Thursday, February 20, 2014
In a press release today, the European Commission announced that it had adopted a new set of guidelines for Member States to use when assessing their ability to provide financial assistance to local airports or airlines without running afoul of EU competition rules. The new guidelines are designed to restrict subsidies to smaller airports and to phase out those subsidies within ten years. The text of the new guidelines can be found here and a policy summary can be found here.
The Commission also announced today that it had concluded investigations into Berlin's Schonefeld Airport, Denmark's Aarhus Airport, and Marseille Provence Airport in France, finding none of the three to be in violation of the guidelines.
Thursday, January 23, 2014
European Court of Justice Advocate General Yves Bot issued an opinion today declaring that a Spanish law prohibiting carriers from charging additional fees for checked baggage violates Article 22 of EU Regulation 1008/2008 which allows carriers to freely set air fares and rates.
Thursday, January 9, 2014
On January 1, Frankfurt Airport introduced FRAConnect, a program by which the airport will refund portions of carriers' airport charges for airlines that can achieve a 1% increase in passengers served via the airport on international routes, but only if that growth is achieved through the use of aircraft meeting the appropriate noise standards. To be eligible airlines must serve a minimum of 7,500 departing passengers. More details about the program are available here. Frankfurt's program could prove to be a valuable case study in the use of airport charges as an incentive to attract traffic and reduce noise.
Wednesday, January 8, 2014
Tuesday, January 7, 2014
Having returned from the between-semester hiatus, we thought it appropriate to use our first post of 2014 to collect some of the stories that came out while we were on break.
- The FAA announced the selection of six operators that will conduct research on and test unmanned aircraft systems.
- The National Transportation Safety Board has begun investigating Sunday's crash of a Bombardier C-600 in Aspen, Colorado.
- The recent severe cold spell across much of the United States has taken a heavy toll on commercial air transport.
- CNN offers a glimpse of what's ahead for air travel in 2014.
Thursday, December 19, 2013
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, also known as the Murray-Ryan bill, has now passed both chambers of the U.S. Congress and will be signed into law by President Obama. The agreement, which increases the Sept. 11 passenger security fee from $2.50 to $5.60 per one-way trip, represents a failure of airlines' recent lobbying efforts on two fronts. First, U.S. airlines have argued, ineffectively it turns out, that air transport taxes are already too high. Perhaps more importantly, the industry has been pushing the idea that all of the various fees associated with air transport amount to taxes by another name. While primarily semantic in nature, the argument is an important one as Republican negotiators made rejection of tax increases a precondition of negotiations. Thus the ability to classify revenue raised from air transport fees as distinct from tax revenues appears to have played a significant role in how the air transport sector came to be chosen as a place from which to derive budget savings.
It wasn't all bad for the airlines as an underreported provision in the legislation repeals a security fee charged directly to carriers instead of to passengers. And of course, there are those who argue airlines are still getting off easy.
Friday, December 13, 2013
Shortly after the Federal Communications Commission, the agency responsible for regulating mobile wireless voice communication, invited public comment on a proposal to permit the use of in-flight mobile wireless service, the Department of Transportation suggested it may use its own regulatory authority over the airline industry to prohibit cell phone usage on consumer protection grounds. The FCC's proposal would only allow cell phones to be used on aircraft equipped with specialized on-board wireless equipment. Carriers would be free to restrict or prohibit phone use as a matter of corporate policy.
The DOT's authority to act in this area is unclear. Presumably the authority to act would derive from 49 U.S.C. § 40101(a)(9) which authorizes the Secretary of Transportation to prevent "unfair, deceptive, predatory or anticompetitive practices in air transportation." That strikes me as quite a reach on the agency's part. Subpart (a)(12) of the same code section directs the Secretary to rely on competition to "decide the variety and quality of ... air transport services." Cell phone usage appears to fit much more clearly under within this latter description.
Even if the DOT concludes it lacks the authority to regulate the use of cell phones, the matter may not end there. Some legislators have introduced a bill that would grant the DOT the authority it needs to ban phone calls in-flight.
Wednesday, December 11, 2013
On Tuesday, the U.S. Supreme Court heard oral arguments in a case concerning the scope of immunity granted to airlines under the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA). That act shields carriers from civil liability for reports of suspicious activity made to the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). But that immunity does not extend to reports "made with actual knowledge that the disclosure was false, inaccurate, or misleading" or with "reckless disregard as to the truth or falsity of that disclosure."
