Law School Academic Support Blog

Editor: Amy Jarmon
Texas Tech Univ. School of Law

Monday, October 16, 2017

October Slump and Shout-Outs

I first want to provide a special shout-out to Russell McClain, the University of Baltimore School of Law, and everyone involved with the planning and running of the Association of Academic Support Educators (AASE) Diversity Conference. The presentations and accompanying dialogue were informative and thought provoking. And, as always, the camaraderie among the law school academic support community and the community’s genuine interest in law student success were inspiring and helped serve as continued motivation to push us through the rest of the academic semester.

I also want to provide a separate shout-out to my colleague, Rachel Gurvich. I have mentioned Rachel’s name and Twitter handle (@RachelGurvich) on several occasions at law school conferences and on this blog. Rachel recently wrote an ASP-ish post on The #Practice Tuesday blog. The post, entitled, “It’s not so shiny anymore: 1Ls and the October slump”, provides seven tips on how 1Ls can push through the rest of the academic semester. I encourage you and your students to take a look at the post and follow Rachel on Twitter. She’s a great colleague and resource at Carolina and beyond—her Tweets have reached and supported law students throughout the country, including this one and this one.

Rachel and Sean Marotta (@smmarotta) started The #Practice Tuesday blog as an opportunity to expand their #Practice Tuesday discussions on Twitter. On Tuesday afternoons, Rachel and Sean lead great discussions on “advice and musings on legal practice and the profession.” Participants in the discussions include practitioners, judges, and law school faculty and students throughout the country. Feel free to join in on the conversations!

Again, thanks to Russell McClain and everyone involved with the AASE Diversity Conference! And, thanks, to my amazing colleague Rachel Gurvich! (OJ Salinas)

October 16, 2017 in Advice, Current Affairs, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Meetings, Miscellany, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General, Teaching Tips, Weblogs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, October 12, 2017

The Smart-Phone Dilemna: "Blood Pressure Spikes, Pulse Quickens, Problem-Solving Skills Decline," says Columnist

 As recently reported by columnist Nicholas Carr, if you have a smart phone, you'll likely be "consulting the glossy little rectangle nearly 30,000 times over the coming year." 

Most of us don't think that's too awful.  I certainly depend on mine...and all the time.  It's become my phone, my mailbox, my knowledge bank, my companion, my navigator, my weather channel, to name just a few of the wonderful conveniences of this remarkable nano-technology.  But, here's the rub.  Accordingly to Mr. Carr, there are numerous research studies that, as the headline above suggests, indicate that smart phone access is harmful, well, to one's intellectual, emotional, and perhaps even bodily health.  

Let me just share a few of the cited studies from Mr. Carr's article on "How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds."  https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-smartphones-hijack-our-minds-1507307811?mod=e2tw

First, as reported by Mr. Carr, there's a California study that suggests that the mere presence of smart phones hampers our intellectual problem-solving abilities.  In the study of 520 undergraduate students, the researches - using a TED lecture talk - tested students on their exam performance based on their understanding of the lecture with the students divided into three separate groups.  In one classroom, the students placed their cellphones in front of them during the lecture and the subsequent exam.  In another classroom the students had to stow their cellphones so that they didn't have immediate access (i.e., sort of an "out-of-sight--out-of-mind" approach).  In the last classroom situation, the students had to leave their cellphones in a different room from the lecture hall.  Almost all of the students reported that the placement or access of their cell phones did not compromise their exam performance in anyway.  But, the test results shockingly indicated otherwise.  The students with cellphones on their desks performed the worst on the exam. In addition, even the students with the cellphones stowed performed not nearly as good as the students who were not permitted to bring cellphones to the lecture.  Apparently, just the knowledge that one's cellphone is ready and standing by negatively impacts learning.

Second, also as reported by Mr. Carr, there's a Arkansas study that suggests that students can improve their exam performance by a whole letter grade merely by leaving one's cellphone behind when headed to classes.  In that study of 160 students, the researchers found that those students who had their phones with them in a lecture class, even if they did not access or use them, performed substantially worse than those students that abandoned their cellphones prior to class, based on test results on cognitive understanding of the lecture material.  In other words, regardless of whether one uses one's cellphone during class, classroom learning appears to be compromised just with the presence of one's cellphone.

Third, as again reported by Mr. Carr, cellphone access or proximity not only hinders learning but also harms social communication and interpersonal skills.  In this United Kingdom study, researches divided people into pairs and asked them to have a 10-minute conversation.  Some pairs of conversationalists were placed into a room in which there was a cellphone present.  The other pairs were placed in rooms in which there were no cell phones available.  The participants were then given tests to measure the depth of the conversation that the subjects experienced based on measures of affinity, trust, and empathy.  The researches found that the mere presence of cellphones in the conversational setting harmed interpersonal skills such as empathy, closeness, and trust, and the results were most harmful when the topics discussed were "personally meaningful topic[s]."  In sum, two-way conversations aren't necessary two-way when a cellphone is involved, even if it is not used.

Finally, Mr. Carr shares research out of Columbia University that suggests that our trust in smartphones and indeed the internet compromises our memorization abilities.  In that study, the researches had participants type out the facts surrounding a noteworthy news event with one set of participants being told that what they typed would be captured by the computer while the other set of subjects were told that the facts would be immediately erased from the computer.  The researchers then tested the participants abilities to accurately recall the factual events.  Those that trusted in the computer for recall had much more difficulty recalling the facts than those who were told that they couldn't rely on the computer to retain the information.  In other words, just the thought that our computers will accurately record our notes for later use, might harm our abilities to recall and access information.  And, as Mr. Carr suggests, "only by encoding information in our biological memory can we weave the rich intellectual associations that form the essence of personal knowledge and give rise to critical and conceptual thinking.  No matter how much information swirls around us, the less well-stocked our memory, the less we have to think with."

Plainly, that's a lot to think about.  And, with all of the conversations swirling about as to whether teachers should ban laptops from classrooms, it might just add "fuel to the fire."  On that question, this article does not opine.  But, regardless of whether you take notes on a computer or not, according to the research, there's an easy way to raise your letter grade by one grade.  Just leave your smartphone at home, at your apartment, or in your locker...whenever you go to classes.  (Scott Johns).

 

 

October 12, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, October 2, 2017

Hypothetically Speaking . . . .

I mentioned last week that students don’t have to wait until final exams at the end of the semester to find out whether they have a good understanding of what their doctrinal professors are teaching. Since most law school classes don’t have traditional periodic tests, I encouraged students to use their professors’ various “what ifs” and “how abouts” to test their understanding of key rules and concepts that the professors are covering in class.

Students: If you are able to answer the professors’ hypotheticals—whether out loud or in your head—you are positioning yourself well to answer the professors’ hypotheticals on their final exams.

A final exam is often just a mixture of a bunch of hypotheticals in one or two large stories. The hypotheticals test your recollection and understanding of key rules that you have covered throughout the semester. The hypotheticals also test your ability to identify and apply significant facts within the hypotheticals to your key rules. This application of law to facts is legal analysis. The better your legal analysis is on a final exam, the more likely you will get a better grade.

