Law School Academic Support Blog

Editor: Amy Jarmon
Texas Tech Univ. School of Law

Monday, October 30, 2017

Outlining=A Better Understanding of the Doctrinal Materials

I mentioned last week that 1Ls are likely starting to think hard about outlining for their podium courses. With the end of October approaching, students need to focus some of their precious time on preparing for their final exams. It takes a while for some students to shift their focus. But, those students who take time to prepare for final exams may often feel more confident and less stressed come the end of the semester. And a more confident and less stressed student may be better able to focus and demonstrate to the professor what he/she knows about the doctrinal subject come December.

One way students can to start feeling more confident and less stressed is by organizing their class notes around big picture rules in an outline. Students can insert into the outline various hypotheticals that test these big picture rules. The professor in the Socratic class could have generated these hypotheticals. They could also be pulled from other sources, like law school study aids or from the casebooks’ Notes and Decisions. Or, better yet, students can try to generate the hypotheticals on their own.

An outline can take many shapes or forms. What’s important is that each student focuses on what helps him/her best understand the material. What’s also important is that students try to create their outlines on their own. It’s cliché—but, a huge part of the learning process is synthesizing all the materials that each student has available to him/her and putting it down in the outline. Working with the materials and thinking about how and why the materials fit into the doctrinal course can help solidify or create a better understanding of the material. And who doesn’t want a better understanding of the material before finals? (OJ Salinas)

October 30, 2017 in Advice, Current Affairs, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Exams - Theory, Learning Styles, Miscellany, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Sunday, October 29, 2017

How's Your Motivation?

We are at a time in the semester when students may be having motivation problems. Yet this is also the time in the semester when they need to stay motivated. Here are some tips to keep on track during the remainder of the semester when focusing on school work becomes difficult:

  • Breaking large tasks into smaller tasks to make them less daunting can help motivate you to get your work done. It is easier to get motivated to read 5 pages than 30 pages or to outline one subtopic than an entire topic. On your to-do list, list 6 blocks of 5 pages rather than 30 pages together; list multiple subtopics rather than an outline topic. Cross off each smaller task as you complete it to see your progress.
  • If you are having severe problems in your motivation to even get started on a small task on your to-do list, make the task even smaller. Tell yourself to read just one page or to outline just the first rule. Still problems? Then tell yourself one paragraph or one element of the rule. There is a point when you will realize it is ridiculous that you cannot complete a teeny task and thus might as well get started. Getting starting is usually the hardest part; most people can continue once they get started.
  • Congratulate yourself each time you finish a task. Pat yourself on the back for your diligence. Set up a reward system: small rewards (cup of coffee, 5-minute meditation, snack) for small tasks; medium rewards (15-minute walk, short phone call with a friend, 2 short chapters in a fluff novel) for medium tasks; big rewards (a restaurant dinner, going to the cinema, an hour's play with a pet) for big tasks. Choose rewards that are meaningful for you.
  • Avoid the moaners and groaners among your fellow law students. Hearing other people whine, complain, or spread doom and gloom affects your own mood. Wish your pessimistic classmate luck and walk away before you get infected with negativity.
  • Find places to study away from the law school if necessary to stay motivated and positive: the main university library, other academic buildings, your apartment complex business center, the public library.
  • Stop comparing yourself to others. Yes, there are a lot of bright people here in law school. But remember that you were admitted because you also are one of those bright people. Besides, you are comparing yourself to the facades that others are projecting. This point in the semester causes a lot of false bravado that may not be backed up with as many study hours, as much exam preparedness, and as much confidence in reality. 
  • If you are not good at staying positive and motivated, ask a family member or friend to become Chief Encourager. Call or meet with that person for a pep talk each day. In addition, read positive scriptures, quotes, or sayings each morning and each evening to keep you motivated - maybe even post them around your apartment.
  • An accountability partner may also be needed in addition to an encourager. Meet another law student at a certain time at the library. Each of you will do your own work, but having to meet gets you where you need to be to start studying. It stops you from spending another hour watching TV or playing video games at home.
  • Watch out for de-motivating blood sugar drops in the afternoon. If you start to drag mid-afternoon, have a healthy snack: apple, granola bar, handful of nuts, yogurt, etc. Keep snacks in your backpack or carrel to provide a quick energy boost.
  • Sunlight affects your mood. To combat the fall blahs, take a few minutes each afternoon to get outside the law building or your apartment and into the sun. Walk around the outside of the law building two times. Sit on your patio in the sun.
  • Get enough sleep. Eat nutritious meals. Get some exercise. All of these lifestyle factors affect motivation. It is hard to stay focused on your studies if you are tired, hungry, wired on sugar and caffeine, or imitating a slug.

If you need help getting organized and motivated, visit with the Academic Support Professionals at your law school to get some assistance. I guarantee you that you will not be the first law student they have seen struggling with motivation. (Amy Jarmon)

October 29, 2017 in Encouragement & Inspiration, Miscellany, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, October 26, 2017

A Decision for Now: California Supreme Court Maintains Current Bar Cut Score

Hat tip to Professor Mainero at Chapman...

In a recent new release from the California Supreme Court, the Court set out its reasons for not adjusting that state's current minimum passing bar exam score of 144 (1440 or 72 percent):  

https://newsroom.courts.ca.gov/news/supreme-court-issues-letter-relating-to-in-re-california-bar-exam

In the release, the Court discusses the following major points.

  1. The California Bar Exam has seen wide fluctuations in first-time pass rates since the state first begin using the current cut score of 144 (1440 or 72 percent) in 1987, and that more recent bar exam pass rate declines mirror bar exam pass rate declines across the nation based on published NCBE research findings.
  2. The Court acknowledged that the current cut score was "not established through a standard setting study," i.e., whether the bar exam's cut score measures minimum competency, and that most if not many states similarly lack such research studies.
  3. Thus, using July 2016 answers and scores with a panel of court-appointed subject matter experts, an independent psychometrician largely concluded that the a score of 139 (1390) [69.5%] was the baseline value for measuring minimum competency (though the study was questioned by two independent researchers and by many in the legal education community).
  4. Based on largely on the lack of data, the Court at this point in time is not convinced that the cut score needs adjustment based on either the independent psychometrician's research nor based on the numerous amicus letters the Court received.
  5. The Court will revisit the issue based on any "appropriate recommendation."