William Hoeper, a pilot for Air Wisconsin was visibly upset after a failed certification test ended his employment with the airline. He was later that day removed from his return flight by TSA agents after Air Wisconsin reported that Hoeper was armed and unstable. Hoeper successfully sued Air Wisconsin under Colorado law for defamation, infliction of emotional distress and false imprisonment. The question before the court is whether the Wisconsin Airlines' report to the TSA, which appears to have clearly overstated the danger Hoeper represented, satisfies the reckless disregard for the truth standard necessary to pierce Wisconsin Airlines' immunity under the ATSA.
Friday, December 6, 2013
A quick roundup of notable aviation-related developments from around the globe:
- EU adds Nepalese airlines to safety blacklist.
- Russian authorities suspect that pilots in a recent crash may have been flying under fake licenses.
- The LaGuardia landing slots American Airlines agreed to give up as part of its merger approval agreement with the Department of Justice will be purchased by Southwest Airlines and Virgin America.
- Southwest is also ending service to three cities.
- China's declaration of an air defense identification zone over the East China Sea probably warrants its own blog post sometime next week. My initial take is that its implications for civil aviation operations are minor, but this is an interesting demonstration of how air space as a territorial concept, subject to possession and control, remains both important and distinct from how the concept applies to land and sea areas.
- Ongoing U.S. budget negotiations may result in doubling of airline security fees.
Thursday, December 5, 2013
Having had a few days to review Tuesday's oral arguments in Northwest v. Ginsberg, I'm ready to share some initial thoughts. I should begin with a quick overview of the case for anyone who isn't familiar. In 2008 Northwest Airlines informed Ginsberg that he would be denied the privileges accompanying his platinum elite status in the airline's frequent flier program and would lose his accumulated miles because he had abused the program through repeated complaints and requests for upgrades and other compensation. Ginsberg's suit alleging that Northwest actions amounted to a breach of contract was dismissed by the district court, largely because the terms of the frequent flier agreement granted the airline sole discretion over whether a flier's actions warranted expulsion from the program. Ginsberg, had however, put forth an additional claim that Northwest violated the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing recognized under Minnesota common law. This claim was dismissed by the district court which held that such claims were preempted by the Airline Deregulation Act (ADA). On appeal, the Ninth Circuit overruled the district court and ruled that the ADA did not preempt claims brought under the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. It is on this point alone that the Supreme Court heard arguments earlier this week, so there won't be any forthcoming decisions on whether Northwest actually breached its contract or violated an implied covenant. Rather the legal question at issue concerns defining the scope of the ADA's preemptive effect.
The ADA prohibits States from enacting or enforcing laws, regulations or other provisions related to price, routes or services. This issue was last addressed by the Supreme Court in American Airlines v. Wolens, which held that the ADA did not preempt common law contract claims in which a plaintiff is "seeking recovery solely for the airline's alleged breach of it's own self-imposed undertakings."
The first, and easiest conclusion to draw from the oral arguments is that the Supreme Court is likely to issue a reversal of the Ninth Circuit opinion. The Ninth Circuit court attempted to analyze the intent of the ADA, concluding that the law was only intended to preempt the types of direct regulation of prices, routes and services that had been common at the State level prior to the ADA's passage. This conclusion whatever it's merits, is difficult to square with the existing Supreme Court precedent set in Wolens, which ruled the ADA preempted the application of a consumer fraud statute to frequent flier programs because of the resulting effect on airline prices. At oral argument the Supreme Court justices gave no consideration to the Ninth Circuit's narrower interpretation of the ADA's preemptive intent. Instead the justices seemed most concerned with applying the Wolens standard to this case and perhaps articulating a new standard which would arguably broaden the ADA's preemptive effect.
It is that latter question, that is most difficult to predict. What will be the standard for determining ADA preemption going forward? My guess is that it won't be significantly altered from Wolens. Most of the justices, as well as the parties, appeared to agree that implied covenants of good faith and fair dealing would not be preempted if used as merely a tool of contract interpretation within a routine breach of contract claim, but would be preempted in cases where they introduced public policy concerns separate from the terms of the contracting parties' voluntary agreement. Justices Roberts and Breyer sounded the most interested in a new standard with broader preemptive effect. Roberts expressed repeated concern that allowing preemption to be determined on a state-by-state basis depending on whether implied covenants were used as interpretive tools or public policy instruments would undermine the uniformity intended by the ADA. Breyer, who helped create the ADA during his time as counsel for the Senate Judiciary Committee, worried about States' ability to regulate airline prices under the guise of contract law, suggesting that even that area of State law claims left available under Wolens might be too broad.