But, I know the Socratic class can often be an intimidating and difficult experience, particularly for many 1L students. I know it is not easy sitting in a Socratic class worrying about getting called on—I’ve been there, and I didn’t particularly like it. I disliked the Socratic class so much that I wanted to quit law school after my first year (That story is for another blog post; but you can read a little more about my law school experience here.)

I feared speaking up in the Socratic class because I didn’t want to be seen as incompetent. I worried too much about what my professors or my peers might have thought about me during that moment right after the professor called my name in class. I worried about getting the professor's question wrong. I worried about appearing nervous. I worried.

It took me a long while to adjust to the type of teaching in the Socratic class. It took me a long while to realize that it didn't matter if I was nervous or got a question wrong--what mattered was how I did on the final exams. 

So, I wanted to do what I could to prepare for the final exams. I tried to do a lot of preparation outside of class. I read my cases. But, I also used study aids to help give me context for what I was reading. The study aids also provided me with a bunch of hypotheticals where I could practice my legal analysis.

I practiced my legal analysis within the confines of my safe apartment where I didn’t have to worry about others “judging” me if my voice cracked or was shaky or when I didn’t answer a question correctly. I trained myself on issue spotting and applying law to facts so that I could feel more confident not only in the Socratic class, but on the final exams as well. And things turned out okay for me. The guy who wanted to quit law school after his 1L year is now teaching in a law school.

It’s funny how things turn out. And things can turn out well for you, too. Try to engage with your professors’ hypotheticals. If you are not fully able to engage with the hypotheticals in class, look for ways to engage with hypotheticals outside of the potentially intimidating classroom. Like anything in life, the more you practice, the better you will get. And you have an entire semester to practice for your big day (and it won't matter on that big day whether your voiced ever cracked in class or whether you got a question wrong when the professor called on you). (OJ Salinas)

October 2, 2017 in Advice, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Exams - Theory, Learning Styles, Miscellany, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, October 1, 2017

Using Study Aids Wisely to Maximize Learning within Time Restraints

A wide range of study aids is available to law students. You need to choose carefully which study aids to use and when to use them. Otherwise you can be overwhelmed by choice and waste time and effort.

What type of study aid do you need for the task?

  • Study aids that are strictly commentaries. These study aids explain the law in depth. Examples: Understanding Law, Concise Hornbooks, Hornbooks, Inside, Mastering, Foundation, Concepts & Insights, Nutshells, Law School Legends (audio), Sum & Substance (audio).
  • Study aids that are commentaries with embedded questions. These study aids explain the law in depth with questions in the text to illustrate the concepts and provide the reader with practice on the narrow issues being discussed. Examples: Examples & Explanations, Glannon Guides.
  • Study aids that contain short summaries of the material with or without practice questions/problems. Examples: Acing, Short & Happy Guides, Skills & Values.
  • Study aids that are lengthy outline versions of the material. These study aids typically have exam tips and practice questions as well. Examples: Gilbert Law Summaries, Emanuel  Law Outlines, and Black Letter Outlines.
  • Study aids that are mixed volumes with summaries of material, visual organizers, and practice questions. Examples: Finals, CrunchTime.
  • Study aids that are strictly practice question books. Examples: ExamPro, Siegel's, Friedman's, Q&A.
  • Study aids that are flashcards to help you memorize the black letter law. Examples: Law in a Flash, Lawdecks, Spaced Repetition.

When and how should you use a study aid?

  • To preview information quickly before starting a topic, scan a summary study aid to get a general idea of the terms and subtopics you will be studying.
  • To pull together the information quickly at the end of a topic before outlining, scan a summary study aid to see what you studied. You may find the summary's structure useful for determining your outline structure if the table of contents for your casebook or your professor's syllabus does not provide a structure.
  • To clear up confusion, a commentary study aid is often useful at the point of outlining. After you have pulled together your own notes and briefs into an outline, you will be more aware of what you understand fully, partially, or not at all. Read a commentary to help with the parts you do not understand and then flesh out your outline as needed. (It is very inefficient to read  topics that you understand fully. Focus on what you do not know.)
  • To review material while doing chores, on the treadmill, or on a trip, you may find it useful to listen to one of the audio commentaries for a course. Consider listening to a section and then stopping the CD to explain that section aloud to check your comprehension.
  • To find questions to help you clarify information for narrow issues when you outline, turn to the commentaries with embedded questions. These questions will help you think through the material for that narrow issue as "starter questions." However, these questions may be easier than "exam-worthy questions" because they are so focused on a specific issue.
  • To test your ability to apply the law that you have already learned well, use the practice questions in the mixed volumes, practice question books, or commercial outlines. These questions are often intermediate level in difficulty. For the hardest exam practice questions, visit your law school's exam database.
  • To test retention of material, application of it to new scenarios, and exam-taking strategies, complete practice questions at least 2-3 days after the material is learned well. If you complete questions too close to the review, you will automatically get them right.
  • To test your ability to perform under time restraints in an exam, do as many practice questions as possible under exam conditions. For essay questions, read/analyze the fact pattern, outline an answer, and write an answer in the time period that would be required for that length/difficulty of a question. For objective questions, complete question sets in a realistic time frame for segments of your professor's exam.
  • To memorize the black letter law, use flashcards throughout the semester to learn items over time. Cramming for memorization at the end of the semester is usually very ineffective.

What are some cautions in using study aids?

  • Study aids are written for purchase and use by all law students in the country. Tailor your use to what matches your professor's coverage of the topics in the volumes.
  • If your professor's version of the course differs from a study aid, learn your professor's version - the grader of your exam is the person to please.
  • Check the copyright date of a study aid: Is it recent? Do you have the latest edition? Has the law changed since it was published?
  • Check the jurisdictions covered by the study aid: Is it national in scope? Is it state specific? Does it cover the variations (UCC, Restatement, etc.) that your professor will test?
  • Greater learning occurs when you generate your own study aids because you process the information instead of just reading what someone else processed. Examples: flashcards, outlines, flowcharts.

Study aids can be great supplements to your learning - however, they are not substitutes for your being an active learner and doing the hard work. (Amy Jarmon)

 

 

October 1, 2017 in Exams - Studying, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, September 28, 2017

Illustrating the Law Thru "Picture Books": An Ancient Practice that Might Help in Learning Today!

Perhaps surprisingly, there might be some ancient history right under your nose illustrating the value of creating "picture-books" to teach, guide, synthesis, and communicate legal principles at work.  At least, that's the case at one law school's library (and it might be the same at your law library).  

As related by the Wall Street Journal, the use of illustrations to depict the law is nothing new.  And, it's not really old either because a brief internet search provides lots of exemplars, even in legal educational settings, of the value of "seeing" the law through pictures and illustrations.  So, as you approach midterms or just want to help catch the "big picture" overview of your notes and outlines, feel free to doodle.  Let yourself go wild with your legal imagination.  Create something in a picture, as they say, that is worth a thousand words.  That will be a great way to remember all of those words without having to try to even remember them!  