For those of us in the ASP community, we were hopeful.  But, even though at least for now the Court did not amend the cut score, perhaps there is still a glimmer of sun shining through this news release right into our domain of expertise.  

That's because the Court then goes on to "encourage[]  the State Bar and all California law schools to work cooperatively together and with others in examining (1) whether student metrics, law school curricula and teaching techniques, and other factors might account for the recent decline in bar exam pass rates; (2) how such data might inform efforts to improve academic instruction for the benefit of law students preparing for licensure and practice; and (3) whether and to what extent changes implemented for the first time during administration of the July 2017 exam — that is, adoption of a two-day exam and equal weighting of the written and multiple choice portions of the exam — might bear on possible adjustment of the pass score. 

Speaking plainly, the Court is reaching out to each of us in the field to provide the evidence as to what have actually been the factors in the most recent declines in bar pass rates (and how to improve legal education and the licensure exam).  At least based on our own research study, it's not due to LSAT declines.  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2842415.  That's because we have seen dramatic swings in bar passage rates with very little fluctuation in LSAT scores at the 25 percentile and the mean.  In other words, it seems like LSAT scores have, at least in our case, played very little (to no) role.  If not LSAT, then what?

Well, here's a possible list of some of the factors:

  1. Increases in student debt loads.
  2. Increases in the numbers of bar takers studying largely or solely through online bar review learning platforms despite years of experience primarily as classroom learners.
  3. Changes in the bar exam subjects matter scope or format.
  4. Changes in the way(s) that we teach students to learn (and perhaps changes in the way students learn).

That's just a few possible other factors.  But, without evidence, at this point in time the California Supreme Court will not adjust its bar exam cut score.  

So, the time is ripe (or, to use a bit of contrast law terminology, "time is of the essence") in providing the Court, legal educators, the bar, and the public with what might be the appropriate cut score to measure minimum competency and whether the bar exam itself is actually up to the task.  So, make your voice known today; share your thoughts and inspirations.  Put it down perhaps in a draft SSRN article or essay or your own blog.  But, make a record of what you know because what you know might make a real difference down the line in empowering people to succeed on the bar exam and as professional attorneys too!  Simply put, there's no time to waste.  (Scott Johns)

 

October 26, 2017 in Bar Exam Issues, Bar Exam Preparation, Encouragement & Inspiration | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Thank You for Helping My Daughter

On an average day in my office critiquing a student’s essay, the phone rang and I picked it up saying hello. The caller identified himself but I was unsure about who he was. I asked him to kindly repeat the name. He repeated his name and qualified it by saying I am the parent of law student XYZ. I then immediately recognized who the person on the other end of the phone was. I had met this parent and his daughter prior to the start of the semester. At that time, we had an interesting conversation and he asked me to “look out” for his daughter as she began her law school journey. Once I recalled the earlier conversation, we proceeded to have a fruitful phone conversation during which the parent highlighted information from recent conversations with his daughter. He said that his daughter mentioned that I was very helpful to her, the various programs offered by my office were of great assistance and significantly contributed to her smooth transition to law school. The parent further indicated that the phone call was to thank me for all I had done thus far for his daughter. I was shocked and equally touched probably because I have never before had such a conversation with the parent of a student other than at graduation when the law school journey is over. This very brief conversation with the parent reconfirmed a fundamental reason for enjoying what I get to do.

I have heard the many conversations about undergraduate “helicopter parents” and how they are progressively becoming graduate and professional school “helicopter parents” but as an academic support professional, I have not yet fully experienced this phenomenon. Moreover, I would not characterize my interaction with this parent as “helicopter parent” in nature. I do not see how a parent’s expression of gratitude is comparable to a parent who might have excessive and overprotective interest in their child’s life. If I were interacting with a helicopter parent, I would expect to receive regular phone calls or email messages and would be peppered with questions, suggestions, and expectations.

We do not always reflect on the impact we have on the students we interact with. I must admit that I do get into the groove of the semester and perform certain tasks on autopilot as I manage each and every task, situation, or challenge. I may be on autopilot but I am well aware of the unique needs of individual students. I must admit that I can be quite demanding of certain students, especially when I see their potential and communicate it to them, as some students require a more tactful approach and a few more words of encouragement. How I engage with students may vary based on what I know about the student, what motivates them, what keeps them going, and what they need to be redirected and/or re-energized. Appreciation, recognition, and gratitude are all motivating factors that are of immense value to students we interact with. (Goldie Pritchard)

Giphy (2)

October 25, 2017 in Encouragement & Inspiration | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, October 23, 2017

The End of October is Approaching

It’s hard to believe that we are already heading towards the end of October. It seems like the Fall semester just started.

As the end of October approaches, many students are trying to figure out what they plan to wear for their Halloween parties. They are also trying to figure out what they need to do for the rest of the semester as well.

By now, 1Ls have heard of this “outlining” word. But, they may not fully understand what it means. They have read and briefed most of their cases, but they may not have a good grasp of how these cases link up with one another in their doctrinal classes. They may have been so focused on writing down and remembering each miniscule detail from their cases that they have neglected to see how each case from their individual doctrinal classes ties in with every other case in those classes. They may not be ready to attack a large final exam question that assesses their ability to analyze the various legal issues that they have covered throughout the semester.

As law school academic support professionals, we should be ready to assist 1L students as they negotiate the latter part of their first semester. Let’s remember that most 1Ls may not, at this point, fully understand the big picture law for each of their doctrinal subjects. Let’s remember that many 1Ls may not have fully practiced issue spotting and exam writing. Let’s be ready with a non-judgmental and empathic listening ear so that we can best serve each individual student. (OJ Salinas)

October 23, 2017 in Advice, Current Affairs, Disability Matters, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Miscellany, Professionalism, Reading, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, October 16, 2017

October Slump and Shout-Outs

I first want to provide a special shout-out to Russell McClain, the University of Baltimore School of Law, and everyone involved with the planning and running of the Association of Academic Support Educators (AASE) Diversity Conference. The presentations and accompanying dialogue were informative and thought provoking. And, as always, the camaraderie among the law school academic support community and the community’s genuine interest in law student success were inspiring and helped serve as continued motivation to push us through the rest of the academic semester.

