2014
I recently received notice of a legal studies position opening at Texas A&M University-Central Texas. Their needs include a professor who can teach the general business law course (legal environment), as well as employment and labor law courses.
More information, from the school, is available after the break.
Below is the information that I received this morning regarding a one-year Visiting Distinguished Service Faculty in Business Law position at the Opus College of Business at the University of St. Thomas (MN). In April, I spoke at a social enterprise conference at the school and was quite impressed with the facilities, faculty members, and students.
The Department of Ethics & Business Law in the Opus College of Business at the University of St. Thomas has an opening for a one-year position as a Visiting Distinguished Service Faculty in Business Law, for the 2014-15 academic year. This position will involve teaching three courses (including International Business Law) each semester. To apply (and for more information about this position), visit this site: https://facultyemployment-stthomas.icims.com/jobs/1252/visiting-distinguished-service-faculty-in-business-law/job, and submit an online application (two letters of recommendation to be sent separately). Additional questions can be directed to the search committee chair, Dale Thompson (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Like my co-editor, Haskell Murray, I am participating in an on line symposium on Hobby Lobby over at the Conglomerate. My piece focuses on the boundaries set (or left open) by the opinion and raises this new issue:
The Court framed the case as an “important question of religion and moral philosophy, namely, the circumstances under which it is immoral for a person to perform an act that is innocent in itself but hat has the effect of enabling or facilitating the commission of an import act by another.” The corporate plaintiff didn’t have to violate its beliefs (that feels like an absurd statement), but taking an action that permitted a third party employee to possibly violate the beliefs of the corporation was a sufficient burden. This is also ignores that the contraceptives at issue could be used for medical reasons unrelated to lifestyle choices. Here is where I struggle the most with the reasoning of the Majority. Employers pay employees subject to minimum wage laws. Employers have no guarantee that the employees will use the compensation in a manner consistent with the employer’s religious views. Why is it different when the compensation comes in the form of employer-provided health benefits, which is a form of compensation?
Today I am highlighting a very interesting economics article exploring the relationship between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance.
Scholars have been searching for a link between corporate social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP) for thirty-five years. If only doing good could be connected to doing well, then companies might be persuaded to act more conscientiously, whether in cleaning up their own questionable conduct (Campbell, 2006) or in redressing societal ills (Porter & Kramer, 2006). A positive link between social and financial performance would legitimize corporate social performance on economic grounds, grounds that matter so much these days (Useem, 1996). It would license companies to pursue the good—even incurring additional costs—in order to enhance their bottom line and at the same time contribute more broadly to the well-being of society.
In DOES IT PAY TO BE GOOD?, three economists (Joshua Margolis, HIllary Anger Elfenbein, and James P. Walsh) perform a meta analysis of 251 effects in over 200 manuscripts to examine the relationship between CSP and CFP. They find a small positive effect. Most importantly, the articles engages in a rich conversation (and critique) of empirical studies in this area and suggests parameters for future research.
This paper is accessible for non-economists and provides a very interesting discussion on the links between doing well and doing good.
Tuesday, July 15, 2014
The Hobby Lobby decision states:
No known understanding of the term "person" includes some but not all corporations. The term "person" sometimes encompasses artificial persons (as the Dictionary Act instructs), and it sometimes is limited to natural persons. But no conceivable definition of the term includes natural persons and nonprofit corporations, but not for-profit corporations. 20 Cf. Clark v. Martinez, 543 U. S. 371 , 378 (2005) ("To give th[e] same words a different meaning for each category would be to invent a statute rather than interpret one").
The decision continues:
Under the Dictionary Act, "the wor[d] 'person' . . . include[s] corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals." Ibid .; see FCC v. AT&T Inc., 562 U.S. ___, ___ (2011) (slip op., at 6) ("We have no doubt that 'person,' in a legal setting, often refers to artificial entities. The Dictionary Act makes that clear"). Thus, unless there is something about the RFRA context that "indicates otherwise," the Dictionary Act provides a quick, clear, and affirmative answer to the question whether the companies involved in these cases may be heard.
Thus, unless otherwise stated, any place a person can recover claims, so can “corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies.” There are opinions that have distinguished the “fictional person” from the “natural person.” See, e.g., All Comp Const. Co., LLC v. Ford, 999 P.2d 1122, 1123 (Okla. App. Div. 1 2000) (stating that an LLC was a "fictional 'person' for legal purposes and thus any damages due to the LLCs would be "due to it as a fictional person," and thus certain damages were not recoverable because LLCs are not "capable of experiencing emotions such as mental stress and anguish"). RFRA, per Hobby Lobby, though, does not make such a distinction.