For your reference, here's the article:  https://www.wsj.com/articles/laws-picture-books-the-yale-law-library-collection-illustrating-the-letter-of-the-law-1506460653 (Scott Johns)

September 28, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Study Group Matchmaking Service

Last year a self-confessed shy student came to my office in search of a study partner.  She wanted to form a study group, but was uncomfortable soliciting classmates to join her group.  She asked me if anyone else had inquired about the same thing, and if so, would I please put them in contact with her.  Her request sparked an idea: an ASP-coordinated study group matchmaking service.  Now in its second year, the Study Group Matchmaking Service has been a hit with first-year students.  The service aids students in identifying other classmates who share their same learning preferences and study schedules.  The service also provides a proposed structure for the study groups, with recommended meeting times, a pre-identified  group leader, and suggested activities tied to the group's expressed learning preferences.  For anyone who is interested in trying out the service at their school, here is a "How To."  

Step One: Create a Survey Form

I start by creating a short, online questionnaire (using Qualtrics, which is similar to Survey Monkey).  The 7-question survey asks:

  1. What's your name?
  2. Which professors do you have this semester? (check all the boxes that apply)
  3. Rank your VARK learning styles from most preferred (1) to least preferred (5).
  4. Would you describe yourself as an extrovert or introvert?
  5. Do you prefer to lead a group meeting or simply attend the meeting?
  6. When do you prefer to study: early morning, right before class (7-9am); midday, between classes and on the lunch break; afternoon, right after classes (4-6pm); evening (6-9pm); or late night (after 9pm)?
  7. Is there anything else you think Professor Trychta should know?

The online form allows me to download the responses into an Excel spreadsheet and then electronically sort answers to select questions, which helps in the matchmaking process.  If your school uses the StrengthsQuest program or a Myers-Briggs personality inventory during Orientation, you may want to incorporate that information into your intake survey as well.

Step Two: Announce the Service

In mid-September, I send out an email describing the Study Group Matchmaking Service.  I also post the same information to Facebook and TWEN.  The email reads:

Are you interested in joining a (new) study group?   The Academic Excellence Center seeks to group interested first-year students together into highly effective study groups.  The benefits of an AEP study group—as opposed to your “friends group”—are many:

  1. Membership to the group will be based on your individual learning preferences (visual, aural, read/write, or kinesthetic), introvert/extrovert status, and other academic variables.  If you don’t know your learning preference, click here to find out.
  2. Members will agree to a set of rules and standards to ensure that the group functions optimally.
  3. Each group will be limited to 2-4 individuals.
  4. Prof. Trychta and the Dean’s Fellows will be available to assist the AEP study groups with room reservations, locating practice problems, identifying ideal study strategies, and resolving disputes. 

The other benefits of any study group include sharing case briefs, reviewing class notes, preparing group outlines, and, most importantly: group problem solving.  If interested in being matched with a few like-minded classmates, complete this 7-question intake questionnaire (hyperlinked in original) by [next Thursday].  I’ll send out group announcements on [Friday morning], and you can plan to meet your new study group for a quick “hello” at 1:00 p.m. after Torts.

Step Three: Form the Groups

After the students complete the survey, I use the Excel document to look for patterns in their responses.  I start by sorting the students based on their professors.  Next I look for self-confessed group leaders and try to assign one leader to each potential group.  Along those same lines, I try not to put two leaders in the same group, to minimize the opportunity for conflict.  Then I break these groups into smaller subgroups based on learning preferences and desired study schedules.  I am also mindful not to stick an introvert in a group with three extroverts, or vice versa.  This process goes relatively smoothly for most of the students.  However, the last few students can prove hard to place, especially if no one else shares a particular student's same preferences.  For the handful of hard-to-place students, I reach out to them individually.  I tell them honestly that I'm having difficulty placing them in a group because of X reason, and ask them how important that particular preference is to them.  I also tell them about the next-best-fit group and ask if they would be interested in that group instead.  For example: "Dear Lynn, I think the group mentioned below would be a good fit for you, except that they want to meet in the morning.  Otherwise, everything else checks out.  Would you be interested in joining an AM study group?--Prof."  After everyone is assigned, I schedule a speed date.

Step Four: Schedule a Speed Date

The next step in the process is to introduce the group members to each other.  I begin the process with an email, detailing the results and next steps: 

Thank you for signing up for an AEP study group.  This year, we had 25 people request a partner.  Each partnership or group should be between 2-4 members.  Less than 2 is not a group, and more than 4 is unwieldy.  The members of your proposed partnership or group are: H.R. and A.A.

I tried to group students together based on their expressed learning preferences, class schedules, and personalities.  You each have Professors Trychta, Cady, & Rhee, are available to study in the early mornings, prefer read/write and kinesthetic techniques, while disfavoring aural learning techniques.  On paper, you’re a great fit.  (FYI – There are two other Trychta-Cady-Rhee groups: (1) M.D. & T.G. and (2) A.L., B.D. & M.H.  You may find it helpful to collaborate with them periodically.)

Signing-up for the matchmaking service does not mean that you must join the group.  Instead, you should plan to meet briefly in the lobby [on Friday] after Torts class to introduce yourselves and discuss the goals of the group.  Treat this initial meeting much like a first date.  If you opt to join the group, then you should promise to commit to the group for the rest of the semester.  If the members of your group can’t reach a consensus about some aspect of the study group’s objectives or rules, let me know.  Perhaps I can reassign some of the members or suggest a compromise.

The most effective study groups are those that have clearly defined objectives and rules.  For example, the purpose of your group may be to (a) outline or (b) discuss hypotheticals.  The group should discuss the options, and then make a conscious decision based on what the members hope to get out of the group study experience.  To aid you in determining the group’s rules, I’ve attached a sample “contract.”  Feel free to use, modify, or ignore the sample contract, as your group sees fit. 

Obviously, you may choose to run your group however you decide.  But I note that group problem solving works most effectively when the members of the group (1) ask someone to introduce a specific problem or issue, (2) appoint a scrivener and a leader, (3) identify all the potential issues, but not the solutions (4) then discuss all the possible answers, (5) consult resources for additional help, and finally (6) organize and summarize what you learned.

Moving forward, your group may reserve law school classrooms and conference rooms for study sessions by making a request at the Student Services front desk.  Should you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask. 

As mentioned above, I attach a sample study group contract to the email.  You can Download Study Group Contract using the interactive link.  I'm quite confident that I stole this contract idea from someone on a blog or listserv several years ago, but I cannot remember who drafted it.  If you're the original author, please feel free to reach out to me and I will happily give you a proper attribution credit. 