I also want to provide a separate shout-out to my colleague, Rachel Gurvich. I have mentioned Rachel’s name and Twitter handle (@RachelGurvich) on several occasions at law school conferences and on this blog. Rachel recently wrote an ASP-ish post on The #Practice Tuesday blog. The post, entitled, “It’s not so shiny anymore: 1Ls and the October slump”, provides seven tips on how 1Ls can push through the rest of the academic semester. I encourage you and your students to take a look at the post and follow Rachel on Twitter. She’s a great colleague and resource at Carolina and beyond—her Tweets have reached and supported law students throughout the country, including this one and this one.

Rachel and Sean Marotta (@smmarotta) started The #Practice Tuesday blog as an opportunity to expand their #Practice Tuesday discussions on Twitter. On Tuesday afternoons, Rachel and Sean lead great discussions on “advice and musings on legal practice and the profession.” Participants in the discussions include practitioners, judges, and law school faculty and students throughout the country. Feel free to join in on the conversations!

Again, thanks to Russell McClain and everyone involved with the AASE Diversity Conference! And, thanks, to my amazing colleague Rachel Gurvich! (OJ Salinas)

October 16, 2017 in Advice, Current Affairs, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Meetings, Miscellany, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General, Teaching Tips, Weblogs | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, October 12, 2017

The Smart-Phone Dilemna: "Blood Pressure Spikes, Pulse Quickens, Problem-Solving Skills Decline," says Columnist

 As recently reported by columnist Nicholas Carr, if you have a smart phone, you'll likely be "consulting the glossy little rectangle nearly 30,000 times over the coming year." 

Most of us don't think that's too awful.  I certainly depend on mine...and all the time.  It's become my phone, my mailbox, my knowledge bank, my companion, my navigator, my weather channel, to name just a few of the wonderful conveniences of this remarkable nano-technology.  But, here's the rub.  Accordingly to Mr. Carr, there are numerous research studies that, as the headline above suggests, indicate that smart phone access is harmful, well, to one's intellectual, emotional, and perhaps even bodily health.  

Let me just share a few of the cited studies from Mr. Carr's article on "How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds."  https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-smartphones-hijack-our-minds-1507307811?mod=e2tw

First, as reported by Mr. Carr, there's a California study that suggests that the mere presence of smart phones hampers our intellectual problem-solving abilities.  In the study of 520 undergraduate students, the researches - using a TED lecture talk - tested students on their exam performance based on their understanding of the lecture with the students divided into three separate groups.  In one classroom, the students placed their cellphones in front of them during the lecture and the subsequent exam.  In another classroom the students had to stow their cellphones so that they didn't have immediate access (i.e., sort of an "out-of-sight--out-of-mind" approach).  In the last classroom situation, the students had to leave their cellphones in a different room from the lecture hall.  Almost all of the students reported that the placement or access of their cell phones did not compromise their exam performance in anyway.  But, the test results shockingly indicated otherwise.  The students with cellphones on their desks performed the worst on the exam. In addition, even the students with the cellphones stowed performed not nearly as good as the students who were not permitted to bring cellphones to the lecture.  Apparently, just the knowledge that one's cellphone is ready and standing by negatively impacts learning.

Second, also as reported by Mr. Carr, there's a Arkansas study that suggests that students can improve their exam performance by a whole letter grade merely by leaving one's cellphone behind when headed to classes.  In that study of 160 students, the researchers found that those students who had their phones with them in a lecture class, even if they did not access or use them, performed substantially worse than those students that abandoned their cellphones prior to class, based on test results on cognitive understanding of the lecture material.  In other words, regardless of whether one uses one's cellphone during class, classroom learning appears to be compromised just with the presence of one's cellphone.

Third, as again reported by Mr. Carr, cellphone access or proximity not only hinders learning but also harms social communication and interpersonal skills.  In this United Kingdom study, researches divided people into pairs and asked them to have a 10-minute conversation.  Some pairs of conversationalists were placed into a room in which there was a cellphone present.  The other pairs were placed in rooms in which there were no cell phones available.  The participants were then given tests to measure the depth of the conversation that the subjects experienced based on measures of affinity, trust, and empathy.  The researches found that the mere presence of cellphones in the conversational setting harmed interpersonal skills such as empathy, closeness, and trust, and the results were most harmful when the topics discussed were "personally meaningful topic[s]."  In sum, two-way conversations aren't necessary two-way when a cellphone is involved, even if it is not used.

Finally, Mr. Carr shares research out of Columbia University that suggests that our trust in smartphones and indeed the internet compromises our memorization abilities.  In that study, the researches had participants type out the facts surrounding a noteworthy news event with one set of participants being told that what they typed would be captured by the computer while the other set of subjects were told that the facts would be immediately erased from the computer.  The researchers then tested the participants abilities to accurately recall the factual events.  Those that trusted in the computer for recall had much more difficulty recalling the facts than those who were told that they couldn't rely on the computer to retain the information.  In other words, just the thought that our computers will accurately record our notes for later use, might harm our abilities to recall and access information.  And, as Mr. Carr suggests, "only by encoding information in our biological memory can we weave the rich intellectual associations that form the essence of personal knowledge and give rise to critical and conceptual thinking.  No matter how much information swirls around us, the less well-stocked our memory, the less we have to think with."

Plainly, that's a lot to think about.  And, with all of the conversations swirling about as to whether teachers should ban laptops from classrooms, it might just add "fuel to the fire."  On that question, this article does not opine.  But, regardless of whether you take notes on a computer or not, according to the research, there's an easy way to raise your letter grade by one grade.  Just leave your smartphone at home, at your apartment, or in your locker...whenever you go to classes.  (Scott Johns).

 

 

October 12, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, October 9, 2017

Dare to Disclose?

The counseling field has often highlighted the benefits of some personal disclosure from therapists to their clients. Some cited benefits include increased trust and rapport, as well validation of the clients’ experiences.

