Tuesday, December 24, 2013
This paper is a look back, but it seems appropriate for today. Happy holidays, all! Who Owns the Christmas Trees? - The Disposition of Property Used by a Partnership, by Daniel S. Kleinberger. Abstract:
Two partners form an enterprise. One (the K partner) supplies the assets used by the enterprise. The other partner (the L partner) supplies only labor. When the enterprise ends, the partners disagree about how to divide the property used in the partnership business. The K partner wants his or her property returned. The L partner wants his or her share of the business assets. If some of the property has appreciated while in partnership use, the dispute will be especially complicated. How do the partners divide the value of the property as originally brought into the business? Who benefits from the previously unrealized appreciation?
This Article explores the property allocation issues that arise when the members of a K and L partnership lack a dispositive agreement. In such circumstances the default rules should provide clear guidance, and the Uniform Partnership Act (U.P.A.) seeks to do so. Unfortunately, many of the decided cases misapply or distort the U.P.A. As a body, the decided cases point in three different and mutually exclusive directions. Individually, they often ignore basic principles of partnership law.
This Article takes those basic principles as its lodestar and seeks to determine how the law of partnership should analyze a K and L dispute over property disposition. Part II sets the context for the analysis, introducing partnership law as the applicable law. Part III explains the four basic partnership law concepts necessary to a proper analysis of the Christmas tree paradigm. Part IV describes the three different and mutually exclusive ways that courts have applied partnership concepts to evaluate the courts' incompatible approaches.
The analysis presented in Part IV suggests outcomes that some readers may find unfair. Part V confronts the problem of unfairness and tries to determine why courts find K and L property disputes so troublesome. Part V begins by highlighting some of the unbalanced results produced by strict application of partnership law principles. Part V then explores the rationale behind those principles and suggests that courts sometimes disregard the letter of the law in order to serve that underlying, and largely hidden, rationale. Part V next identifies the philosophical and practical problems that arise when courts disregard the clear letter of the law in favor of hidden rationales and instead twist a generally applicable statute in order to avoid reaching a particular unpalatable result. Part V concludes by offering an approach to the Christmas tree problem that substantially alleviates the unfairness problem while remaining faithful to the law. Part VI exemplifies the suggested approach, using concepts developed in previous Parts to resolve correctly the actual Christmas tree case.