Step Five: Stay Out of The Way

Lastly, I make myself available in my office during the meet-n-greet hour, but I do not affirmatively attend the event.  Once I have identified and disclosed a potential group match, I stay out of the way unless specifically asked by students to intervene.  While I actively oversee the Dean's Fellows study groups, I assert no ownership or responsibility over these Matchmaking Groups.  Rather my job is to simply facilitate an introduction.  With little oversight, admittedly, not every group will work out, but a few do.  In fact, I still see one group from Fall 2016 meeting regularly in the lobby as second-year students.  And, that alone is enough motivation for me to continue the service.  (Kirsha Trychta)

September 26, 2017 in Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 25, 2017

We Are Not in College Anymore

We are several weeks into the Fall semester. 1L students are starting to get a little better handle on what law school is all about. If they didn’t know this already, they are starting to realize that law school is much different than college.

There are no boldface words and glossaries in the law school casebooks. The Socratic class is not filled with a professor lecturing at passive students for the duration of class. And there are few, if any, written “chapter tests” during the semester so that students can assess their understanding of the material.

But, there are many opportunities throughout the semester where students can assess whether they are picking up what they should pick up in the course. These opportunities happen every day in class as a result of the often-dreaded Socratic method (and I dreaded it when I was a 1L--but, that story is for another blog post).

The professors’ many “what ifs” and “how abouts” give students opportunities to test their understanding of the relevant law; they are given chances to apply this law to many factual scenarios—which, in turn, help the students become better issue-spotters and legal analysts. And, as we all know in the ASP world, the more issues a student is able to spot and analyze on a law school final exam, the more likely that student will gain more points on the professor’s final exam rubric.

So, students: Try to engage with the professors’ hypotheticals in class—even when you have not been cold called in class to verbally answer the questions. Try to answer the questions to yourself in your own head. If you can’t come up with an answer to a hypothetical, write the question down on your notes and revisit that question after class or on the weekend when you review what you have covered in class for the week. You may not have come up with the answer in class. But, that doesn’t mean you can’t come up with the answer on the final exam--when it really counts!

One of the many differences from college and law school is that you don’t have several formal written tests throughout the semester; you often only have one exam at the end of the semester per course that often dictates your entire semester course grade. Try to prepare for that final exam every day in class when you engage with the professors’ hypotheticals, and practice the legal analysis skills that will help make you a better law school test-taker and, eventually, lawyer. (OJ Salinas)

September 25, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Exams - Theory, Learning Styles, Miscellany, Professionalism, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Giant Pumpkin Growing Lesson #3: Daily Maintenance is Essential

As I explained in part one and part two of this multi-part series, earlier this year I decided to undertake a new and difficult task (specifically, to grow a giant pumpkin) in hopes of gaining more insight and perhaps empathy for what it is like to be a first year law student. Here’s my third takeaway:

Daily maintenance is essential for success in giant pumpkin growing and law school studying.  The key is getting the novice learner to appreciate that If she steps away in either situation for too long, she will find herself unable to catch up.

Once the temperamental seedling is planted outside, you must care for it – daily. The plant will grow from a few inches to a few hundred square feet in less than two months. Here’s my plant on July 22, 2017, just seven weeks after I planted it outside.    

July 22 3

A pumpkin’s rapid growth invites a plethora of problems unique to giant vegetable growers. Unsurprisingly, a small problem early in the process can quickly blossom into a huge issue. Consequently, my expert-coach was insistent that I check on my plant every day. This novice was convinced that he was being overly attentive, hyperbolic, or just plain crazy. So, I ignored his advice and traveled to the Institute for Law Teaching and Learning’s summer conference in mid-July, leaving my plant to fend for itself for a few days. When I returned, I found that the stem had begun to rot due to a moisture issue.  Ugh, turns out he might have been right!

Stem rot 2
(That brown guck on the top of the stem is rot.)

I took my foot off the gas for one week and the plant began to get the better of me. Thankfully, I noticed the soft spot early enough to salvage the stem. But, my neglect left my plant struggling for several anxiety-ridden weeks.  Seeing the rot, I quickly came to realize that my coach was correct.  Unfortunately, it took me seven weeks and almost losing my pumpkin to finally accept that daily maintenance is essential.

Just like daily patch inspections are imperative for pumpkin success, regular and frequent outlining is essential for law school success because we cover a lot of ground, very quickly.  In light of my own laissez faire attitude in July, I began to suspect that my law students likely viewed my repeated reminders to regularly convert class notes to studyable outlining material the same way I viewed my coach’s recommendation to check on my pumpkin daily.  Over the last few years, I've discussed the importance of outlining as early as orientation and as late midterms exams.  Regardless of the timing, students remained suspicious of the virtues of a daily outlining regiment.  Much like the saying "you can lead a horse to water..." I struggled to make the students "drink in" my advice.  Then it hit me: I needed to manufacture a "stem rot awakening" for my students. 

This semester I scheduled a full-fledged practice exam, closed book and given under exam like conditions, during week five of a sixteen week criminal law course.  Even though the exam was only graded pass/fail based on a good faith effort, students took the exercise seriously.  I mentioned the practice exam on the first day of class, but only spent about 15 minutes suggesting how to assemble their class notes to study.  Instead of lecturing on outlining, I simply recommended that the students implement whatever studying approach they thought would be beneficial.  In other words, I left the students to their own devices.  As soon as the students completed the practice exam, they received a sample answer and then were asked to reflect on their study habits.  Many of the students saw "rot" in their Bluebooks, and were immediately interested in whatever study strategies I could recommend.  

Post-exam I gave a more lengthy lecture about how best to study for law school exams, and invited students to make individual appointments with myself or a Dean's Fellow for additional feedback on their current note taking and outlining strategies.  It's been less than two weeks since the mock exam, and more than half of the class has voluntarily come to see me or a Dean's Fellow.  Lastly, hoping to capitalize on their newfound willingness to engage, I also launched a study group matchmaking service a few days after the mock exam.  (More about that soon!)  Although the students were a bit shocked by the mock exam experience, they are also happy to have the opportunity to remedy any soft spots before the midterm exam.

Caveat: I teach one section of our first-semester criminal law course.  If you don't teach a substantive course, you could partner with another professor for this exercise.  (Kirsha Trychta)

September 19, 2017 in Exams - Studying, Study Tips - General, Teaching Tips | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 18, 2017

1L Enrichment Groups

I am having an Enrichment Group Leaders training meeting today at noon. So, I have enrichment groups on my mind (hence, the blog post!). Perhaps, many of you are also working with enrichment groups or are thinking about developing enrichment groups. I am sure many of us would love to chat and learn more about our various programs and how we can continue to best serve our students. We can continue the conversation via email or on Twitter (tweet me @ojsalinas, and use #lawschoolASP).

Like many law school academic success programs throughout the country, we provide an opportunity for our 1L students to get additional training and support from upper level students. One way that we provide this opportunity to our 1Ls is through participation in Enrichment Groups.

Every 1L student at Carolina Law is invited to participate in our Academic Excellence Program Enrichment Groups. These groups are run by upper level law students who have done well in school and have shown the ability to do well in mentoring and meeting with students. 1Ls are assigned to their groups based on their 1L professors, and the groups are “tied” to two of the 1L casebook classes—with one upper level student “Enrichment Group Leader” often taking the lead on one of the two casebook classes.