Join me this week at the Inaugural Diversity Conference for the Association of Academic Support Educators (AASE) in Baltimore, Maryland, for a moderated discussion on the benefits of academic support professionals sharing personal stories and struggles with their students.

Participants will be encouraged to share their experiences (i.e., their stories or struggles) relating to diversity and inclusion or their law school experience in general. These experiences may either be personal stories or struggles or stories related to students that the participants may have worked with in their capacity as academic support professionals. As presenters and participants share their stories, the “listening” participants will be modeling and reviewing some of the same active listening skills and nonverbal behaviors that academic support professionals should be engaging in when they work with students in either individual or group conferences.

Hope to see you in Maryland! (OJ Salinas)

October 9, 2017 in Advice, Disability Matters, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Learning Styles, Meetings, Miscellany, News, Professionalism, Program Evaluation, Stress & Anxiety, Teaching Tips | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Letter from a Bar Coach to Her Goal Achievers

The hustle and bustle of day to day academic support life does not always allow for me to say all that I would like to say to the countless students who contact me to let me know that they passed the bar exam. In the moment, I am excited, I might scream, my heart and my soul are filled with joy, and I might even shed a tear as the bar passer and I recall the challenges they overcame to make it to this point. While addressed to one individual, this letter addresses most of what I would have liked to say but may not have. I am certain that I missed something so please forgive me in advance.

Dear Achiever,

I am so very proud of you!!! You passed the bar exam and did it on the first try! You should be very proud of yourself and your accomplishments. I am certain that your family is very excited for you. Many of your former law school colleagues have stopped by to ask whether I heard about your success and expressed their joy, excitement, and pride. You are an inspiration, a role model, and mentor to others who will walk in your shoes very soon so please do not take that role lightly. I also look to you for support of soon to be bar takers so please do not forget to provide me with any advice you have for those who will soon sit for your state bar exam.

At this time, passing the bar might be a surreal experience but I am here to remind you that you did it. I also want to remind you of what it took for you to get here because the journey was not a simple walk in the park. You sacrificed a lot in the past three years. Was it worth it to you? I want you to take some time prior to your swearing-in ceremony, prior to the start of your job, prior to your journey to finding a job, or prior to the official start of your legal journey to reflect on your legal education journey so that you never forget what it took to achieve this success.

Remember the community you come from and what lead you to consider pursuing a law degree. Maybe you are a first-generation college student, first-generation graduate, or first-generation professional school student so you had to sort through how to navigate the necessary steps to attend law school. Maybe everyone around you said you could not make it to or through law school or maybe you had a supportive family who believed that you could achieve anything and you were slated for success. Maybe you were the only one in your community to graduate from high school and/or college. But you did it and that in itself is an achievement you should be proud of.

Remember all that you sacrificed to attend law school and how much of a toll it took on you, your children, your marriage, your girlfriend, your boyfriend, your family, and all those around you. Maybe you moved from across the country to attend law school. Maybe you gave up a well- paying job to live like a college student to pursue your dream of obtaining a legal education. Maybe you left an environment you felt comfortable in to move to one where you stuck out like a sore thumb and never really understood or felt a part of. Maybe you had to leave significant others behind or become a different type of parent, husband, wife, girlfriend, boyfriend, son, daughter, brother, or sister to achieve your dream. Maybe you were not as “present” as you used to be, missed holiday celebrations, and other significant life events to obtain your law degree.

Remember the countless hours you devoted to law school studies and bar exam studies. Maybe you were admitted through a conditional admission program, alternative admission program, or simply opted to participate in a pre-law school program, early start program or jump start program. Maybe reading cases, understanding concepts, briefing, outlining, and drafting memoranda took you longer than the next person to master or at least get comfortable with. Maybe law school studies posed the first academic challenge you have ever experienced in life. Maybe you sacrificed hours on course preparation, did not yield the expected results but you kept going. Maybe you experienced many challenges during your summer bar studies. You had no idea how you would manage all of the subject matter and apply it when necessary. Maybe your scores and feedback on essays, Multistate Bar Exams (MBE), Multistate Performance Tests (MPT) and mock bar exams were subpar and you were unsure about whether you would pass the bar exam. Maybe your entry credentials did not “guarantee” law school or bar exam success but you nevertheless dispelled every single one of those myths - you PASSED!

Remember when you said that you were “over law school”, law school was not for you, and you wanted to and also planned to go back home and never return. Maybe you felt like an impostor, alienated, alone, pushed to your limit. What would have happened had you given up on your dream? Would you have experienced the success you now have? The world would have lost an amazing attorney, YOU!

Remember when you ran out of funds and had no food to eat, no means to buy books, and thought you might become homeless. You became resourceful, learned about the options available to you, and overcame each and every one of those obstacles. Your classmates, professors, friends, and family may not have known about your needs and thought you were doing alright. Remember when your grandmother passed away, when your classmate passed away, when your mother or your father told you they had cancer, and when you faced countless other tragedies. Those experiences may make you relatable to some of the clients you will encounter or at the very least will motivate you to support causes that impact various indigent, disenfranchised, and struggling communities and individuals. You are also a stronger person because of what you have experienced.

You did that! No one else! You stared fear and challenges in the eye and emerged stronger, wiser, and capable. Someone once told me: “what is meant for you is yours, and no one can ever take it away.” This statement holds true for you.

You are an amazing person! You inspire me every day and by sharing your story with me, many others will benefit. You persisted in the face of challenges when some others gave up.

My only advice is that you remember the positive things others did for you and do it for someone else if and whenever you are able to. That is the biggest reward you will ever experience. My role as your coach was to push you so that you would see your endless potential and to propel you beyond your own limited dreams and aspirations because hopefully, I saw more in you than you saw in yourself. Remember all that you are, all that you experienced, all that you accomplished and did not accomplish, and where you have been. Never be so important as to deny your ability to lift someone else up. You are done with one challenge and I am certain that you will experience countless others in the months and years to come but you are equipped for it all. Believe it!

All of the very best,

 

Your ASP and Bar Coach (Goldie Pritchard)

October 4, 2017 in Advice, Bar Exam Issues, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, October 2, 2017

Hypothetically Speaking . . . .