Finally, despite Wolens and now Ginsberg, there remains a real possibility that this won't be the last time the Supreme Court addresses the ADA's preemptive effect on lawsuits involving frequent flier programs. Multiple justices seemed perplexed by the implications of frequent flier programs' expansion into cross-industry consumer benefits operations, where members can earn and redeem points by using credit cards and hotels unconnected to their use of airline services. The justices sounded inclined to reserve the question as to how far the ADA should be read to preempt claims brought against these programs if they are found to promise contractual benefits more expansive than mere airline price discounts, because the argument was not advanced in Ginsberg's complaint. With a different set of facts, we could be back here again in another ten years.
Wednesday, December 4, 2013
The Supreme Court heard oral arguments in Northwest v. Ginsberg yesterday. At issue is whether the Airline Deregulation Act preempts a passenger's state law claim that the airline violated the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. The full transcript of the oral arguments is available here. SCOTUSblog's case file is an excellent source for background reading on the case. Tomorrow we will post our thoughts and reactions to the oral arguments, and perhaps offer a prediction about the eventual ruling.
Monday, December 2, 2013
The big aviation news item over the weekend was last night's unveiling of Amazon's Prime Air concept, which would utilize unmanned aerial vehicles to deliver packages within 30 minutes. In a pleasant surprise, a fair share of the subsequent reporting has been appropriately skeptical regarding the near-term feasibility of such an enterprise. The FAA roadmap for integrating unmanned vehicles into U.S. domestic airspace doesn't currently envision widespread usage by private commercial actors in the near future, beginning instead with adoption on a limited basis by public entities such as police and fire departments. More importantly, the FAA will likely require the first iteration of civilian drones to be remotely piloted, as opposed to the completely autonomous operation Amazon envisions. So why did Amazon begin promoting a new business concept that faces such significant obstacles before its eventual realization? The most intriguing answer I've seen to that question was put forth by NY Magazine's Kevin Roose, who suggested that Amazon was trying to garner popular enthusiasm for the idea in order to increase public pressure on the FAA not to impede progress. Given public queasiness about drones, its possible such a campaign could backfire if that is indeed Amazon's intent. However, Roose is right to observe that UAV regulation is a largely under-the-radar public policy issue that could only benefit from more public attention. If Prime Air helps to generate that attention, then we should be grateful.
Tuesday, November 19, 2013
Thursday, November 14, 2013
The latest issue of Issues in Aviation Law and Policy is now available. To see a list of articles and authors, please refer to this earlier post. Subscriptions can be ordered through the website of DePaul University's International Aviation Law Institute or by filling out this form.
Tuesday, November 12, 2013
The breaking news this morning is that the U.S. Department of Justice has reached an agreement with American Airlines and US Airways to allow the two carriers to proceed with their proposed merger. The agreement is now pending court approval. The divestitures are fairly extensive compared to the concessions required in previous airline mergers. The airlines will have to sell 104 slots (52 pairs) at Reagan Washington National, 34 (17 pairs) at New York LaGuardia, and two airport gates and the associated ground facilities at each of Boston Logan, Chicago O'Hare, Dallas Love Field, Los Angeles International and Miami International. The slots at Reagan National aren't a surprise, and speculation that a deal would also require slots at LaGuardia grew last week as details of the negotiations leaked out. But the divestitures from non-slot-constrained airports break new ground, though the DOJ has previously recognized that entry can be difficult at even non-slot-constrained hub airports, and cited that as a consideration in its merger analysis. The DOJ, which will have approval authority over the sale of the slots and gates, has expressed a hope that the assets will end up with LCCs such as Southwest and JetBlue.
Thursday, November 7, 2013
Today the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration released a forward-looking set of plans for the integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the nation's airspace. The so-called "roadmap" is intended to inform the public about upcoming regulatory and procedural steps the agency will be taking to enable increased UAS operations over the coming decade. The entire roadmap can be downloaded in pdf form here.
Wednesday, November 6, 2013
Reports of settlement talks between the DOJ and American Airlines and US Airways leaked out earlier this week. It appears to be the government that's pushing the settlement story at the moment, suggesting the DOJ at the very least wants to create a public impression that it made a reasonable attempt to resolve the matter before reaching trial. It's probable that the DOJ actually does want to settle the case, as its prospects of winning in court are highly uncertain. Attorney General Eric Holder's remarks suggest that the DOJ is seeking slot divestitures at Washington Reagan National, which was expected, and at least one other airport, likely New York LaGuardia, which comes as a surprise. Slot divestitures alone would fail to address many of concerns raised in the DOJ complaint, leading to speculation that the merged airline may also be required to continue US Airways' Advantage fares program for a specified duration post-merger.