The groups typically meet once a week for about 50 minutes starting late September. The groups alternate discussing ASP topics related to one of their two casebook classes during the group meetings. These topics change as the 1Ls advance during the semester. So, the initial group meeting may simply focus on developing rapport within the group and identifying group member goals for choosing to participate in the group. The next groups may focus on taking notes and case reading for the particular casebook classes. Later group meetings may introduce outlining and the use of study aids to help review practice questions related to the casebook classes. And, finally, we try to end our semester with a practice exam for each of the two casebook classes.

We generally have strong positive feedback from our 1Ls on our Enrichment Groups. Students typically feel that the groups are great ways to provide additional support and guidance in their classes. They also like the idea that these study groups are voluntary and that the groups are already formed for them—the students don’t have to worry about not getting “chosen” or “asked” to join a particular study group.

As I mentioned, I am having a training session for our Enrichment Group Leaders this afternoon. One thing that we try to emphasize with our leaders and their group participants is that the leaders are not “tutors.” They are not there to teach the 1Ls the substantive law, and they certainly don’t replace their law school professors. While the leaders have done well in the casebook class that they are “leading” (and, many of them actually had the same professor for that particular casebook class during their 1L year), our Enrichment Group Leaders are there to help facilitate learning. They are there to provide further support for our students. They are there to “enrich” the students’ 1L academic experience. And we believe a more enriched 1L experience is a better 1L experience. (OJ Salinas)

September 18, 2017 in Advice, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Meetings, Miscellany, Program Evaluation, Reading, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General, Teaching Tips | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Activist Learning Practice Hypos: Yours for the Taking!

Attention First-Year (and Upper-Level Law Students)!

Here's a handy link for super-short & super-helpful hypothetical essay prompts (complete with discussion guides and point sheets)...yours for the taking (no pun intended!): 

http://www.law.du.edu/pastbarexamessays

And, the best news is that it is totally free!

Oh, and there's more great news. The essays are organized into the following subjects:

  • Administrative Law
  • Agency Law
  • Civil Procedure
  • Constitutional Law
  • Contracts
  • Corporations
  • Criminal Law
  • Criminal Procedure
  • Evidence
  • Family Law
  • Partnership
  • Property Law
  • Torts
  • Sales (UCC Article 2)
  • Commercial Paper (UCC Article 3)
  • Secured Transactions (UCC Article 9)
  • Wills & Trusts

So, as you're working your way through the casebooks, feel free to dabble in a handful of practice problems to put you in the pilot's seat of your learning, i.e., taking control of your "learning travels" this semester through "learning by doing")!   (Scott Johns)

P.S. This is THE LINK that I wish I had as a law student...BECAUSE...the best way to prepare for midterms is to see and work through examples of midterms!

 

 

 

 

 

September 14, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 4, 2017

Ready. Set. Go, 1Ls--You are in Training Camp Now!

Dog Glasses books

We just completed our first week of school at Carolina Law. Like many law students throughout the country, our 1Ls experienced their first week of Socratic classes. They read and briefed their cases. They’ve been introduced to legal citations and the hierarchy of authority. They’ve taken advantage of the free lunches provided at the various student organization meetings.

After a week of law school, many 1Ls may wonder whether they will have enough time during the day to stay afloat. They may worry that they are spending way too much time reading their cases. And despite the large amount of time that they are devoting to reading their cases, they may mistakenly fear that they are the only ones in their classroom who are not able to fully follow the various hypotheticals that their professors ask in class. They may question whether they are fit for law school.

1Ls: If you are feeling this way, remember that law school is a marathon. There may be times during the year when you feel like you have to run a little faster than normal. But, the sprint for the finish line is really not until the end of the semester when you have to answer the final exam hypotheticals.

Training3

Consider a lot of what is happening during the semester as your training for that sprint. Yes. You might falter every now and then as you train. But, don’t get discouraged. Try to learn from the misstep, and fine-tune your next step so that you continue to progress. You are just starting to develop your critical thinking muscles. You are beginning to strengthen your ability to perform legal analysis. You are establishing a foundation of stamina that will help push you through the marathon—including the sprint to the end.

Like many athletes who start a new sport season, you are in a training camp right now. And this training camp is unlike any other training camp you have experienced before. Learning how to learn the law takes time. It takes practice. It takes repetition. Keep putting in the time, because the more you practice, the better you will get. But, make sure that you are active and engaged when you are reading and studying. You can’t passively learn the law; you have to be present and in the moment. And make sure to leave some time for you to do the kinds of things that make you “You.” Law school is a big part of who you are right now. But, it is not all of you.

You will find that it will take you less time to read and brief your cases in the next few weeks. You will find that your critical thinking skills will begin to improve. You will find that your ability to synthesize rules and apply those rules to different factual scenarios will become easier and, dare I say . . . fun!

Best of luck as you continue your training! And remember you have great ASP folks at your schools to help coach you and cheer you on! (OJ Salinas)

September 4, 2017 in Advice, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Miscellany, Orientation, Reading, Sports, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, August 21, 2017

Think Twice Before Banning Laptops: A Note on Accommodations and Diverse Thinking and Learning

Pause keyboard

I mentioned in last week’s blog about my inability to remain focused on our law school's voluntary pre-orientation program for incoming 1Ls due to events related Charlottesville. As I continue my efforts to remain focused, I’ll try to spend a few minutes talking about a topic that many of you likely discuss with your students, either during a similar orientation or pre-orientation program or in workshops or individual conferences: whether students should handwrite their notes or take them on a laptop.

The use of laptops in class rightfully generates much discussion on faculty and ASP mailing lists, particularly at the start of the semester. The discussion has even entered the Twitter realm (for example, here and here; H/T Prof. Ellie Margolis and Prof. Katherine Kelly).

I know there is a lot research and concerns out there relating to laptop use and taking notes. For instance: (1) students may often find it difficult to follow classroom dialogue while trying to type everything down that is discussed in class; and (2) there are potential distractions related to laptop use in class—both for the student doing something that he/she should not be doing on the laptop and for those students sitting near this student.

I don’t necessarily disagree with the research and concerns. I understand that laptops can create tempting distractions for our students.  And I agree that we don’t want students “zoned out” from using laptops in our classes.  But, we should also not want to “zone out” students who may need to use a laptop in class as a critical learning tool for them.

So, I want to caution folks before they decide to ban laptops entirely in the classroom. I want folks to remember that banning laptops may create a situation where students with an accommodation for a learning disability are forced to disclose that they have a learning disability.  This forced disclosure may not be an issue for some students—they may not complain or make much of the ban, or they might not care that they are the only student in a 70+ class who has his/her laptop out in a no-laptop use classroom. So, a complete laptop ban may not be that much of an issue for some students.  But, it could still be an issue. 

If you are a strong proponent for absolutely no laptop use in class, perhaps your student affairs office might be able to not place students who have laptop use as an accommodation in your class. Of course, this recommendation may only work if you happen to teach a course that is also offered during the same semester by a faculty member who does not have a laptop ban.