I mentioned last week that students don’t have to wait until final exams at the end of the semester to find out whether they have a good understanding of what their doctrinal professors are teaching. Since most law school classes don’t have traditional periodic tests, I encouraged students to use their professors’ various “what ifs” and “how abouts” to test their understanding of key rules and concepts that the professors are covering in class.

Students: If you are able to answer the professors’ hypotheticals—whether out loud or in your head—you are positioning yourself well to answer the professors’ hypotheticals on their final exams.

A final exam is often just a mixture of a bunch of hypotheticals in one or two large stories. The hypotheticals test your recollection and understanding of key rules that you have covered throughout the semester. The hypotheticals also test your ability to identify and apply significant facts within the hypotheticals to your key rules. This application of law to facts is legal analysis. The better your legal analysis is on a final exam, the more likely you will get a better grade.

But, I know the Socratic class can often be an intimidating and difficult experience, particularly for many 1L students. I know it is not easy sitting in a Socratic class worrying about getting called on—I’ve been there, and I didn’t particularly like it. I disliked the Socratic class so much that I wanted to quit law school after my first year (That story is for another blog post; but you can read a little more about my law school experience here.)

I feared speaking up in the Socratic class because I didn’t want to be seen as incompetent. I worried too much about what my professors or my peers might have thought about me during that moment right after the professor called my name in class. I worried about getting the professor's question wrong. I worried about appearing nervous. I worried.

It took me a long while to adjust to the type of teaching in the Socratic class. It took me a long while to realize that it didn't matter if I was nervous or got a question wrong--what mattered was how I did on the final exams. 

So, I wanted to do what I could to prepare for the final exams. I tried to do a lot of preparation outside of class. I read my cases. But, I also used study aids to help give me context for what I was reading. The study aids also provided me with a bunch of hypotheticals where I could practice my legal analysis.

I practiced my legal analysis within the confines of my safe apartment where I didn’t have to worry about others “judging” me if my voice cracked or was shaky or when I didn’t answer a question correctly. I trained myself on issue spotting and applying law to facts so that I could feel more confident not only in the Socratic class, but on the final exams as well. And things turned out okay for me. The guy who wanted to quit law school after his 1L year is now teaching in a law school.

It’s funny how things turn out. And things can turn out well for you, too. Try to engage with your professors’ hypotheticals. If you are not fully able to engage with the hypotheticals in class, look for ways to engage with hypotheticals outside of the potentially intimidating classroom. Like anything in life, the more you practice, the better you will get. And you have an entire semester to practice for your big day (and it won't matter on that big day whether your voiced ever cracked in class or whether you got a question wrong when the professor called on you). (OJ Salinas)

October 2, 2017 in Advice, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Exams - Theory, Learning Styles, Miscellany, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, September 28, 2017

Illustrating the Law Thru "Picture Books": An Ancient Practice that Might Help in Learning Today!

Perhaps surprisingly, there might be some ancient history right under your nose illustrating the value of creating "picture-books" to teach, guide, synthesis, and communicate legal principles at work.  At least, that's the case at one law school's library (and it might be the same at your law library).  

As related by the Wall Street Journal, the use of illustrations to depict the law is nothing new.  And, it's not really old either because a brief internet search provides lots of exemplars, even in legal educational settings, of the value of "seeing" the law through pictures and illustrations.  So, as you approach midterms or just want to help catch the "big picture" overview of your notes and outlines, feel free to doodle.  Let yourself go wild with your legal imagination.  Create something in a picture, as they say, that is worth a thousand words.  That will be a great way to remember all of those words without having to try to even remember them!  

For your reference, here's the article:  https://www.wsj.com/articles/laws-picture-books-the-yale-law-library-collection-illustrating-the-letter-of-the-law-1506460653 (Scott Johns)

September 28, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Post-Graduation Interaction with Academic Support

Does academic support extend beyond the law school environment and the time students are at an institution?  Does it take on a different form?  Is it even academic support anymore?  We have a general idea of what academic support offices do and the nature and purpose of our interactions with students.  Most of our interactions revolve around helping students develop skills to be academically successful and successful on the bar exam.  Certain interactions permit us to get to know some of our students as more than just an individual who has difficulty outlining or organizing answers to essay questions.  We get to know about where the student hails from, their interests, their life’s challenges, their journey to law school, and sometimes, rare information about their families.  Do those relationships stop there?

My answer is no.  Post-graduation interactions initially begin as pure focus on taking and passing the bar exam.  Later, conversations shift to career opportunities, careers, people management, and life management.  In sum, the interactions are less academic support related and more “human” focused.  This indicates that academic support is an institutional community building tool that may not be visible to many.  Once conversations shift to career development, they typically relate to job search successes and wows, strategic job searching, and career challenges.  I am by no means a career services expert; therefore, I direct my students to that office for support and assistance.  Most of my conversations pertain to what I know about alums, their interests, the truth about their strategies and approaches, and considering worse case scenarios and options.  We have “real talk sessions” that culminate into unique holistic conversations. 

When I am not speaking with first career or first “real job” alums, I speak with former students who have worked for one to five years and have decided to make a career change or are sorting through how to navigate office politics.  Included in our discussions are debates about what it means to be a woman and/or a person of color in legal and non-legal environments and the nature of their interactions with men, other people of color, and people not of color.  Alums often share personal stories and all of sudden, we have created an impromptu professional development session for all of us.  While interactions with alums might not be specifically “ASP” related, they often provide me with information that I can then use to encourage and help current students.  I have also built a network of alums that I can call on and know will be responsive if I need help with bar preparation advice or individuals I can connect with a current student from a similar background in need of support and direction that I know I am unable to provide them with.  Alums are also a good source of assessment of various programs offered by my office because they will tell me the truth.  They know that I will not take offense as I am simply trying to improve what I do to help students like them (Goldie Pritchard).

September 27, 2017 in Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Professionalism | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 25, 2017

We Are Not in College Anymore

We are several weeks into the Fall semester. 1L students are starting to get a little better handle on what law school is all about. If they didn’t know this already, they are starting to realize that law school is much different than college.