As such, it seems to me there are places where federal law uses the term person that might now extend potential recovery to entities for things like pain and suffering or mental anguish. Maybe I am missing something here. Any ideas come to mind? Maybe civil rights laws?
The ripples, it seems, are just beginning.
Monday, July 14, 2014
My post last week spawned more commentary than usual--on the BLPB site and off. So, I am regrouping on the same issue for my post today and plan to push forward a bit on some of the areas of commentary. Also, since The Conglomerate is running a Hobby Lobby symposium this week, I thought it might be nice to offer some thoughts on disclosure up here and (maybe) later chime in at The Conglomerate on this or other issues relating to the Hobby Lobby case later in the week . . . .
My favorite economic fallacy, which the Reason article doesn’t discuss, is the use of multipliers to falsely exaggerate the effect of government spending. Universities tend to do this a lot: “Every taxpayer dollar spent at Enormous State University results in a $50 gain to the state economy.” To justify claims like this, you simply trace the dollars spent through multiple levels. If the university spends $100 to repair a window, that’s $100 of additional business for a local company. That company, in turn, uses the $100 to pay an employee. The employee uses the $100 to buy groceries at a local grocery store. The store then pays the $100 to a local farmer for her produce. The farmer then spends the $100 to buy supplies, etc. We’re already up to a $500 effect, and there’s no need to stop there. If you trace it through a sufficient number of transactions, the effect is enormous, even though it’s still only $100.
Using that same reasoning, it’s obvious that the key to economic recovery is to significantly increase my salary. Each dollar I receive has an enormous effect on the national economy. I use some of the money to buy groceries, gas, books, and a number of other consumer goods, helping to sustain a variety of retailers and service providers. They in turn, use my money to hire employees and buy products from producers, who in turn hire additional employees and buy additional goods and services. The money I don’t spend is put into accounts at banks and mutual funds, which use the money to invest in new and existing businesses, promoting economic growth and facilitating the hiring of additional employees.
Given the enormous multiplier effect paying me has on the economy, the solution to our current economic stagnation is obvious: pay me more.
Sunday, July 13, 2014
"How Hobby Lobby Undermined The Very Idea of a Corporation" http://t.co/Rq4F6LKpCr— Ian Bogost (@ibogost) July 5, 2014
"how the common law has personified the state and how those personifications affect ... state responsibility" http://t.co/faAgRTY8cR— Stefan Padfield (@ProfPadfield) July 10, 2014
ICYMI: "Hosanna-Tabor..appears to [=] religious groups are different from secular groups for constitutional purposes" http://t.co/rydH7PM1zr— Stefan Padfield (@ProfPadfield) July 10, 2014
"a corporation has no purposes..separate from those of the people who own and control it" & the state that created it http://t.co/J157qm2PTK— Stefan Padfield (@ProfPadfield) July 11, 2014
Saturday, July 12, 2014
Since I suspect there is something of an obligation for all corporate law bloggers to weigh in on Hobby Lobby, I offer my thoughts. I admit to some trepidation posting them because (and I blush to confess it) I haven’t been as immersed in the case as most other corporate professors have, so I feel like a bit of an outsider to the debate. So, take these thoughts as coming from someone whose knowledge of the case comes chiefly from, well, the Supreme Court’s opinion.
[More under the cut]
Friday, July 11, 2014
I've updated our business law professors on Twitter list here.
Below are tweets from some of the new additions to the list.
Bankruptcy bedtime stories and what's amazing about law school: http://t.co/VFvzHW2Naw— Stephanie Ben-Ishai (@SBIprof) October 17, 2013
Warren Buffett: The Babe Ruth of Good Business Today http://t.co/1g2UYLc81E— Lawrence Cunningham (@CunninghamProf) July 7, 2014
Oman & Meese offer an "epic take down" http://t.co/ndr8ptb5M1— Nathan B. Oman (@nate_oman) June 3, 2014
A New Business Model (and they make a fine deli sandwich too!) "At Zingerman’s, Pastrami and Partnership to Go" http://t.co/WgRiIXshk8— Len Rotman (@ProfessorRotman) July 7, 2014
Troy University (in Troy, AL) has posted notice of a legal studies professor opening. (Confusingly, the heading of the posts says "assistant/associate professor" and the body of the post says "full-time, tenure-track," but the body of the post also says that the position is for a "lecturer.")
More information at the link above or after the break.