Perhaps, someone like a student affairs or ASP professional may have a chat with those students who are disengaged in the classroom to see what may be contributing to the disengagement. Is it solely the laptop? Or, as those of us in the law school ASP world know, are there other academic or non-academic factors that may be impacting the student’s ability to “follow along in class”? Are the students distracted by a laptop disengaged because the laptop is in front of them? Or, is something happening outside of the classroom that may be motivating the student to disengage on the laptop? Could it be easier for a student who is having a challenging time in law school to disengage, rather than continuing to try and fail?

One more recommendation if you are a strong proponent for absolutely no laptop use in class: maybe, reconsider why you have the no laptop policy in the first place.

Do we assume that students who handwrite their notes never disengage? Or, can a student on a social media account be just as "zoned out" as someone daydreaming or drawing an elaborate doodle on his/her notebook paper?

Do we assume that someone who has a laptop will automatically be programmed to type everything down verbatim in class and, thus, not follow along in the classroom dialogue? Do we assume that someone who is handwriting his/her notes will not automatically try to write everything (or as much) down in class and, thus, will follow along in the classroom dialogue?  I suspect we have had many students in our classrooms who prove and disprove both assumptions.

Do we assume that those students who are using a laptop are naturally worse note-takers—that they have not developed or cannot develop with guidance (from great ASP folks, like us!) effective methods for taking notes in a law school class? Do we assume that those students who handwrite their notes all have developed the proper method for effective and efficient ways to take notes in a law school class? Again, I suspect we have had many students in our classrooms who prove and disprove both assumptions. 

And, finally, are we even aware of, or do we automatically discount, the various computer applications out there that might be geared for diverse learning styles or that might help keep our students’ notes better organized?

We often try to train our law students on flexible thinking—that there may often not just be a black or white answer to things in the law; that there, frustratingly, is often a large shade of gray in the law; that the answer to many questions in the law may often be “It depends.”

Perhaps, we can practice a little of what we preach. Just because we may not be able to take effective notes using a laptop in a law school classroom doesn’t mean our students are unable to take effective notes on a laptop in class. And just because we may not have needed a laptop to succeed in law school doesn’t necessarily mean that someone else could not succeed in law school by using one. Some students may actually need the laptop to help them succeed. And a “black" or "white" law might actually say that they are entitled to use a laptop in class. (OJ Salinas)

August 21, 2017 in Advice, Current Affairs, Disability Matters, Diversity Issues, Exams - Studying, Exams - Theory, Learning Styles, Miscellany, Orientation, Study Tips - General, Teaching Tips, Writing | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Did You Forget About the MPRE?

News flash, the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam (MPRE) is this Saturday, August 12th. This exam is perfectly nestled between the end of summer classes and the start of a new academic year. It also occurs shortly after the bar exam for those who sat for the July Bar Exam. While students and graduates have good intentions, the summer MPRE is sometimes forgotten, overlooked, or simply ignored for a number of reasons. Some assume at the start of the summer that they have all summer long to think about and start studying for the MPRE while others are plagued by other concerns. Students who only recently finished summer classes are stressed and tired so the need to refocus their energies on preparing for yet another exam is daunting. Individuals who recently sat for the bar exam and either relegated taking the MPRE or failed to previously attain the necessary score for their jurisdictions have only had the opportunity to take one deep breath before returning to study mode. Hopefully it was not too hard in comparison to preparing for the bar exam. For those rising 2Ls and 3Ls who simply ignored messages from their Academic Support Program or forgot to sign-up for the MPRE; you still have opportunities to take this exam so take a deep breath but come up with a plan. Below are a few myths and last minute tips for individuals anticipating the Saturday MPRE:

Myths

(1) You only need to study for two weeks, one week, or the day before the MPRE

Based on my experience, students who provide such advice to other students are individuals who were probably unsuccessful in attaining the requisite score on their first attempt at the MPRE. Very few of my students, even those who completed a Professional Responsibility course and are at the top of the class, are able to study in this limited amount of time and be successful on the MPRE. You know how long it takes you to learn, retain, and apply information; you know your process so plan accordingly. You also know how differently you manage “code” and “rule intensive” materials. Most MPRE programs give you about a month to prepare for the exam so why would you spend less time preparing?

(2) You do not need to complete practice questions just learn the rules

If you have recognized that you need to consider how rules are applied to hypothetical situations as you studied for law school exams, then why would your approach change for the MPRE? If you realized that completing essays and multiple questions allowed you to hone the nuances of specific concepts then why wouldn’t you do the same here? True understanding of the rules and how they apply is another way of learning the information.

(3) You do not need to complete a timed exam

If you had exam time management challenges in the past then you may want to assess how you access, retrieve, process, and answer questions under timed circumstances. Even if you have never experienced exam time management challenges in the past, wouldn’t you want to know how you manage this subject area, in this testing format, with these time constraints so that the day of the exam is not the first time you attempt this?

Last Minute Tips

(1) Do not simply rely on what you covered in your law school Professional Responsibility course. There may be topics you did not cover; therefore, survey your materials and review topics not covered if you have not already done so.

(2) Practice! There is still time to complete timed MPRE questions prior to the day of the exam. If you have not already practiced, please close the books and learn from the questions. You have time to complete at least two full exams, in addition to all the questions you have already completed.

(3) Read the instructions carefully as some of this information might surprise you and plan for what you can and cannot bring into the testing room.

(4) Commit to your strategy or approach and do not change it mid-exam.

Good luck to everyone taking the MPRE! (Goldie Pritchard)

August 9, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, July 13, 2017

Bar Review Visuals: Take A Look at These Colorful Law Cartoons!

With a big hat tip to one of our bar takers this summer, here's a website -- The Visual Law Library -- that has some cool colorful cartoons to help brighten up your daily memorization studies.

http://www.legaltechdesign.com/visualawlibrary/2014/11/23/pure-notice-system-land-ownership-disputes/

On the website, cartoonist and attorney Margaret Hagan has created cartoons for the following subjects that are tested on most bar exams:  Civil Procedure, Con Law, Contracts, Corporations, Criminal Law, Evidence, Family Law, Property Law, and Torts.  

It's a rich resource to allow you to "see" some of the major rules in a colorful way.  So, feel free to take a break by scoping out a few cartoons that might help you better remember some of the major rules for upcoming bar exam.  (Scott Johns).

 

July 13, 2017 in Bar Exam Issues, Bar Exam Preparation, Bar Exams, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, July 10, 2017

Anxiety and Doubt Don’t Equal Failure

We are just a few weeks away from the bar exam. And for many students studying for the bar, that means questions. No. I don’t mean the hundreds, if not thousands, of MBE questions that the students have taken and, perhaps, retaken. And I don’t mean questions on any practice exams. I mean questions running through our students’ heads: questions of doubt, commitment, and normalcy.