There are no boldface words and glossaries in the law school casebooks. The Socratic class is not filled with a professor lecturing at passive students for the duration of class. And there are few, if any, written “chapter tests” during the semester so that students can assess their understanding of the material.

But, there are many opportunities throughout the semester where students can assess whether they are picking up what they should pick up in the course. These opportunities happen every day in class as a result of the often-dreaded Socratic method (and I dreaded it when I was a 1L--but, that story is for another blog post).

The professors’ many “what ifs” and “how abouts” give students opportunities to test their understanding of the relevant law; they are given chances to apply this law to many factual scenarios—which, in turn, help the students become better issue-spotters and legal analysts. And, as we all know in the ASP world, the more issues a student is able to spot and analyze on a law school final exam, the more likely that student will gain more points on the professor’s final exam rubric.

So, students: Try to engage with the professors’ hypotheticals in class—even when you have not been cold called in class to verbally answer the questions. Try to answer the questions to yourself in your own head. If you can’t come up with an answer to a hypothetical, write the question down on your notes and revisit that question after class or on the weekend when you review what you have covered in class for the week. You may not have come up with the answer in class. But, that doesn’t mean you can’t come up with the answer on the final exam--when it really counts!

One of the many differences from college and law school is that you don’t have several formal written tests throughout the semester; you often only have one exam at the end of the semester per course that often dictates your entire semester course grade. Try to prepare for that final exam every day in class when you engage with the professors’ hypotheticals, and practice the legal analysis skills that will help make you a better law school test-taker and, eventually, lawyer. (OJ Salinas)

September 25, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Exams - Theory, Learning Styles, Miscellany, Professionalism, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

I Understand Everything…

“I understand everything we have covered thus far and I am able to follow along in class!” This statement summarizes what I have heard thus far this academic year from several first year law students and I have to say that I am a little concerned. In the past, very few first year students verbalized such sentiments. Some students have an acumen for law school learning and do in fact understand and know what they need to do. Others think they “understand everything” but when pressed, realize there might be a little more that they could work on. I am always apprehensive when students display such confidence so early in the semester. What further concerns me is that several of my upper level students have also heard the same from first year students and expressed their concern to me. Could this be a new phenomenon? Is this a rare group of first year students? Do more students have an acumen for law school learning or am I simply hyperaware of first year law students I interact with?

There is often a very thin line between confidence and overconfidence.  It is my opinion that some confidence about law school ability is good, particularly with courses that employ the Socratic Method.  The faster a student understands why the course is lead using the Socratic Method and overcomes the fear and embarrassment of providing an incorrect answer or simply being on the spot, the more meaningful the learning experience becomes.   Students who recognize that the Socratic Method is not an affront on their intelligence, ability, knowledge, and/or understanding are apt to have a very positive learning experience.  However, the danger of getting too comfortable with the in-class dynamics and forgetting that their exams require written responses demanding them to tap into their ability to communicate their understanding in writing.  Some students bypass arriving at this point because early on, they were significantly disarmed by the teaching technique that they never regained their confidence and sense of self as they were distracted by the emotions generated by the Socratic exchange.

Belief in one’s ability is always good as it allows students to reach heights of academic performance but overconfidence, an excessive sense of assurance in one’s ability, can be counterproductive. Overconfidence often prevents students from taking advantage of opportunities and programs destined to develop and challenge them to the next level of excellence. Often, overly confident students do not take advantage of Teaching Assistant lead directed study groups, skills workshops, review sessions, and other programming intended to help students excel. They may also have a group of a few upper level students they listen to and hang on to each word they utter. However, some of the advice might be misleading because often time upper level students forget their journey and process. They focus on end techniques they deem effective, forgetting that trial and error allowed the development of such effective processes. Overconfident students are individuals who may or may not stop by my office in the spring semester to solicit assistance only to realize that several of their requests and concerns were addressed in programming in the fall semester. They missed an opportunity and have to visit these skills for the first time in the spring.

I sincerely hope that my concerns about my first year law students are misplaced; nevertheless, I anticipate a busy spring semester. (Goldie Pritchard)

September 20, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 18, 2017

1L Enrichment Groups

I am having an Enrichment Group Leaders training meeting today at noon. So, I have enrichment groups on my mind (hence, the blog post!). Perhaps, many of you are also working with enrichment groups or are thinking about developing enrichment groups. I am sure many of us would love to chat and learn more about our various programs and how we can continue to best serve our students. We can continue the conversation via email or on Twitter (tweet me @ojsalinas, and use #lawschoolASP).

Like many law school academic success programs throughout the country, we provide an opportunity for our 1L students to get additional training and support from upper level students. One way that we provide this opportunity to our 1Ls is through participation in Enrichment Groups.

Every 1L student at Carolina Law is invited to participate in our Academic Excellence Program Enrichment Groups. These groups are run by upper level law students who have done well in school and have shown the ability to do well in mentoring and meeting with students. 1Ls are assigned to their groups based on their 1L professors, and the groups are “tied” to two of the 1L casebook classes—with one upper level student “Enrichment Group Leader” often taking the lead on one of the two casebook classes.

The groups typically meet once a week for about 50 minutes starting late September. The groups alternate discussing ASP topics related to one of their two casebook classes during the group meetings. These topics change as the 1Ls advance during the semester. So, the initial group meeting may simply focus on developing rapport within the group and identifying group member goals for choosing to participate in the group. The next groups may focus on taking notes and case reading for the particular casebook classes. Later group meetings may introduce outlining and the use of study aids to help review practice questions related to the casebook classes. And, finally, we try to end our semester with a practice exam for each of the two casebook classes.

We generally have strong positive feedback from our 1Ls on our Enrichment Groups. Students typically feel that the groups are great ways to provide additional support and guidance in their classes. They also like the idea that these study groups are voluntary and that the groups are already formed for them—the students don’t have to worry about not getting “chosen” or “asked” to join a particular study group.