Wednesday, October 30, 2013
The ongoing controversy over the public revelation that the United States security agencies have been spying on foreign leaders such as German Chancellor Angela Merkel, provides an excellent excuse to share the following excerpt from Jordan A. Schwarz's fine biography of Adolf Berle the president of the 1944 Chicago Conference that produced the Convention on International Civil Aviation. According to Schwarz, compromise between the British and American delegations to Chicago was made more difficult by British awareness that the Americans were intercepting communications between London and the British delegation. From page 250 of Liberal: Adolf A. Berle and the Vision of an American Era:
Yet Beaverbrook knew that London wanted to give Swinton new instructions for compromise, but what he could not say was that London dared not send them because it knew that the Americans were intercepting their messages to Swinton and tapping the telephones. Years later Masefield would recall that "We got totally confused. We had to cover up and reverse ourselves." Beaverbrook did not give Swinton new instructions or advise him of Roosevelt's interest in the Canadian compromise, "Nor could he be told with the Americans listening." London still hoped to bargain around the Canadian compromise and did not want to reveal its flexibility to the Americans. Even Swinton had a hint of the American spying; he later told Beaverbrook that, although he did not show Berle any telegrams from London, "he thought that Mr. Berle was well aware of them. The subject was not pursued any further."
Tuesday, October 29, 2013
The Volume 13, Autumn 2013 issue of the International Aviation Law Institute's journal, Issues in Aviation Law and Policy (IALP) will be available soon. Highlights include a lead commentary from Ruwantissa Abeyratne, recently retired from years of service to ICAO, which provides an unsparing critique of the organization and recommendations for areas in which it can better serve international aviation going forward. Additionally, this issue contains one of the earliest published analyses of the DOJ's challenge to the AMR/US Airways merger and a rare English-language article on the development of civil aviation policy in Kosovo. The full table of contents is as follows:
Ruwantissa Abeyratne, Reinventing ICAO’s Role in Economic Regulation – A Compelling Need
John Q. Mulligan, The End of Prosecutorial Discretion for Airlines: The DOJ’s Challenge to the AMR/US Airways Merger
Nithya Narayanan, Unwinding the Vicious Loop of Aircraft Finance Leases
Jeffrey J. Immel, The Montreal Convention and Recovery for Free-Standing Emotional Distress Under Article 17
P. Paul Fitzgerald, In Search of Greener Commercial Aviation
Md. Tanveer Ahmad, The CJEU’s Radical ETS Judgment: Destabilizing the Chicago Convention System
Eset Berisha, At the Boundaries of the Chicago Convention – ICAO’s Role in Civil Aviation Affairs in Kosovo
Daniel Friedenzohn, Delayed Flights and Delayed Action: The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Tarmac Delay Regulations and Their Impact on Air Travel
Blog readers interested in subscribing to IALP, ordering back issues, or browsing a list of published articles may do so at the Institute's website here.
Friday, October 11, 2013
The European Commission has defied recent precedent by deciding in favor of a proposal by Greece's Aegean Airlines to acquire Olympic Air, creating perhaps an interesting point of comparison to the U.S. Department of Justice's challenge to the proposed merger between American Airlines and US Airways which similarly broke with recent decisions though in the opposite direction.
The Commission had previously prohibited a merger between the two carriers in 2011, and by opening up a phase II investigation into the most recent proposal, provided cause to believe it would again deny the merger. The Commission has been somewhat forgiving of cross-border airline consolidation within the EU, but has taken a more skeptical view toward mergers between two carriers within the same member state, something that can be seen in both its previous decision on Aegean-Olympic as well as its multiple rejections of a combination between Ireland's Ryanair and Aer Lingus. In a speech explaining the decision, Vice President Joaquin Almunias indicated that the Commission has not changed its philosophy and remains concerned about the likely anticompetitive effects this merger will have on certain routes. In this instance though, the Commission appears to have concluded that its hand were tied by Olympic's precarious financial situation, creating a classic "failing firm defense" case. The key paragraph from the speech:
The detailed investigation revealed that, in contrast to its situation 2 years ago, Olympic today is simply not able to continue operating outside of Aegean. Had Olympic been able to continue operations outside the Aegean group, the decision would have been a prohibition. But now, because of both the on-going economic crisis in Greece and Olympic's very difficult financial situation, Olympic would be forced to leave the market soon, with or without merger. If it were not acquired by Aegean, Olympic would simply shut down. This means that on the 5 problematic routes, Aegean would remain in any event the only player.