Most students studying for the bar have had to live in somewhat of a “Bar Exam Prep Bubble” for the last few months. They celebrated law school graduation in May. But, it wasn’t really a full-on celebration because they knew there was still something more to do. It’s something huge and overwhelming. And it’s something that dictates one’s true entrance into the legal profession.

The bar exam is huge and overwhelming and, in many respects, it does dictate one’s true entrance into the legal profession. This monumental exam has a way of playing mind games with our students—especially at this point in the bar prep season.

Second guessing GIF

We are at a point in the bar prep season where students will start second-guessing themselves. Will I pass? Have I really done all that I should have done over the last few months? What if I freak out and can’t remember anything? Why have I put myself through this?

Despite all the work that our students have put into preparing for the exam, they will think they still have more work to do. Despite the objective results that their bar companies provide to them of their performance so far in the bar prep season, they will wonder and worry about how well they will perform on the ‘big day(s).’

As we prepare ourselves for the last few weeks of bar prep season, let’s remember that anxiety and doubt are normal for this big event. But, they don’t equal failure. Anxiety and doubt don’t mean that our students are unable to succeed. And they don’t mean that our students have not put in the necessary work to succeed.

Doubt picture

If we get an anxious and doubting student in our offices, let’s remember our anxieties and doubts about our bar exams. Let’s remember how we may have felt overwhelmed with the amount of material. And let’s remember that we, and every other licensed attorney out there, passed the exam.

The bar exam is challenging. But, it is doable. We are all proof that it is doable. With the right frame of mind and support from family, friends, and ASP professionals, we were all able to overcome the mind games. Our students can, too. (OJ Salinas)

July 10, 2017 in Advice, Bar Exam Issues, Bar Exam Preparation, Bar Exams, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Stress & Anxiety | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, May 7, 2017

Exam Study - Using Study Aids Wisely

Lately I have had a number of discussions with students about study aids and exam study. Several were on the verge of spending large sums of money on lots of study aids they did not have time to read. So here are some quick tips for using study aids wisely during exam period:

  • Read study aids selectively. If I am confused about easements, then reading a commentary on that topic to clarify the law may be very helpful. However, reading an entire 400-page commentary on property would be over-reacting and not an efficient or effective use of my time if all I am confused about is easements.
  • Read one study aid for a topic rather than several. If the first study aid that I read to clarify easements does the trick, I need to stop there. Reading two or three extra study aids on the same topic will not add much oomph and will whittle down the time I have to learn other topics.
  • Choose visuals that work for you - if visuals work for you. Crunch Time visuals are decision flowcharts. The Finals series has tree diagrams. Gilberts outlines tend to have tables, checklists, and flowcharts. Acing series often has checklists. Making your own visuals is often the most productive for deep understanding. If visuals do nothing for you, then do not use them!
  • Choose practice questions to match your exam type. Most professors tell students their exam formats: fact-pattern essays, short-answer essays, objective questions, or a mix. If I have an objective exam, then I want to focus on doing lots of objective questions. If I have an exam that is just fact-pattern essays, then those are the practice questions that I want to focus on during my study. A mixed exam should have mixed practice questions in proportion to the types.
  • Increase the difficulty of the practice questions you complete. As you become more adept, choose practice questions that are more difficult. Go from the one-issue ones in an Examples & Explanations book to the multi-issue ones in commercial outlines or other practice question series.
  • Always do any practice questions provided by your own professor. It amazes me how many students do very few of the practice questions or old exams provided by their own professors.
  • Remember to learn your professor's version of the course. Using your professor's steps of analysis, buzzwords, etc. makes it easier to find points when grading. Plus any study aid will have covered some topics for a national audience that your professor probably did not cover.

Good luck on exams! (Amy Jarmon)

May 7, 2017 in Exams - Studying | Permalink | Comments (0)

Saturday, May 6, 2017

When You Hit a Wall

As exams unfold and the bar exam looms, I find that I have to remind students that they may hit a wall in their studying at some point. By that I mean, getting to a point when your brain cannot absorb one more rule, comprehend one more practice question, or focus on one more sentence. No amount of switching tasks, switching courses, or mental pep talks will budge that mental wall. It cannot be climbed over, gone around, or blasted through no matter what is tried.

So many students keep studying any way because they fear taking a break and walking away. Time is of the essence! But, the only result they will get is hitting their heads against that same wall. Frustration, stress, and anxiety all build as they soldier on.

Hitting a wall is a major stopping point - a 10-minute break or 10 jumping jacks will not budge it. Hitting a wall is our brain's way of saying, "STOP!!! There is no door in this wall for you to walk through. Go away and come back later after a big break."

The problem with this kind of major mental block is that a complete break is needed for the student to come back refreshed. One needs to find an environment or pastime that allows no thoughts about law school or law courses or law exams.

When I was in exam period or in bar studying and hit a wall, it did not help for me to sit in my apartment and read or watch a TV show. Those books and outlines were still over in the corner, worrying me. I was surprised that as a runner and swimmer that those pursuits also did not allow me a total break. I could still worry about law while I ran or swam.

So I chose two activities that meant I would completely relax, get away from the law, and let my brain recover for a couple of hours:

  • Going to a movie theater. Once the lights went down, I would become absorbed in the movie and forget all about law school. Comedies were especially good for those laugh endorphins. Besides, I adore popcorn.
  • Playing racquetball. That hard little blue ball really hurts if you do not stay focused on the game. Whacking that little ball also got rid of lots of frustration and stress.

Students need to consider what would absorb them to the point of total relaxation. One student told me recently that she would choose playing a difficult piece of music on the piano. Another student chose playing tennis. Another prior student was a woodworker and had to concentrate totally around circular saws.

Listen to your brain. When it is telling you that it cannot do any more, take that longer break. Let your brain recuperate from all the heavy lifting for a couple of hours. Then go back refreshed and begin again. The wall will have come tumbling down by then. (Amy Jarmon)

 

May 6, 2017 in Exams - Studying, Stress & Anxiety | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Tick, Tock: Time Management During Exams

A common concern among students is how to manage their time during an exam. Many students remark that they were rushed on the final essay or had to randomly bubble the Scantron for the last five multiple-choice questions. Time got away from them, and they simply ran out of time to do a thorough job on every question.

Here are some hints to have better time management in a fact-pattern-essay exam:

  • Before you begin answering questions, look at the professor's suggestion on importance regarding each question.
  • If the professor indicates a time estimate to show importance, you know how long you should spend on the question to garner the most points and to move through the exam at the right pace. Use the time estimate given by the professor.
  • For time estimates, add all the time estimates to make sure the professor did not make a math mistake - the total should equal or be less than the total exam time.
  • If the professor does not give time suggestions but instead gives points to show importance, the point totals indicate the proportion of time for each question within the exam.
  • For points, divide the total points by the time for the exam to determine how many points you should accumulate in an hour - match the points per hour to the questions to show the pace you should move through the exam.
  • For either type of professor indication, make a time chart for each question with the following proportion given to tasks; your chart will have the starting and ending times for each task for each question:
  1. Spend 1/3 of the time for the question to read, analyze, and organize an answer - your answer will be less jumbled.
  2. Spend 2/3 of the time for the question to write the answer - follow your answer organization to make sure you discuss everything you saw.