As I mentioned, I am having a training session for our Enrichment Group Leaders this afternoon. One thing that we try to emphasize with our leaders and their group participants is that the leaders are not “tutors.” They are not there to teach the 1Ls the substantive law, and they certainly don’t replace their law school professors. While the leaders have done well in the casebook class that they are “leading” (and, many of them actually had the same professor for that particular casebook class during their 1L year), our Enrichment Group Leaders are there to help facilitate learning. They are there to provide further support for our students. They are there to “enrich” the students’ 1L academic experience. And we believe a more enriched 1L experience is a better 1L experience. (OJ Salinas)

September 18, 2017 in Advice, Diversity Issues, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Learning Styles, Meetings, Miscellany, Program Evaluation, Reading, Stress & Anxiety, Study Tips - General, Teaching Tips | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Activist Learning Practice Hypos: Yours for the Taking!

Attention First-Year (and Upper-Level Law Students)!

Here's a handy link for super-short & super-helpful hypothetical essay prompts (complete with discussion guides and point sheets)...yours for the taking (no pun intended!): 

http://www.law.du.edu/pastbarexamessays

And, the best news is that it is totally free!

Oh, and there's more great news. The essays are organized into the following subjects:

  • Administrative Law
  • Agency Law
  • Civil Procedure
  • Constitutional Law
  • Contracts
  • Corporations
  • Criminal Law
  • Criminal Procedure
  • Evidence
  • Family Law
  • Partnership
  • Property Law
  • Torts
  • Sales (UCC Article 2)
  • Commercial Paper (UCC Article 3)
  • Secured Transactions (UCC Article 9)
  • Wills & Trusts

So, as you're working your way through the casebooks, feel free to dabble in a handful of practice problems to put you in the pilot's seat of your learning, i.e., taking control of your "learning travels" this semester through "learning by doing")!   (Scott Johns)

P.S. This is THE LINK that I wish I had as a law student...BECAUSE...the best way to prepare for midterms is to see and work through examples of midterms!

 

 

 

 

 

September 14, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Exams - Studying, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Getting into a Routine

We are in the third week of classes, a time when many first-year law students start to feel overwhelmed and upper-level students recognize it is time for them to follow a routine. This is, therefore, an ideal time for me to discuss time management with both groups of students. The upper-level students have experience in the law school environment so they are more likely to know exactly what they need to do to get on task, stay on task, and complete tasks. First-year law students are still adjusting to the environment and sorting through what will be most effective for them to do, often unlearning some habits such as procrastination that previously made them successful.

A routine is very helpful to first-year law students for a few primary reasons. First, it limits the agony of lacking time; second, it takes the decision making out of the process of accomplishing tasks; third, it saves time. A routine removes concern and internal conversation about what to do and when to do it because the decision is already made and the plan is established; thus, only implementation is required. Having no plan can be quite overwhelming for first-year law students, leaving them lost and confused. They usually simply complete tasks that have immediate deadlines, spend an exorbitant amount of time on minute inconsequential details and tasks, and take longer than necessary on other tasks. Even students who are accustom to planning and organizing their lives struggle with this.

Of course, classic organizational tools, processes, and workshops are available through academic support programs at various law schools to assist students. Some of the typical time management steps include:

(1) Brain dumping - gathering information one needs to complete a task in a day or on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis

(2) Ranking or compartmentalizing tasks – distinguishing between tasks that take ample time and those that take less; those that you dread or would avoid at all costs and those that you prefer, assessing the time factor of each task

(3) Creating a time table for completion of each task - morning, afternoon, or evening, but also remembering to include buffer times for tasks that might consume more time than projected and for emergencies. Most importantly, pretest the pan and be open to making adjustments

Issues to consider are whether or not students attend such programming, heed the advice, and/or are open to testing new strategies.  For a few consecutive years, we held an in-person time management workshop but it was very poorly attended even though students consistently complained about struggling with time management.  So we spent a lot of time working with students on an individual basis.  Nowadays, we post a video of the time management workshop and direct students to it at various points during the semester as well as work with students individually.  Most first-year law students wonder why things they did in other academic environments are not effective nor efficient for them in law school.  Their concern is typically a cue to change habits but are they simply resistant to giving up the familiar?

Develop a plan, get into a routine, and implement it. You can manage all you have to do but you need to first understand your goals, available time, and how to put it all together. Many before you have successfully sorted through this; therefore, you too can do the same but it might take a few different tries so be patient. (Goldie Pritchard)

September 13, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Study Tips - General | Permalink | Comments (0)

Monday, September 11, 2017

ASP During Challenging Times

It’s been a potentially challenging time for many law students throughout the country. But, I am not necessarily talking about the challenges directly related to the study of law.

Yes. Case readings can be quite lengthy. There may be anxiety related to getting called on in class. And students may sometimes feel like there is not enough time in the day to complete everything that seems to be needed to be completed to succeed in law school. These are all potential challenges that our students may currently be experiencing. But, the last month or so may have seemingly added an entire new set of challenges to our students.

While many students have tried to remain engaged in their studies, events outside of the law school building may have continued to place additional burdens on them. Between Charlottesville, Hurricane Harvey, DACA, and Hurricane Irma, many of our students have had to face or worry about things that they would not have initially had on their radar going into the start of law school (no hurricane pun intended).

It’s difficult to stay motivated and engaged to read for class or write that LRW memo when you are worried about your safety and security or the safety and security of your families and friends. It’s hard to turn away from the news of devastation and despair when you are either living in that devastation and despair or know someone who is.

Law school is a challenging time for our students. And events outside of the law school building may have continued to place additional challenges on our students. It’s during these challenging times that it is especially important to have a friendly, supportive, and understanding ASP professional in the law school building. While we may not immediately have all or any of the answers related to some of these challenging events, we surely can welcome our students into our offices. We can sit down with them and actively listen to their stories. We can empathetically try to help them find some answers or refer them to those who may more appropriately serve them during these challenging and unfortunate times. (OJ Salinas)

Support pic earth

 

September 11, 2017 in Advice, Current Affairs, Encouragement & Inspiration, Meetings, Miscellany, News, Stress & Anxiety | Permalink | Comments (0)

Thursday, September 7, 2017

Better Teaching: Could it Actually Mean "Less" Teaching?

Last term I went for the lunch and came away hungry...hungry to learn more about learning!  

