Monday, April 9, 2018
In late March, the Congress passed, and the President signed, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2018, H.R. 1625. This 2,232-page Omnibus spending bill, which establishes $1.3 trillion of government spending for fiscal year 2018, contains several ag-related provisions. I looked at one of those a couple of weeks ago – the modification to I.R.C. §199A that was included in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) enacted last December and which became effective for tax years after 2017. I.R.C. §199A, known as the qualified business income (QBI) deduction, created a 20 percent deduction for sole proprietorships and pass-through businesses. However, the provision created a tax advantage for sellers of agricultural products sold to agricultural cooperatives. Before the modification, those sales generated a tax deduction from gross sales for the seller. But if those same ag goods were sold to a company that was not an agricultural cooperative, the deduction could only be taken from net business income. That tax advantage for sales to cooperatives was deemed to be a drafting error and was modified by a provision that provides greater equity between sales to agricultural cooperatives and non-cooperatives.
The modification to I.R.C. §199A received a lot of attention. However, there were a couple of other provisions in the Omnibus bill that are also ag-related. Today’s blog post examines those other two provisions.
Animal Waste Air Reporting Exemption For Farms
Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), the federal government is to be notified when large quantities of hazardous materials are released into the environment. Once notified, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has discretion to take remedial actions or order further monitoring or investigation of the situation. In 2008, the EPA issued a final regulation exempting farms from the reporting/notification requirement for air releases from animal waste on the basis that a federal response would most often be impractical and unlikely. However, the EPA retained the reporting/notification requirement for Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) under EPCRAs public disclosure rule. Various environmental groups challenged the exemption on the basis that the EPA acted outside of its delegated authority to create the exemption. Agricultural groups claimed that the retained reporting requirement for CAFOs was also impermissible. The environmental groups claimed that emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (both hazardous substances under CERCLA) should be reported as part of furthering the overall regulatory objective. The court noted that there was no clear way to best measure the release of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, but did determine that continuous releases are subject to annual notice requirements. The court held that the EPA’s final regulation should be vacated as an unreasonable interpretation of the de minimis exception in the statute. As such, the challenge brought by the agriculture groups to the CAFO carve out was mooted and dismissed. Waterkeeper Alliance, et al. v. Environmental Protection Agency, No. 09-1017, 2017 U.S. App. LEXIS 6174 (D.C. Cir. Apr. 11, 2017).
The court’s order potentially subjected almost 50,000 farms to the additional reporting requirement. As such, the court delayed enforcement of its ruling by issuing multiple stays, giving the EPA additional time to write a new rule. The EPA issued interim guidance on October 25, 2017. The court issued its most recent stay in the matter on February 1, 2018, with the expiration scheduled for May 1. However, Division S, Title XI, Section 1102 of the Omnibus bill, entitled the Fair Agricultural Reporting Method Act (FARM Act), modifies 42 U.S.C. §9603 to include the EPA exemption for farms that have animal waste air releases. Specifically, 42 U.S.C. §9603(e) is modified to specify that “air emissions from animal waste (including decomposing animal waste) at a farm” are exempt from the CERCLA Sec. 103 notice and reporting requirements. “Animal waste” is defined to mean “feces, urine, or other excrement, digestive emission, urea, or similar substances emitted by animals (including any form of livestock, poultry, or fish). The term animal waste “includes animal waste that is mixed or commingled with bedding, compost, feed, soil or any other material typically found with such waste.” A “farm” is defined as a site or area (including associated structures) that is used for “the production of a crop; or the raising or selling of animals (including any form of livestock, poultry or fish); and under normal conditions, produces during a farm year any agricultural products with a total value equal to not less than $1,000.”
ELD Rule Involving Agricultural Commodities Defunded
The Omnibus bill also addresses an Obama-era regulation involving truckers that is of particular importance to the livestock industry. On December 18, 2017, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Final Rule on Electronic Logging Devices (ELD) and Hours of Service (HOS) was set to go into effect. 80 Fed. Reg. 78292 (Dec.16, 2015). The final rule was issued in late 2015. The new rule would require truck drivers to use electronic logging devices instead of paper logs to track their driving hours starting December 18, 2017. The devices connect to the vehicle's engine and automatically record driving hours. There are numerous exceptions to the ELD final rule.
While the mandate was set to go into effect December 18, 2017, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) granted a 90-day waiver for all vehicles carrying agricultural commodities. That 90-day delay was later extended. Other general exceptions to the final rule exist for vehicles built before 2000; vehicles that operate under the farm exemption (a “MAP 21” covered farm vehicle; 49 C.F.R. §395.1(s)); drivers coming within the 100/150 air-mile radius short haul log exemption (49 CFR §395.1(k)); and drivers who maintain HOS logs for no more than eight days during any 30-day period.
Under the Omnibus legislation, the ELD rule was defunded through the end of the government's current fiscal year - September 30, 2018. Under Division L, Title I, Section 132, specifies that, “None of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department of Transportation by this Act or any other Act may be obligated or expended to implement, administer, or enforce the requirements of 5 section 31137 of title 49, United States Code, or any regulation issued by the Secretary pursuant to such section, with respect to the use of electronic logging devices by operators of commercial motor vehicles, as defined in section 31132(1) of such title, transporting livestock as defined in section 602 of the Emergency Livestock Feed Assistance Act of 1988 (7 U.S.C. 1471) or insects.”
The Omnibus bill is a conglomeration of many provisions, most of which don’t have a direct impact on agricultural producers or agribusinesses. However, there were a few provisions included of importance to agriculture. While very few people, if any, have read and understand all of the provisions in the 2,232-page bill, it is important for those in the agricultural industry to have an understanding of the provisions that apply to them.