Here are some hints to have better time management in an objective exam:

  • Let's say you have 100 questions to finish in 3 hours (1.8 minutes per question) - most students stop their time management here; not very helpful because it is extremely hard to know if you are spending too little time or too much time for a particular question, and you will get whiplash looking at your watch that often.
  • The reality is that some questions will take less than 1.8 minutes because you know the material well or they are easier, and some questions will take more than 1.8 minutes because they are harder or you are less sure of the material.
  • It is more helpful to set checkpoints for yourself to work at a consistent pace through the exam; the number of checkpoints you use will depend on your past experience with objective exams.
  1. If you tend to speed through objective questions and misread, pick by gut, make careless errors, or have other speed-demon errors, then you will want more checkpoints to slow you down for careful reading and proper analysis.
  2. If you tend to get bogged down, stew over answers, second-guess as you go along, add facts outside the question's four-corners, or have other slow-poke errors, then you will want more checkpoints to keep you moving through questions and not dawdle or spin your wheels.
  • Let's do a time chart for the example of 100 questions in 3 hours (with a starting time of 1 p.m. and ending time of 4 p.m.); a checkpoint every 30 minutes works for many people: 1:30 p.m.: 17 questions completed; 2:00 p.m.: 34 questions completed; 2:30 p.m.: 51 questions completed; 3:00 p.m.: 68 questions completed; 3:30 p.m.: 85 questions completed; 4:00 p.m.: 100 questions completed. (Do not worry about the 16.6 when you divide 100 by 6; pretend you are the IRS and round up to 17 so that you have fewer questions in the last 1/2-hour segment.)
  • Are you someone who needs more checkpoints for the same exam example? A checkpoint every 20 minutes would give you: 1:20 p.m.: 11 questions completed; 1:40 p.m.: 22 questions completed; 2:00 p.m.: 33 questions completed; 2:20 p.m.: 44 questions completed; 2:40 p.m.: 55 questions completed; 3:00 p.m.: 66 questions completed; 3:20 p.m.: 77 questions completed; 3:40 p.m.: 88 questions completed; 4:00 p.m.: 100 questions completed. (For the 11.1 when you divide 100 by 9, again pretend you are the IRS and round down to 11 questions with 12 questions for the final 20-minute segment.)
  • If you are someone who wants some time to go back and review your exam, deduct those minutes from the total exam time and spread the remaining time through your time chart in the correct proportions depending on essay or objective questions.

Some other tips about time management on exams:

  • Practice the time-charting steps when you doing your exam-worthy practice questions as you get closer to each final. If you are used to making time charts, you will be more adept at doing so in the exam itself.
  • Practice some questions under timed conditions as well; you become more comfortable with the pacing if you practice.
  • Remember that the goal is to finish the exam; keep moving through all of the questions according to your time chart.
  • Make sure that you still read the professor's exam instructions; a professor who says complete 3 of the 5 essay questions will only read 3 answers even if you ignored the instructions, time-charted well, and completed 5 essays.
  • Study the material for understanding and not just memorization; you will analyze more quickly if your understanding is deeper.
  • Open-book exams are a trap; you will not have time to look everything up, so your studying should be as strong as for a closed-book exam.
  • Complete lots of practice questions; you will analyze more quickly if you have had lots of practice with many fact scenarios before the exam.
  • If you reserve review time, be selective in what you go back to review; reviewing everything leads some students to second-guessing themselves and changing right answers.

The good news is that poor time management is an exam problem that can be remedied with smart strategies. Analyze your past time management problems and take action to correct them. (Amy Jarmon)

 

 

 

May 2, 2017 in Exams - Studying | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Learning Does Not Necessarily = Understanding (That Can't Be True, Could It?)

"What I am going to tell you about is what we teach our physics students...It is my task to convince you to not turn away because you don't understand it.  You see my physics students don't understand it...That's because I don't understand it.  Nobody does."  

- Dr. Richard P. Feynman, QED:  The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (Princeton :  1985)

 Recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics - 1965

Students and teachers, let me ask a question:  

Is it hard to learn, I mean really difficult, so much so that you aren't sure that you are getting it?  

I went through law school thinking that I didn't learn anything because I didn't understand anything.  And, it's true!  I didn't understand anything!  But, I did learn.  

So, here's the truth.  We don't have to understand it all to learn the law.  Rather, true learning comes through realizing that we don't understand it all; that we have lots of unanswered questions; that we are puzzled and perplexed beyond belief.  That's downright uncomfortable but that's learning for you!

However, that makes me worried, as a teacher, because I've started to think that I understand the law, that I understand legal analysis, that I understand how to carefully craft a persuasive legal argument.  

But no one really understands the law.  How could one?  

When I start to think that I understand the law, I end up making it all so simple that what I am teaching or studying or reviewing no longer has any correspondence at all to reality.  So, let's face the music.  That's a grave error because life is not simple (and the law is all about disputes among real actual complicated live people).

So, as you prepare for your finals (and teachers as you reflect on your teaching), do yourself a big favor and be comfortable with uncertainty.  Don't feel like you need to understand it all.  Rather, jump into the materials; they are full of suspense and conflicts with puzzles abounding in all directions.  And, that's a good thing because that's the life of the law.  So, feel free to be honest with yourself and say that you don't understand it all.  And, in the process, you'll have taken one mighty big step on the path to true learning!  (Scott Johns).

 

 

April 27, 2017 in Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Fighting Procrastination

Is procrastination nipping at your heels? Are you delaying because it all seems overwhelming? Here are some quotes about procrastination that may give you the inspiration to get started:

  • You don't have to see the whole staircase, just take the first step. - Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • The best way to get something done is to begin. - Author unknown
  • The only difference between success and failure is the ability to take action. - Alexnder Graham Bell
  • If and When were planted, and Nothing grew. - Proverb
  • Stop talking. Start walking. - L.M. Heroux
  • This one makes a net, this one stands and wishes. Would you like to make a bet which one gets the fishes? - Chinese rhyme
  • Procrastination is the grave in which opportunity is buried. - Author unknown
  • Procrastination is like a credit card: it's a lot of fun until you get the bill. - Christopher Parker
  • You can eat an elephant one bite at a time. - Chinese proverb
  • To think too long about doing a thing often is its undoing. - Eva Young
  • Doing just a little bit during the time we have available puts you that much further ahead than if you took no action at all. - Byron Pulsifer
  • You cannot plow a field by turning it over in your mind. - Author unkown
  • I don't wait for moods. You accomplish nothing if you do that. Your mind must know it has got to get down to work. - Pearl S. Buck
  • The sooner work is begun, the sooner it is done. - Author unkown

Take a deep breath. Beginning is the hardest. Begin with an easy task, a tiny task, one page, one paragraph. Once you have begun, you are likely to find it possible to continue. (Amy Jarmon)

April 25, 2017 in Exams - Studying | Permalink | Comments (0)