That's right, our campus "Office for Teaching & Learning" brought in a special speaker to share with us her tips on best practices for teaching our students to learn.  Her name - Dr. Maryellen Weimer.  

Wow; she was an amazing speaker because, for the most part, she spoke very little but got us thinking and working collaboratively with others on how it is that we learn, how our students are doing in their learning, and what sorts of things we are seeing within our classrooms that might best encourage learning.  

In short, we were working harder than Dr. Weimer in thinking about learning.  It was no "free lunch," at all.  But, it was one of the few lunch presentations that I can still recall, and better yet, find invaluable to my teaching.

That brings me to the issue of what might be the so-called "best practices" for engaging ourselves in learning-centered teaching with our students.   Fortunately, Dr. Weimer has written a brief article entitled "The Five Characteristics of Lerning-Centered Teaching," which summarizes her  work in helping faculty become better teachers.

 https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/five-characteristics-of-learner-centered-teaching

As academic support professionals, this is an excellent link to share with your faculty.  

In the interim, let me briefly summarize the list of five characteristics by asking a series of short questions that you might ask of your faculty:

First, are you working harder at learning than your students?  If so, then you might be working too hard at teaching your students, so much so, that you are doing the learning for them.  That is to say, they might not be learning because they aren't really challenged to learn and don't really have to learn since you are doing most of the learning for them.

Second, are you teaching your students the content by embedding skills within your instruction?  If not, then, you are - again - doing the learning for your students because learning requires active engagement in critical thinking, evaluation of the evidence, analysis of the arguments, and the generation of hypotheses, hypotheticals, and examples.

Third, are you asking your students what they are learning and how they are learning?  If not, take time both in casual conversations with your students and in more formalized classroom exercises for reflection on how it is that we (ourselves and our students) learn.

Fourth, are you sharing the learning responsibilities with your students by giving them some measure of control over how they learn?  If not, try working collaboratively with your students, for example, to create assessment criteria for assignments or even establish due dates for some assignments within a window of available dates.

Fifth, are you promoting collaborative learning in engagement with other students within rich learning communities?   If not, look back at that word "rich."  Too often, our students are not learning deeply and well because they treat learning as a "solo" experience - an experience not to be shared with others.  But, as any teacher will tell you, the best way to know something is to teach it to others.  That means that we should devote part of our classroom learning exercises to teaching our students how to learn collaboratively with others, i.e., how to learn from and with others.   

Perhaps by the best way to summarize the article might be in quoting Confucius:  

"By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest."

I take the first - reflection - to be the at the heart and soul of great experiences in learning.  I take the second - imitation - to be going to classes, taking notes, and receptively re-reading them in the hope that some of what the professor said might rub off on me.  I take the third - experience - as the "trial by fire" method of learning in which students spend most of the term reading cases, creating case briefs, observing lectures, and developing massive course outlines without ever tackling actual final exam problems until it is too late (i.e., on the actual final exam).

With this list in mind, feel free to join me as I try to step back from the podium and the front of the classroom to better engage with students in the actual process of learning-centered teaching.  (Scott Johns).

September 7, 2017 in Advice, Encouragement & Inspiration, Learning Styles, Teaching Tips | Permalink | Comments (0)

Wednesday, September 6, 2017

3L Senioritis and Panic

“This is my last first day of school ever!” This statement sums up the comments made by many of my 3L students as they stopped by to say hello and told me about their summer adventures. They are so elated and their excitement is infectious. We reminisce about their journeys, how far they have come, all they have overcome, and their current achievements and growth. It is important to keep things in perspective so I remind them that they are equipped to face the next challenge that lies ahead; they made it this far.

“I never thought this day would come when I was a 1L and a 2L!” This also sums up statements made by my 3L students who struggled a little more than others throughout their law school career. This is usually a perfect point in time to remind them of how they overcame challenges they deemed insurmountable and felt defeated by the law school process but somehow persevered. Many of these students accessed opportunities, that on paper they did not qualify for, but they were afforded these opportunities through their work ethic and personality. I do not want them to forget challenges they have overcome because I know the bar exam lies ahead and I want them to conquer this seemingly impossible beast.

“I can’t wait until my picture is on your wall next year!” In February, I wrote about a “Wall of Inspiration” which is a display board filled with pictures from commencement and swearing-in ceremonies to inspire current students and remind them of why they are in the building. Most individuals who enter my office take some time to admire the pictures and comment, especially when they notice someone they know. I had no idea that it was a goal of my students to get their commencement and/or swearing-in pictures on my board. While I hoped that I would inspire them, I had no idea that I actually did.

While students expressed many positive things about their 3L year, they also expressed the fact that they are mentally checked-out, unmotivated, ready to be done, and simply over the law school experience. My most studious students have difficulty reading for classes and even attending classes. They do not want to own the fact that they have senioritis although everything seems to indicate it. I recognize the telltale sign of indifference that has overshadowed the usual excitement some of my students have for classes. Investment in established law school friendships has weaned and students are generally grumpy. I am concerned! However, I know that some students are burnt-out and exhausted from being in school, some for almost their entire lives. Also, the stress of finding a job, the anxiety of preparing for and taking the bar exam, and the realities of “adulting” for the first time weigh heavy on them. Therefore, I am working on how to actively re-energize and re-engage these students.

"I cannot fail the bar exam!" On the other extreme of the spectrum are 3Ls in panic mode. These students are excited and embrace the fast approaching end to their law school career but are equally terrified about the bar exam, to the point of paralysis. They are paranoid about failing the bar exam and adamant about starting to study for the bar exam now, forgetting vital things they need to accomplish prior to studying such as completing the bar application. Additionally, they are concerned with preserving their GPAs, finding a fulfilling job, and managing their finances. I encourage this group to develop a plan, take one thing at a time, and move forward.

Whether our 3Ls are checked-out or in a complete panic, our main goal is to bring them somewhere in the middle, remind them of what they must do and what they have yet to do, all while underscoring the fact that they still have time. (Goldie Pritchard)

September 6, 2017 in Advice, Bar Exam Preparation, Encouragement & Inspiration, Stress & Anxiety | Permalink | Comments (0)